Министерство образования Российской Федерации
Нижегородский государственный лингвистический университет
RADIO AND TELEVISION
РАДИО И ТЕЛЕВИДЕНИЕ
Учебно-методические материалы для студентов II курса отделения английского языка переводческого факультета
Нижний Новгород 2002
Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета НГЛУ им.Н.А.Добролюбова
УДК 802.0 (075. 88)
Radio and Television = Радио и Tелевидение: Учебно-методические материалы для студентов II курса отделения английского языка переводческого факультета, Часть II. – Нижний Новгород: НГЛУ им. Н.А. Добролюбова, 2002. – 48 с.
Настоящие учебно-методические материалы предназначены для развития у студентов лексико-грамматических и коммуникативно-прагматических навыков в использовании иностранного языка в ряде типовых ситуаций общения.
Составитель: С.И. Жолобов, канд.филол.наук, доцент
Г.В. Ильина, канд.пед.наук, доцент
О.М. Шолкович, канд.пед.наук, доцент
© Издательство НГЛУ им.Н.А. Добролюбова, 2002
C O N T E N T S
I N T R O D U C T I O N
R E A D I N G C O M P R E H E N S I O N
T e x t: “ L i k e s a n d D i s l i k e s ”
B a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n
I d e a s a n d P o i n t s o f V i e w
T y p e s o f P r o g r a m m e s
R O L E P L A Y
F O L L O W – UP D I S C U S S I O N
I N T R O D U C T I O N
This booklet is the second of the three dealing with radio and television. It is concerned with radio and television broadcasting.
This booklet consists of three sections: “Reading Comprehension”, “Role Play” and “ Follow-Up Discussion”. The first section is made up of several parts. One of them contains a text (in dialogue form) followed by comprehension and vocabulary exercises. Another comprises texts (in monologue form) about radio and television in different countries. The next part includes texts (in monologue form) treating various aspects and problems of radio and television. The final part provides texts (in dialogue and monologue form) illustrating some types of programmes one can listen to on the radio or watch on television. The purpose of this section as a whole is to teach students relevant vocabulary, to give them extensive vocabulary and comprehension practice, to supply them with some background information, and to introduce them to a variety of practical situations which require the use of the words and phrases studied. It also furnishes students with ideas and points of view as well as sample programmes, so that they will be able to draw on these while talking about radio and television. The second section is devoted to role play activities. Students are offered a number of scenes to act out. These are based on the situations and vocabulary presented in the first section and aim at giving students ample opportunity to acquire and consolidate skills in oral interaction (both verbal and non-verbal). The last section provides subjects for discussion in the area the booklet deals with. It is intended to train students in free creative expression in English with special emphasis on the correct and appropriate use of language.
R E A D I N G C O M P R E H E N S I O N
L i k e s and D i s l i k e s
Do you regularly listen to the radio?
Yes, I do. But I don’t listen to all programmes indiscriminately.
What do you mean?
I mean to say that I switch my radio on to listen in to particular broadcasts, but I never turn it on to keep me company, so to speak.
I don’t do this either, but my wife does. She always has the radio on in the daytime while she’s busy doing house work. She can’t do without it. She says she would feel lonely otherwise.
That’s not a bad idea of using the radio. I wish I could do it, too. Unfortunately, what I do at home isn’t generally manual work. It’s a sort of work that requires a mental effort, and I’ve got used to doing it in silence.
What a pity! And what are the programmes you listen in to?
When I come home from work, the first thing I do is to switch on the radio at news time. Unlike a lot of other people, I listen not only to the news headlines, but also to the analytical part of the broadcast in which experts are invited to speak on a variety of topical issues.
That’s very interesting, of course, but doesn’t it take too much time?
I’d say it saves time. If you’ve heard something on the late news, you can, while reading the papers, skip those parts of them which deal with the problems you’re already familiar with, or you can just glance through them.
As for me, I haven’t got enough patience to listen to any news broadcast to the end. I prefer learning this sort of news from papers. I trust the printed word more than the spoken one, if I may put it so. Right. But is it the only radio programme that you listen to?
Certainly not. I also like listening in to broadcasts which feature music.
What kind of music? Classical or pop music?
I prefer classical music. I don’t want to say I’m a high-brow, but it’s the sort of music that really appeals to me. And all that rock and pop music just irritates me, though I used to like it, I must admit.
Isn’t it better to watch concerts of classical music on TV?
I don’t think so. I prefer listening to it without any visual support because you get distracted from the music itself if you also have to see what’s happening on the screen.
I see. But rock music is quite different. You must necessarily watch the musicians. It’s very exciting. There’s a lot to see as well as to listen to.
You’re quite right there. But you must be a real fan to enjoy such performances.
I suppose so too. And what about quiz shows and panel discussions which are often broadcast? Do you make a point of listening in to them?
Yes, I certainly do. It’s very interesting and useful to listen to programmes of the sort. You get plenty of information and are entertained at the same time. And if it’s a panel discussion you’ve got a good opportunity to phone in your questions and have them answered by the panellists.
Radio is a great thing, of course, but it has its limitations. For example, I’m fond of sport, and I think a sporting event is worth seeing. But radio can’t be of much help here. No commentary, however good it is, can be a satisfactory substitute for actually watching the event.
I couldn’t agree more. I even turn down the TV set so as to hear as little of the commentary as possible and concentrate on what’s happening on the pitch, or the water, or the road, as the case may be.
And what else do you watch on television? Any variety shows, for example?
No, I don’t like shows of this sort at all. Apart from sporting events I like films and plays.
And what are your preferences?
I always make it a point to watch dramatized versions of well-known books, especially classics.
I don’t agree with you there. Personally I have an aversion to such productions. I don’t suppose it’s a very good idea to adapt classical novels or stories for the stage, the cinema, radio or television. Books of this kind are intended to be read. When dramatizing a book, the scenario writer presents his own interpretation of the author’s ideas and very often twists them. But, as a rule, he is inferior to the writer, therefore his ideas can’t compare with the writer’s. And these chiefly shallow ideas are forced on the viewer. That’s what’s really annoying. I’d rather read or re-read the book itself.
I’m afraid you’re exaggerating. I wonder why you look down on scriptwriters and directors and think that all of them are people with superficial minds. Far from it. Personally I’m going on the assumption that their ideas are as good as mine, or better. And it’s interesting for me to know other people’s views on the same matter. And what about plays written by classics?
Oh, that’s quite different. Plays are designed to be put on. And what do you think of serials?
It all depends. If it’s a good serial, I like it. If it’s bad, I don’t. As far as the idea itself is concerned, I believe the purpose of a serial producer is to attract as many viewers as possible for as long a time as possible.
to skip — (v.t.) (v.i.) to make omissions, to go from one part (of a book, etc.) to another without reading, paying attention, etc.
He skipped (over) the dull parts of the book.
Do you read without skipping?
to deal with — (v.t.) — to be about; to treat (a subject)
to be concerned with
to treat of (formal) (v.t.)
Tom’s latest book deals with police methods.
The magazine is concerned with motorcycles.
This article treats of the dangers facing certain groups of wild animals.
to be familiar with — to have a good knowledge of
He was (very) familiar with the problem.
to glance through/ over — (v.t.) — to read (sth.) quickly or carelessly.
to flick through
to flip through (informal)
I’ve only had time to glance through/over your work but I can already see how much it has improved.
to put — (v.t.) — to give expression to; say
She is — how shall I put it? — not exactly fat, but rather well-built.
How would you put this in French?
That can all be put in a few words.
highbrow — (n.) (adj.) — (sometimes derogatory) — (typical of) a person thought to show more than average knowledge of art and intellectual interests.
lowbrow — (n.) (adj.) — (usually derogatory) — (typical of) a person who has no interest in literature, the arts, etc.
to appeal to — (v.i.) — to attract; seem good to (sb.)
Bright colours appeal to small children.
to make a point of doing sth. - to regard or treat sth. as important.
To make it a point to do sth.
I have always made a point of visiting my mother on her birthday.
classic — (n.) — a piece of literature or art, a writer, or an artist of the first rank and of lasting importance.
Shakespeare is a classic.
“Vanity Fair” is a classic.
to have a liking for — to be fond of
to develop a liking for
to take a liking to
to be to one’s liking.
She had / developed a liking for sweets.
She took a liking to him at once.
Is everything to your liking?
to have / show a dislike for / of — to have a feeling of disliking
to have an aversion to — to have a strong dislike for
to take a dislike / an aversion to — to begin to dislike
He had / showed a dislike of / for cats.
She took a dislike / an aversion to him at once.
to prefer — (v.t.) — to choose (one thing or action) rather than another; like better
to have / show a preference for
in preference to
I prefer tea (to coffee).
He prefers walking (to cycling).
I’d prefer to write letters rather than dictate them.
I should prefer you not to go.
that you did not go there alone.
She had / showed a decided preference for classical music.
I’d choose the small car in preference to the larger one.
Anything is preferable to this.
staying with them.
It is preferable to remain silent.
It is preferable that she go alone.
Walking is preferable to riding.
It is preferable to walk rather than to ride.
to design — (v.t.) — to develop for a certain purpose or use or sb.
to intend (v.t.).
The book is designed / intended for use in colleges. This
dictionary is designed / intended for foreign students. This weekend party was designed/intended to bring the two musicians together.
to look down on — (v.t.) — to have a poor opinion of (sb.), esp. as being below one’s social level;
disapprove of (sb. or sth.).
She wouldn’t let her daughter marry a boy from a poor family as she looked down on him and thought he was not worthy of her daughter.
The school looks down on such behaviour.
At first, Mary’s parents looked down on her marrying Jim.
to go on an assumption.
We proceeded / were going on the assupmtion that he would help.
attitude towards / to — a way of feeling, thinking, or behaving.
to assume / take (up) an attitude
He assumed/took up an attitude of defiance towards/to all authority.
She had an unfriendly attitude.
What is your attitude towards / to this question?
That (all) depends. — The result depends on sth. else.
It all depends. — I have certain doubts about that / it.
to depend — (v.i.) — to vary according to; be influenced or decided by (sth.).
Whether the game will be played or not depends on the weather.
The success of the sports day depends (on) whether it rains or not.
It all depends (on) how you tackle the problem.
to tackle (v.t.) — to treat; take action about (sth. or sb., usu. troublesome).
to deal with (v.t.).
Head office deals with all complaints.
How do you deal with noisy children?
I don’t know how to deal with / tackle this problem.
As / So far as sth. is concerned… — used to focus one’s attention on sth.
As / So far as marketing is concerned, I think the best thing is to have a meeting with the Sales Manager and the advertising people.
As / So far as I am / he is concerned… — in my / his opinion.
Where sth. is concerned… — in matters where it is necessary to think of sth.
Where work is concerned, I always try to do my best.
Where the children are concerned…
to compare — (1) (v.t.) — to examine, judge to what extent persons or things are similar or different.
to compare sth. / sb. (with / to / and sth. / sb.).
He compared their translations.
He compared his translation with / and the model translation on the blackboard.
London is large compared with / to Paris.
(2) (v.t.) — to point out the likeness or relation between.
to compare sth. / sb. to sth. / sb.
Poets have compared sleep to death.
The writer of the poem compares his lover to a rose.
(=says she is like a rose).
(3) (v.i.) — to be regarded as being like or equal to (sth. or sb.).
to compare with / to sth. / sb.
He cannot compare with Shakespeare as a writer of tragedies (= is not nearly so great).
Social life in a village cannot compare with / to that of a large city.
Living in a town cannot compare with / to living in the country.
Exercise 1. Comment on the statements based on the conversation you have just read. While doing the task, you should, first, say which of the statements are true, which are partly true and which are false, and then elaborate on them.
Gary has his radio on all the time.
Gary does not like the idea of listening to the radio all the time he is at home.
Gary is fond of listening to the news on the radio.
Gary reads the papers from cover to cover.
Norman is keen on news broadcasts.
Gary listens in to all kinds of programmes.
Gary prefers pop music.
Gary has never liked rock and pop music.
Gary prefers watching concerts of classical music on television.
According to Gary it is preferable to listen to music on the radio.
Gary is not fond of quiz shows and panel discussions.
According to Norman radio has no limitations.
Gary usually watches few programmes on television.
Gary likes dramatized versions of well-known books.
Norman also likes dramatized versions of famous books.
Norman is not keen on watching plays on television.
Exercise 2. Answer the following questions about the conversation.
What are Gary’s radio listening habits?
How does Norman’s wife listen to the radio?
Why can’t Gary stick to the same practice of listening to the radio?
What are the programmes that Gary listens in to?
Do Gary and Norman listen to news broadcasts in the same way?
Why does Gary think that it is preferable to listen to news broadcasts from beginning to end?
What is the kind of music that appeals to Gary?
What is peculiar in Gary’s practice of listening to music?
Is Gary a highbrow?
Is Norman a lowbrow?
What are the telecasts that Gary watches?
What are the limitations of radio, as the participants in the conversation see them?
What do Gary and Norman think of adapting stories and novels by classics for radio or television? Do they agree about it?
What is Gary’s attitude towards serials?
Exercise 3. Find the following words and phrases in the dialogue, supply their contexts and paraphrase the sentences in which they are used.
to listen in to sth.
to do without sth.
to require sth.
to get used to doing sth.
a variety of sth.; topical issues
to skip (over) sth.
to deal with sth.
to be familiar with sth.
to glance through sth.
to feature sth.
to appeal to sth.
used to do sth.
to make a point of doing sth.
to adapt sth. for sth.
to twist sth.
to compare with sth.
to look down on sb. / sth.
to go on an assumption
to be designed
Exercise1. Fill the gaps in these sentences with words from the list below.
They heard the latest news … radio.
Do you … television every day?
They … an interesting programme … television yesterday.
I’d like to watch the football match. When does it … …?
They … an exciting broadcast … the life of animals.
Which do you prefer, documentary films or … films?
I like … games and discussions immensely.
Are they going to … a … commentary … the football match?
Television is too … these days.
It isn’t wise to … novels … television and radio.
I prefer … discussions to … ones.
The theatre company is … … this play next month.
What is … television tonight?
Listen … … this station tomorrow.
Was it a … show or a recording?
After graduation, he began working … radio / television.
The station will be … … … at 9 p.m.
I like broadcasts which … sport.
Paul detests … versions of classics.
Here are some exciting … of news.
come on, putting on, unscripted / scripted, live, feature (n.), in to, panel, items, commercialized, in, watched / on, on, on the air, adapt / for, gave / about, feature (v.), dramatized, on, watch, give / running / on.
Exercise 2. Supply words and expressions which fit the following definitions and make up sentences with them.
To listen on purpose to a radio broadcast.
A single radio or television presentation.
To be broadcasting.
A branch of drama that deals with everyday life and humorous events.
A cinema film made by photographing a set of drawings.
A short performance on the stage (esp. of a variety theatre, or similar entertainment for sound or TV broadcasts), e.g. a song, a dance, juggling feat, display of skill.
(Often derogatory) to make sth. a matter of profit.
To put a story, novel, etc. into the form of a drama.
The written form of a speech, play, or broadcast.
A story written for the film.
A report on current events in newspaper or other periodical or on radio or television.
To introduce and take part in a television or radio show.
A play, film, or broadcast.
A written or broadcast story appearing in parts at fixed times.
A serial drama dealing with domestic problems, etc. in a sentimental or melodramatic way.
A person who reads news, or introduces people on radio or television.
Someone competing in a contest.
A group of speakers who answer questions to inform or amuse the public, usu. in a radio or television show.
The chairman in panel games.
A person whose job is to introduce the various acts in a stage or television show.
A statement of future events, based on some kind of knowledge or judgment.
To report the details of an event.
Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences into English.
Думаю, что матч будет показан в записи.
Он регулярно смотрит телевизор, но лишь изредка слушает радио.
Ты смотрел вчера спектакль по телевизору?
Этот фильм будет показан по телевизору завтра.
Она работает на радио / телевидении.
Президент будет выступать по радио в 20.00.
Кто комментирует футбольный матч?
Мне не нравятся телевизионные эстрадные программы.
Меня всегда раздражает радио- и телереклама.
Кабельное и спутниковое телевидение появилось относительно недавно.
Тебе нравится этот сценарий? Кто его автор?
Инсценировка / Экранизация романов представляет большие трудности.
Фильм снят по одноименному роману Л.Н. Толстого.
Фильм снят по мотивам произведений М.А. Шолохова.
“Новости” - самая интересная программа.
Пьеса будет поставлена в следующем году.
Продюсер и режиссер фильма хорошо известны во всем мире.
Кто ведущий этой программы?
Кто будет ведущим телевикторины?
Время передач указывается в программе радио- и телевидения.
Он недоволен освещением на телевидении предвыборной компании.
В этом фильме главную роль исполняет знаменитый актер.
Сегодня в театре – “Гамлет”.
Exercise 4. Act as an interpreter.
What can you say about television in your country?
Я думаю, что телевидение в нашей стране на подъеме. За последние годы на телевидении произошел ряд существенных изменений: появился новый национальный канал телевещания, несколько местных телевизионных станций, много интересных телепередач.
How many national channels are there in the country?
Всего у нас четыре канала, обеспечивающих вещание на всю страну. Кроме того, как Вы знаете, в большинстве регионов имеются местные телевизионные станции.
Are all the national channels financed by the government?
Нет. Два канала являются государственными, а два других – коммерческими. Что касается местных телестанций, то они, как правило, финансируются из местных бюджетов.
What kinds of programmes are shown on television?
Можно выделить несколько типов передач. Во-первых, это новости, всевозможные передачи, посвященные политическим вопросам, и документальные фильмы. Во-вторых, художественное вещание, включающее художественные фильмы, мультфильмы, спектакли, концерты классической музыки. В-третьих, развлекательные программы. Сюда я бы отнес различные викторины, эстрадные концерты, разного рода шоу. В-четвертых, образовательные программы, предназначенные для школьников, студентов и широкой аудитории. В-пятых, спортивные передачи.
Are there many commercials on your television?
Да, много. Такой большой объем рекламы диктуется финансовыми соображениями. Хотя она многих раздражает, но, по всей видимости, без рекламы телевидению не выжить.
B a c k g r o u n d I n f o r m a t i o n
Study the following background information. It will help you in your role play and discussion activities.
Radio and Television in Great Britain
In Britain radio and television broadcasting is mainly provided by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), which has five radio and two television channels.
The BBC operates a national radio network:
Radio 1: youth-oriented pop music;
Radio 2: popular music and entertainment;
Radio 3: classical music, drama, spoken word programmes and world news;
Radio 4: news, current affairs, drama, sport, features;
Radio 5: education, sport and elements from BBC World Service programmes.
The BBC World Service in English broadcasts world news, current affairs analysis, drama, sport, music and arts programmes and programmes for people learning English.
Radio 1,2 and 4 regularly report traffic news and weather forecasts.
There are many local and regional radio stations both BBC and commercial, which feature pop music, local and regional news, weather forecasts and traffic news.
British television is considered excellent by international standards. There are four television channels in Britain: two operated by the BBC and two independent channels.
BBC1 and BBC2 are on the air from early morning to around midnight. Channel 4’s hours are similar. ITV operates for 24 hours a day.
Cable and satellite television stations are also available.
Transmission times and programme details (including radio frequences) are listed in local and national newspapers.
Radio and Television in the USA
There are three commercial TV networks in the U.S. – NBA, CBS, and ABC – that broadcast nationwide through local stations. Commercials may interrupt the shows as often as every ten minutes. There’s also a noncommercial public network – PBC. In addition to these, most towns and cities have cable TV, which costs a few dollars a month. At a hotel you should be able to get five to twenty TV stations and at least fifteen radio stations, each playing a different kind of music. Most radio and TV stations broadcast at least eighteen hours a day.
Most TV stations have local news and weather before national and international news, which is at 6 p.m. except in the Central Time Zone. All national shows are one hour earlier there. “Prime Time” is 8:00 to 11:00 p.m. This is the time when the most people watch TV, so the networks put their best shows on then. Radio stations usually have five minutes of news on the hour, though many cities have all-news stations which broadcast news 24 hours a day.
Answer the questions about radio and television in Great Britain and the United States of America.
What corporation operates a national radio network in Great Britain?
How many radio channels are there in Britain?
What kinds of programmes are broadcast by the BBC World Service?
Are there any BBC local and regional radio stations in Britain?
How many television channels are there in Britain?
Are all the television channels operated by the BBC?
What are the hours of each of the television channels?
Are there any other television stations in Britain apart from the four nationwide ones?
Where can one find transmission times and programme details listed?
How many commercial networks are there in the USA?
How many noncommercial networks are there in the USA?
What kind of television is available in towns and cities in addition to the four national networks?
What is the charge for cable television?
How many radio and television stations can one get at a hotel?
How many hours a day do radio and television stations broadcast on the average?
What is the best time for putting on shows?
How often is news broadcast?
Compare British, American and Russian television.
Нью-Йорк. 36 каналов. Зачем?
В центре Нью-Йорка, на Манхэттене, телевизор можно смотреть по тридцати каналам. Не многовато ли? Нужно ли столько?
Ответ может быть таким же, как и на вопрос, а почему в Нью-Йорке магазины работают круглосуточно. Есть, значит, в этом потребность.
Жаль, не хватит газете места для того, чтобы привести программу нью-йоркских телепередач. Занимает она в специализированном журнале “Ти-ви гайд” несколько страниц очень убористого шрифта. Это на один день, а не на неделю.
Мир вокруг нас необычайно разнообразен и богат – политикой, искусством, спортом, здравоохранением, экономикой, природой, финансами, чем угодно! И задача телевидения, как ее понимают в Америке, - показать нам этот мир, хотя бы во фрагментах. Поверхностно – для общего, так сказать, образования, и глубоко – для тех, у кого к теме особый интерес.
Собственно на этом принципе и построены программы. Включим, к примеру, канал двадцать седьмой телекомпании Си-эн-эн. Круглые сутки, двадцать четыре часа в сутки, - только новости, перемежаемые рекламой, и комментарии к ним. Важнейшие события освещаются “живьем”, от начала до конца.
У Си-эн-эн есть как бы младший брат – программа, именуемая “Новости в заголовках”. Это тоже передачи новостей, только каждая размером ровно в двадцать три минуты; идут они одна за другой круглосуточно. Что в них? Выжимка важнейших новостей в Америке и в мире. Причем настолько плотная, что за двадцать три минуты можно получить довольно четкое представление о том, что в данный момент творится на планете. Именно в данный момент, а не сутки и даже несколько часов назад. Программа “Новости в заголовках” рассчитана на людей спешащих. Для тех же людей – погодный канал. Ничего, кроме сводок и прогноза погоды. В твоем городе, в городах соседних, в других штатах, в странах, с которыми Америка связана интенсивными деловыми и туристическими контактами. Передача круглосуточная. Учитывая необычайную мобильность американцев, потребность в этом канале высока.
Еще два канала ― для покупок на дому. Тебе демонстрируют товар ― преимущественно ширпотреб, ― называют цену, расхваливают качество и дают телефон, позвонив по которому, можно сделать заказ. Через пару недель товар поступает к тебе домой.
Спортивные передачи. Один канал целиком занят ими. Еще два канала уделяют спорту довольно много времени. Плюс к этому – десяток каналов обычного и кабельного телевидения, которые регулярно транслируют спортивные состязания.
Передачи развлекательные. Я подсчитал, что лишь по трем основным каналам развлекательного телевидения – Эйч-би-оу, “Синемакс” и “Браво” ― в феврале было показано 279 программ. В основном сравнительно новые художественные фильмы. Несколько месяцев назад появился еще один канал, принадлежащий гигантской телекорпорации Теда Тернера, который владеет также Си-эн-эн и “Новостями в заголовках”. По этому каналу идут только художественные фильмы, их ветераны, вышедшие на экран в период с двадцатых по середину шестидесятых годов. Каждый день можно увидеть тридцать ―сорок художественных фильмов.
Мне кажется, самая важная особенность американского телевидения вообще, и нью-йоркского в частности, ― существование телевидения общественного, которое держится не на поступлениях от рекламы, а на дотациях как торговых корпораций, так и отдельных граждан. Программы телевидения общественного, которое имеет несколько каналов, в том числе общенациональных, насыщены очень высокими по своему качеству ― не только техническому ― передачами. Научно-популярными, общеобразовательными, передачами-дискуссиями, передачами-концертами, театральными постановками, трансляциями лучших оперных и балетных спектаклей.
Есть в Нью-Иорке и несколько “этнических” каналов ― зарегистрированных для студий, работающих для иммигрантов: латиноамериканский, китайский, японский. Готовят передачи только для выходцев из Южной Азии. А по одному из каналов идут короткие программы русского американского телевидения. Два канала целиком отданы под видеоклипы ― Эм-ти-ви и сравнительно недавно появившийся Ви-эйч-один. Двадцать четыре часа в сутки ― музыка.
И, наконец, программы “трех китов” телевидения ― крупнейших коммерческих телекомпаний Эй-би-си, Эн-би-си,
Си-би-эс. По структуре, тематике они почти близнецы: новости, спорт, развлекательные и научно-популярные программы, “разговорные шоу”, публицистика. Содержанием же разительно отличаются. Один пример: за несколько лет работы в Америке не припомню случая, чтобы просмотрев телевыпуск последних известий, скажем Си-би-эс или Эн-би-си, где в принципе даются те же самые ― по тематике ― выпуски, я не получил бы дополнительных сведений, оценок, дополнительных, как говорят телевизионщики, “картинок”. Конкуренция, а она жесточайшая, требует поиска. И творчества.
И все же ньюйоркцы не прочь добавить еще десяток каналов. Говорят, жаль, не всякому пока по карману установка перед домом антенны-тарелки, которая позволяет “снимать” телесигналы со спутников и принимать программы из других районов Америки и из-за рубежа. Но убеждены: рано или поздно телевидение непременно станет всемирным.
Двадцать, тридцать и больше программ доступны французскому телезрителю. Развитая сеть кабельных телекоммуникаций, спутников вещания дают такую возможность. В Париже абонентов обслуживает государственная компания “Парикабль”. С ее помощью в октябре 1986 года, когда она начала работать, первые 30 тысяч парижских семей за 140―150 франков в месяц получила доступ к 15, а затем и к 30 программам. Можно при желании смотреть английские, итальянские, испанские программы. Можно ― по спутниковой связи ― американские и 1-ю программу ЦТ из Москвы.
Но основными программами в Париже считают те, что идут по каналам ТФ-1, “Антенн-2”, ФР-3, “Канал-плюс”, “Сенк” (пятый), М-6. Многочисленные журналисты, рассказывающие о ТВ, анонсируют в первую очередь передачи именно этих программ. Красочно, с подробностями.
Каждый день по всем телепрограммам ― приключенческие фильмы, полицейские сериалы, юмористические, по 25 минут, передачи, именуемые фельетонами. “Канал-плюс” примерно два раза в неделю глубокой ночью показывает эротический фильм ― “для тех, кто ни с кем не спит”, как здесь шутят. М-6 ― канал преимущественно музыкальный, работает вместе с каналом “Сенк” круглосуточно. В “прайм тайм” ― главное время, с 20.30 до 22.30, начинается настоящее состязание программ по части кинофильмов. Обязательно добротных, снятых именитыми режиссерами, с участием популярных артистов. Выбрать непросто.
Говорить, что программы похожи одна на другую, было бы неправильно. Отличие есть и порой весьма заметное. Особенно в подаче новостей. Если ТФ-1 предпочитает меньше комментировать, а больше показывать, то “Антенн-2” (государственная вместе с ФР-3 программа), например, склонна приглашать в студию гостей во время выпусков новостей, давать им слово; более обстоятельно подходит к событиям. ФР-3, в свою очередь, играет роль как бы регионального, провинциального ТВ ― дважды в день дает часовые обозрения новостей из разных провинций Франции. Футбольные репортажи с чемпионата страны ― по “Каналу-плюс”, владеющему лицензией на право трансляции матчей. Теннис ― только по каналу “Антенн-2”, равно как и международные соревнования велосипедистов “Тур де Франс”.
Есть, разумеется, и серьезные передачи. Их много. Предельно ясно подход французского ТВ к серьезным передачам разъяснил нам один из руководителей программы “Антенн-2” Жан-Марк Вирье: “Мы думаем и о тех зрителях, которые нечасто смотрят ТВ, но желают делать это с максимальной пользой”, ― и показал раскладку передач по темам на год. 24 процента занимали художественные передачи (в том числе спектакли), 21 процент ― информационные передачи, 25 ― документальные, 11 ― развлекательные, 9 ― молодежные, 4 ― кинофильмы (у других каналов этот процент значительно выше), 3 ― спортивные и 3 ― передачи, полезные для общества (выступления политических, профсоюзных деятелей, репортажи во время предвыборных кампаний). К слову, “Антенн-2” вещает не меньше 17 часов в день, начиная с 6.30 утра, без дневных перерывов. Канал ФР-3 ― поменьше, а ТФ-1 ― больше.
Когда четвертого апреля 1967 года государственная телекомпания ТФ-1 перешла в руки частного капитала, стало ясно: отныне французское телевидение вступило в новый этап своей почти полувековой истории ― коммерциализации и политизации. Многими денационализация была воспринята с большим огорчением. Но даже движение протеста, вобравшее в себя прогрессивно настроенных журналистов, актеров, телережиссеров, не помогло. Государственными остались только “Антенн-2” и ФР-3 (с прошлого года у них один президент).
Платит ТФ-1 своим сотрудникам значительно больше, и многих успело переманить. И тем не менее, оно не смогло безраздельно властвовать над зрителями. “Антенн-2”, хотя и проигрывает, но не сдается. А среди тех зрителей, которые склонны к традиционным жанрам крепки в своих привязанностях, ее передачи пользуются куда большим спросом, чем передачи ТФ-1.
Но в мире французского ТВ идут еще и другие бои ― с внешним миром, с засильем американской телепродукции, грозящей вытеснить все французское с французского телеэкрана. Связано это, по мнению экспертов, с кризисом производства отечественной продукции, недостаточным для должного положения дел финансированием.
Дела, однако, не брошены на самотек. Специально созданный Высший совет по аудиовизуальным средствам информации, главу которого утверждает президент республики, внимательно следит за тем, чтобы французское телевидение оставалось французским. Совет вправе приостановить передачу, прибегнуть к финансовому наказанию, изъять лицензию на право трансляций. Все равны перед законом. Но первое же положение документа, регламентирующего миссию Высшего совета, гарантирует “равный доступ к информации, уважение к плюрализму мнений и суждений…”.
Регулярное телевизионное вещание в Японии началось в 1953 году. 1 февраля этого года японская радиовещательная корпорация (Эн-эйч-кей) открыла телевизионный “сезон” в Японии, в репертуар которого сегодня входят передачи более ста телекомпаний в масштабах всей страны. За минувшее время японцы превратились в самую “телесмотрящую” нацию мира, проводя у экрана в среднем более четырех часов в день. Японское ТВ перешло на “цвет” в 1950 году, а черно-белые телевизоры вообще прекратили выпускать в стране в начале 70-х. В 1975 году по объему выработанных на рекламе средств японское телевидение опередило газеты, выйдя в наши дни на первое место по уровню “коммерческой отдачи”. А это измеряется астрономической суммой 1,2 триллиона иен. Эфирное время принимаемых в Токио 10 телеканалов составляет 228 часов в сутки.
I d e a s a n d P o i n t s of V i e w
Read the passages and pick out interesting ideas and points of view so as to be able to draw on them while acting out scenes and discussing various topics.
TV Programmes That We Can See
We tend to view more and listen less, as time goes on. Take, for example, meetings between famous people from various walks of life. We like seeing the people taking part in these discussions. Merely to hear their voices is not quite the same.
We also like to watch television programmes dealing with animals and birds and all kinds of living things in their natural surroundings, as well as to watch sporting events in actual progress. Above all, we love seeing dramatic entertainment of all kinds: the plays of many leading dramatists; dramatized versions of the works of famous novelists; lively one-act plays, comic turns, and amusing episodes of all sorts.
We can hear symphony concerts, operas and oratorios, and popular melodies all transmitted with lifelike clarity. We have the opportunity of hearing well-informed talks on archaeology, history, geography, science and technology. We hear critics talking about new books, films, plays works of art. We hear living poets reading their own poems.
Answer the following questions about the passage.
What is the current tendency in the relationship between viewing and listening?
Why is it so?
Why do viewers like watching programmes dealing with animals and birds?
What are the other kinds of programmes that appeal to viewers?
Does a music telecast have any advantages over a similar radio broadcast?
Announcing in television is part of what is called “Presentation”, the department which ‘presents’ programmes. Announcers are necessary because without them television would proceed in a series of disconnected jerks.
What is the right personality? There are several obvious answers. A good appearance is naturally of the first importance. This does not mean good looks alone. Beauty or mainly good looks with little in the way of character or experience to back them would stand no chance whatever.
The first assets are an attractive face and a reasonably good figure in a girl, and, in a man, the ability to hold himself well. Next comes intelligence. This is not intellectualism, nor is it an ability to parrot out masses of facts. It includes first a good understanding of the language, and a very large measure of common sense and adaptability. You must also have a good memory. A newsreader has a script to read from, but most announcements are made from memory.
Next to appearance and intelligence you should have a friendly, likeable manner; not over-friendly or with any hint of that detestable chumminess which is the stamp of insincerity.
The right kind of voice is important. It must be pleasant in timbre, yet have sufficient quiet authority to make the viewer listen to what is being said. You are there as an announcer to convey information and to get the viewer to listen to it. “Confidence” is perhaps a better word than “authority” in this connection and it is linked with the most important thing of all – the ability to be poised and at ease before the cameras. If you have this gift by nature, you are fortunate: not many possess it. The majority of people are self-conscious or become so when they face a microphone or camera.
Answer the questions about the passage.
What is the role of announcing in television?
What are the most important assets necessary to an announcer?
Why is a good memory so important to an announcer?
How should an announcer hold himself in front of the camera?
What are the requirements for an announcer’s intellectual level?
Television and Television Viewers
Television now plays such an important part in so many people’s lives. Obviously television has both advantages and disadvantages.
In the first place, television is not only a convenient source of entertainment, but also a comparatively cheap one. For a family of four, for example, it is more convenient as well as cheaper to sit comfortably at home, with practically unlimited entertainment available, than to go out in search of amusement elsewhere. There is no transport to arrange. They do not have to find a baby-sitter. They do not have to pay for expensive seats at the theatre, the cinema, the opera, or the ballet only to discover, perhaps, that the show is a rotten one.
All they have to do is turn a knob, and they can see plays, films, operas and shows of every kind, not to mention political discussions and the latest exciting football match. Some people, however, maintain that this is precisely where the danger lies. The television viewer need do nothing. He does not even use his legs. He takes no initiative. He makes no choice and exercises no judgement.
There are many other arguments for and against television. The poor quality of its programmes is often criticized. And does it corrupt or instruct out children?
I think we must realize that television in itself is neither good nor bad. It is the uses to which it is that determine its value to society.
Answer the following questions about the passage.
What is the role of television in people’s lives?
What are the advantages of television?
What are the disadvantages of television?
What is the relationship between television and society?
Television has not been with us that long but we are already beginning to forget what the world was like without it. Before we admitted the one-eyed monster into our homes, we never found it difficult to occupy our spare time. We used to enjoy civilized pleasures. For instance, we used to have hobbies, we used to entertain our friends and be entertained by them, we used to attend sporting events. We even used to read books and listen to music and broadcast talks occasionally. All that belongs to the past. Now, all our free time is regulated by the “box”. We rush home to be in time for this or that programme. We have even given up sitting at table and having a leisurely meal, exchanging the news of the day. A sandwich and a glass of beer will do or anything, providing it does not interfere with the programme. The monster demands and obtains absolute silence and attention. If any member of the family dares to open his mouth during a programme, he is quickly silenced.
Whole generations are growing up addicted to the telly. Food is left uneaten, home work undone and sleep is lost. It is now a standard practice for a mother to keep the children quiet by putting them in the living room and turning on the set.
Television encourages passive enjoyment. We become content with second-hand experiences. It is easy to sit in our armchairs watching others working. Little by little, television cuts us off from the real world. We get lazy, we choose to spend a fine day glued to our sets rather than go out into the world itself. Television may be a splendid medium of communication, but it prevents us from communicating with each other. We only become aware how totally irrelevant television is to real living when we spend a holiday by the sea or in the mountains, far away from civilization. In quiet, natural surroundings, we quickly discover how little we miss the hypnotic tyranny of King Telly.
Answer the following questions about the passage.
Did the introduction of television into people’s life have any affect on their pattern of behaviour?
How did the people’s pattern of behaviour change?
What are the major disadvantages of television?
What are the consequences of people’s infatuation with television?
What is the way to get rid of the tyranny of television?
What is the author’s attitude towards television?
Could You Be Without TV?
A research institute, not long ago, designed the following experiment: 184 men and women were asked to volunteer to live for a whole year without television. But instead of the anticipated family idyll the consequences led to new conflicts and fiasco. Not a single person kept his promise for a whole year. Every third person participating in the experiment proved to be a TV maniac.
The first person to give up was a young man who, after abstaining from TV for three weeks, refused to continue when his favorite team were playing a televised league match. The last to capitulate were a middle-aged family, who were tempted to break the seal on their TV set when a new detective story by their favourite author, which had been given great press publicity, was due to go on the air. In the intervening months every single other volunteer succumbed to the claims of TV, often after considerable family conflicts.
The researchers had been interested in two main questions: How far is an individual or a family dependent on TV? How does TV influence the behaviour of the family and of individuals? In the first stage of research each member of the participating families had daily to fill in a questionnaire dealing with matters ranging from child education to free-time activities and every single aspect of family life. The next stage involved the sealing off of the TV sets while the researchers eagerly awaited changes in the answers to the questionnaires. Moreover, once a week a psychologist personally talked to each of the 184 men and women. And there was even the promise of a sum money for each day without TV.
After the failure of their experiment the leader of the research team said: “Those who oppose TV blame everything that is bad in family life on the box”. Women often complain that their husbands, on return from work, immediately sit down to watch TV, neglecting duties at home and to their wives. Children pay little attention to homework. If this were so, family life should have flourished without TV. In fact, the persons interviewed, however enthusiastic at first, soon began to complain that nothing had changed in their personal relationships within the family. Some even began to be rude to the interviewers and accused them of interference in home life”.
The researchers had not assumed that all persons would last out for a whole. But they were greatly disappointed that no one even managed to abstain for six months. Instead of watching TV people went to the cinema, visited or invited friends, spent more time reading or playing cards. Very few paid extra visits to the theatre, to concerts, museums or art galleries. The greatest disappointment, however was tension in the family. In the months without TV 93 % of parents admitted to beating their children, because they clamoured most loudly for TV and in one-fifth of all cases were the cause why the set was switched on again. Afterwards, the participants commented that “life’s so boring without TV”, “I couldn’t live without it”, “it’s something all the family share in common”.
Apart from the few who had discovered the joys of reading, all the others returned to their former way of life and most of them considered the course of the experiment and its results as disagreeable. The research institute, however, is not giving in. It is planning now to give TV sets for one year to people who have so far managed to live without television.
Television Leads Back to the Dark Ages
I believe that television demands and trivializes everything and everyone connected with it, that, in short, it is responsible for the downfall of civilization.
We are in the midst of a new Dark Age. This one, however, has been brought about, paradoxically enough, not by the suppression of knowledge and information but by their dazzling assault on our senses. The result has been nothing short of catastrophic.
For all practical purposes, everything in American society has become a branch of entertainment: business, news, politics, religion, you name it. Why? When people can no longer make sense of their world because of (a) its sheer complexity and (b) the overwhelming volume of supposed “information” with which we are bombarded daily, from the arcane and esoteric to the titillating and trivial, then they will seek coherence elsewhere. They find it in the endless pursuit of nonstop, disconnected sights, sounds, images and pleasing personalities that pretend to offer them the pretense of coherence.
We no longer prefer to confront reality directly, for long ago we learned and accepted the fact that reality has for all practical purposes become unmanageable. Instead we have turned our energies to the prolifiration and production of endless amounts of unreality to soothe our tired and fractured egos.
Television is, of course, the prime culprit, for it has become the model for everything in our society. Everything now either imitates or caricatures television as television itself caricatures and imitates everything else.
We have newspapers, magazines and even “books” in the form of television screens or television reality. Thus, USA Today, the newspaper, is a simulation of “TV news” that is itself a simulation of “real news”. And “USA Today on TV” is a simulation of USA Today, the newspaper. At each step in the chain we recede further from reality. And each step beightens a felt sense of unreality.
Television is particularly insidious, for it is the very background, the very oxygen of our new world. It is wrong, dangerously so, to think that television is merely a harmless, trivial simulation of reality. It has become both a simulation of reality and reality itself.
There is in fact no reality any more. It’s all artifact. We have so thoroughly merged symbols, information and entertainment that few of us can distinguish between them. Television has not only distorted our ability to deal with complexity; it also may have altered irreversibly our desire to confront reality. Donahue, Geraldo and Oprah are no longer merely caricatures of “truth” or “journalism”. They are no longer merely filters or portrayers of reality. They have become the “new reality”.
A law of 20th century communication has become evident. The length of a sound bite is inversely proportional to the complexity of the world and the overload of information to which we are exposed. Columnist George Will summarized it best when he noted that if Lincoln were alive he would be forced to say: “Read my lips: No more slavery!”
This is the level to which America’s national discourse has descended. This is the promise of the mass media. As Paddy Chaefsky once said, “Television is democracy at its ugliest”. And as Fred Friendly remarked, “There is no incentive for television to do its best when it can make so much money by doing its worst”.
Given the contempt with which I hold television, why would I want to appear on it to promote a new book that deals with its perverse effects? I have no easy answer. I struggle daily to find one. The best that I have been able to come up with is that I believe strongly that there is a deep, unsatisfied hunger on the part of the American people for something better, for something that speaks directly to our constant search for meaning on the basic issues of life itself.
This hunger can never fully be extinguished by the media power-that-be. I believe in speaking as directly to that hunger as I can, although I have no illusions whatsoever with regard to changing the obvious system that governs the airwaves. There are pockets of the public which hunger for something far better than the media moguls give us. In fact, I think there is another quasi-law that describes our current situation:
The hunger for something better is directly proportional to the constant banality that we are fed.
Дети у Tелеэкрана
30 каналов кабельного телевидения буквально бомбардируют западногерманское население кинопродукцией насилия и жестокости. Обеспокоенные ученые предупреждают, что такой подбор программ превращает телевидение в разновидность наркотиков, которые отравляют в первую очередь детей.
А начинается все просто: для многих телевизор в семьях заменил нянек. Ребенка можно усадить в кресло перед экраном и спокойно заниматься своими делами, порой забывая о нем совсем. В США, например, дети до 12-летнего возраста успевают просмотреть около 80 тысяч сцен насилия. При этом не учитывались программы, которые дети смотрят на видеомагнитофонах.
Журнал “Штерн” провел свое собственное исследование. Было установлено, что в один день в течение 4 часов программа САТ-1 показала 42 сцены убийств и насилия. По данным западногерманского Института исследований проблем развития школы, ребенок проводит ежедневно у телевизора в среднем по два, а в выходные ― по четыре часа. Особенно сильное воздействие оказывает мутный поток с экрана на детей, которые растут в трудных условиях.
На все обвинения во вредном влиянии таких телепередач частные предприниматели отвечают, что они лишь стремятся удовлетворить запросы молодежи. “Мы не считаем, что каким-либо образом заменяем школьное воспитание. Наша цель ― развлечь людей. А ответственность за то, что смотрят дети, должны нести родители”, ― заявил, например, представитель программы САТ-1 Ш.Рабе.
Мнения специалистов о степени воздействия телевидения на зрителей расходятся. Некоторые исследователи считают, что телевидение развивает интеллект ребенка с самого раннего возраста. Те, кто в 10―18 месяцев ползал перед включенным экраном, быстрее ориентируется потом в окружающем мире. Нельзя лишать детей удовольствия. Телевидение им необходимо. Мир ребенка и так ограничен многими запретами взрослых, которые забыли собственное детство. Поэтому он нуждается в своеобразном отдыхе, ему нужно порой уйти в мир фантазий. Но родители обязаны смотреть и обсуждать передачи вместе с детьми, если им не безразлично, какими они станут в будущем. Тяга к фильмам ужасов может иметь далеко идущие последствия, если родители не сумеют внушить детям, что конфликты можно решать другими путями, а не насилием. В противном случае, вырастая, ребенок начнет применять увиденное на экране в общении с другими людьми.
Такое развитие событий можно предотвратить, считают американские специалисты. Они провели долговременный эксперимент: 169 учеников начальной школы, которые особенно увлекались остросюжетными фильмами, были разделены на две группы. С одной из них в течение двух лет проводились регулярные беседы по просмотренным программам. Обсуждались возникавшие в фильмах конфликты, возможности их устранения без насилия. По окончании эксперимента было установлено, что эти дети гораздо менее агрессивны по сравнению с теми, которые попали во вторую группу, где никаких бесед не проводилось.
Во время дискуссий о частных телеканалах и кабельном телевидении предприниматели, да и многие политики заявляли, что оно становится общенациональной школой. Каждый новый канал, утверждали они, ― это новый собеседник в доме. Чем больше программ, тем больше информации. О негативных сторонах, как правило, “забывали”, хотя еще в 1980 году западногерманский психолог Х.Штурм предупреждала, что это может привести к духовному обнищанию. Во Франции был проведен опрос 3000 детей. Им задавали один вопрос: кому или чему они отдали бы предпочтение ― родителям или телевизору? Почти каждый второй ребенок предпочел телевизор. Виновато ли в этом телевидение?
T y p e s o f P r o g r a m m e s
Observe the speech behaviour of participants in different types of situation.
Good evening, and here is the weather forecast for tomorrow. Northern Scotland will be cold, and there may be snow over high ground. In the north of England it will be a wet day and rain may move into Wales and the Midlands during the afternoon. East Anglia will be generally dry, but it will be dull and cloudy.
In Southern England it will be a bright clean day with sunshine, but it may rain during the evening. In the south west it may be foggy during the morning, but the afternoon will be clear. It may be windy later in the day.
Good evening, and here is the weather forecast for tomorrow. A mild southern airflow persists across the country. It will be a cloudy day over Wales, western and northern parts of England with rain at times, some locally heavy over the hills. The rain will gradually clear during the afternoon. Remaining parts of England will start a little misty in places, but most areas will stay dry with bright or sunny intervals developing. Northern Ireland and Scotland will start cloudy with the rain clearing tastwards and brighter but showery weather following from the west. It will be a mild day everywhere particularly in the sunnier south-eastern parts.
Good evening, and here is the weather forecast for tomorrow. An Atlantic frontal system will affect many areas. The rather unsettled look to the weather will continue with most districts seeing further spells of rain. Eastern England will be windy at first with a few showers. Otherwise much of England and eastern Scotland will have a bright morning with a little sunshine. It will soon cloud over across Wales, Northern Ireland and western Scotland, with outbreaks of rain spreading from the west and on to remaining areas during the afternoon. It will be windy, especially over Scotland and at first over eastern England, but will stay relatively mild.
Good evening, and here is the Eight O’clock News.
Five thousand people marched through the streets of Chesilworth today protesting against plans for a new international airport near the town. Although there was such a large number of demonstrators, there was no trouble. The demonstrators marched to the town hall, where a public enquiry into the plans was taking place, and handed in a petition to the chairman of the enquiry. A new airport is needed because the other airports in the London area are overcrowded. Several sites for the new airport have been suggested, and Chesilworth was considered because it is near both a major motorway and a railway line. Although it was a protest march, there was almost a carnival atmosphere, and both demonstrators and police remained good-humoured.
Families were evacuated from four streets in the centre of Glasgow today, because of a gas explosion. The explosion occurred at ten a.m. in a deserted house in Mickle Street. Gas Board officials believe that the explosion was due to leaking gas. The house had been empty for several months, and they suspect that a gas main had cracked because of vibration from road-works in the street. Windows 100 metres away were broken by the blast. The police have forbidden anyone to enter the area until the Gas Board has completed tests.
Fernside Engieering announced today that they were closing their plant in Tadworth. Three hundred jobs will be lost because of the closure, which is due to a sharp decline in orders for their products. There have been rumours for several weeks that the plant might be closed, and in spite of lengthy discussions between unions and management, closure became inevitable because of the cancellation of several major orders. As well as the three hundred redundancies at Tadworth, union leaders predict further redundancies in the area, in firms which supply Fernside Engineering with components.
Reports are coming in of a 100 mph car chase through the roads of Hampshire. Police disturbed a gang of men who were breaking into a chemist’s in Lynford. However, the men escaped in a stoker Jaguar saloon, and the police chased them through the New Forest at high speed. The Jaguar was forced off the road near Bransley. The men were armed with shot-guns, but nevertheless police-officers chased them across a field. Several shots were fired. Fortunately, however, no one was injured, and the men were taken into custody.
And lastly, sport. Eastfield United are through to the next round of the European Cup after an exciting match in Scotland. Dunromin Rangers scored twice in the first half, and Eastfield were two down at half time, they went on to win with a hat trick by Trevor Franklin in the second half. Towards the end of the second half, Franklin was limping because of a knee injury, but nevertheless managed to score the winning goal one minute from time. The game was stopped twice because of fighting in the crowd, but in spite of the trouble, and in spite of the appalling weather, both teams played well. Viewers will be able to see highlights of the match after the news.
Oh eight hours GMT (Greenwich mean time). BBC World Service, the news read by Gordon Parker. The main news stories.
After a meeting of European foreign ministers in Brussels new and urgent efforts are being made to get the talks on world trade back on course.
The French President has strongly criticized the British government’s decision to delay ratification of the Maastricht Treaty on closer European unity.
Red Cross officials in Bosnia say they are about to attempt the evacuation of hundreds of people from the besieged capital Sarajavo.
In Colombia guerillas have reacted violently to the government’s announcement of a state of emergency.
New and urgent efforts are being made to avert a trade war between the United States and the European Community and to get the talks on liberalizing world trade back on course. At a meeting in Brussels European foreign ministers have agreed that negotiations with Washington should be resumed immediately, although they said American threats to impose punitive tariffs on some Community farm produce could only lead to retaliation…
President Mitterrand of France has strongly criticized the British government’s decision to delay ratification of the Maastricht treaty on closer European union until after the Danish referendum on the issue. Speaking in a television interview he described the decision as unacceptable. President Mitterrand said that it went against previous undertakings by the British Prime Minister Mr. Major which indicated that the British Parliament would ratify the Treaty by the end of this year. A statement from Mr. Major’s office said the timing of legislation in Britain on the Maastricht Treaty was a matter for the British government.
The Russian President Mr. Boris Yeltsin on the second and last day of his visit to Britain is to address a joint session of both Houses of Parliament and have lunch with the Queen. The address follows yesterday’s signing of a treaty of friendship and cooperation, the first between Britain and Russia for two hundred years. President Yeltsin also visited the London Stock Exchange where he appealed for easier terms for repayment of his country’s huge debts. And he and the Prime Minister Mr. Major pledged their support for democracy in Russia at a banquet in London in Mr. Yeltsin’s honour.
The Bosnian Red Cross says it’s about to attempt the evacuation of up to six thousand people from the besieged Bosnian capital Sarajevo. The statement said convoys of buses would travel to the Serbian capital Belgrade and to the Adriatic Port of Split. The evacuation would take several days. Only persons with government approved documents would be allowed to leave. Men of fighting age would need permission from the military … .
This news comes to you in the World service of the BBC.
In a violent reaction to the imposition of a new state of emergency in Colombia rebel forces have sabotaged oil pipe lines, blown up a police command post, killed at least two people and clashed with security forces. The army has been sent to several areas to reinforce the police. The BBC correspondent in Bogota says the latest emergency ? it confronting left-wing rebels and the drug cartels are expected to give the army powers at legal investigation. The state of emergency will allow the President to take action without consulting the Congress and the courts. It has received support from most political parties, farmers and businessmen and from the church.
Lawyers in Trinidad, acting for three convicted killers who were originally due to be hanged in a few hours’ time, have obtained a temporary stay of execution …
And to end the world news here again are the main points.
European Community foreign ministers meeting in Brussels have said they want trade negotiations with the US to resume urgently. But they also warned the US that if it goes ahead with threats to impose punitive tariffs on some Community produce there’ll be a spiral of retaliation. …
President Mitterrand of France has strongly criticized the Brittish government’s decision to delay ratification of the Maastricht Treaty on closer European union until after the Danish referendum on the issue.
The Red Cross in Bosnia – Hercegovina says it’s planning to evacuate up to six thousand people from the capital Sarajevo later today. It’s only those with permission who’ll be able to leave the city.
And that’s the end of the news from London.
Typical Ways of Starting, Keeping Up and Ending
- (Oh) eight hours GMT (Greenwhich mean time). / Sixteen hours GMT. BBC World Service. The news read by G.P. The main (news) stories. / The headlines. / The headline stories.
- Fourteen hours GMT. On the BBC, a summary of the news / a news summary. / The latest news summary.
- This is Newsdesk / News from the BBC World Service in London (with G.B.). It's now 07.18 GMT. And the main stories at present. …
- 07. 00 hours GMT. From the BBC World Service this is E.D. with Newsdesk.
- These are the main (news) stories from newsdesk with P.C. and H.B.
- (And) now the British News. / (And) now news about Britain. / This is N.N. with the British news.
- Now Outlook presented by R.M.
- Hello and welcome.
- Hello, this is J.B. with the world business report.
- Financial news now.
- This is the BBC (World Service News). Hello, I'm J.R. The headlines. / The main (news) stories.
- Hello. This is the BBC World Service News (at 5 0'clock GMT). The headlines. / The main (news) stories.
- And now the BBC world weather with P.K.
- This news comes to you in the World Service of the BBC.
- You are listening to the world news.
- You are listening to Newsdesk (coming to you) in the World Service of the BBC.
- You are watching the BBC World Service News. Coming up / later … / Still to come … . It's / That's after the break.
- Welcome back. Here's the world business news with M.S.
- Welcome back. And now with the latest business news here is S.N.
- That's all the international news. Next is the weather with P.K.
- Join me for the headlines after the weather with C.H.
- And that's all the international news. Coming up after the break is the business news with R.J.
- Welcome back. And now the round-up of business news. Here's D.M.
- Now to end the News here again are the main (news) points / stories / headlines … And that's (the end of) the world news (from London). / And this brings us to the end of this bulletin of world news from London.
- Now to end the news, the main (news) points / stories / headlines again … And that's (the end of) the world news (from London).
- Now before we end the news, our last look at the main stories … these headlines bring us to the end of this edition of Newsdesk. / That's Newsdesk.
- (And now to the end of this edition,) a reminder of the main (news) stories / headlines … And this brings to an end our edition of Newsreel. / And this ends our edition of Newsreel. / And that's the end of this edition of Newsreel.
- And that's the end of the British News / news about Britain / this edition of news about Britain.
- That's a summary of world news / of the main (news) points. And we are going to listen to a full bulletin of world news at 17.00. / You can hear more news on the BBC in 50 minutes.
- And that's the latest news summary.
- Here's a reminder of / And I'll remind you of the main news / news stories … Join me at 6 o'clock. And that's all from the BBC newsroom for now. And that's all the BBC World Service news for the moment.
- Hello. The main news once more … We'll be back at 6o'clock GMT. But for the moment that's it from the BBC newsroom. / And that's all from the BBC World Service newsroom for the moment. I'll be back in about 40 minutes.
Presentation of Reporters and Correspondents
- Now G.E. with the details.
- P.E. in New York has the details.
- The details from S.T. … That was S.T.
- A.B. has been watching / following the developments / events from Paris … A.B. in Paris.
- From Berlin S.M. reports. / S.M. reports from Berlin. / Reporting from Berlin is S.M. / S.M. sends us / has sent this report from Berlin … It / That was S.M. reporting from Berlin.
- Here's our diplomatic correspondent L.K. … Our diplomatic correspondent L.K.
- This is a report from our West African correspondent I.S. … I.S. reporting from West Africa.
1. A television interview. A group of teenagers are being interviewed. The topic is “Television and Its Effects on Us”.
Originally there was only one television channel in Britain; now there are four. Do you want any more channels?
No. We would have too many American comedy programmes and thrillers.
I think there should be a special channel for sport. There are only four channels, and two show sport all day on Saturday …
And one more channel shows a Hollywood musical from the 1930s. I don't like sport or Hollywood musicals.
In New York they have about forty television channels – it must be impossible to choose what to watch!
People say that television kills conversation. Does it?
Yes. When there was an electricity strike, we had no television and we all talked to each other much more in the evenings.
I suppose television makes people think and talk more. Lots of documentary films about housing or old age make people argue and discuss things more. Comedy programmes don't do that.
Everyone watches comedy … comedy can have more influence on viewers, not less.
Television is terribly bad for people's eyes. Some American children spend more time in front of the television than in front of the teacher. Some people can't switch off. It's just like a drug; people get addicted to certain television series.
Being addicted to television is the same as being addicted to a book. I was completely addicted to “The Forsyte Saga” and “War and Piece”. I'm not ashamed of that.
Too much television is bad for children. It's unhealthy: they don't get enough fresh air.
But children's educational programmes have improved a lot lately. I'd encourage a child to watch a programme like Play School. It teaches the alphabet and arithmetic so that it all seems like a game. That's the way to teach young children.
What about violence?
The News is the most violent programme on television now. It's more violent than programmes about detectives or cowboys. People don't take any notice when cowboys are killed; they do when it's someone in Nothern Ireland.
Violence looks even more violent on colour television.
The sports commentators are more serious about things than newsreaders. Everything on the football pitch is either “a tragedy” or “the greatest moment in the history of football”. We've lost our sense of proportion.
And what about politics?
When a politician is a good television actor, people vote for him. Political programmes are awful; they're on all four television channels at the same time. You can't escape.
Do you like commercial television?
I hate all those adverts.
But the television company gets money from the adverts.
People don’t believe what the adverts say, do they? They don’t believe all the washing powder adverts. If they do, they’re stupid.
The firms who make washing powder spread a lot of money on the adverts. They realize there must be a lot of stupid people.
2. “The Circus Is Coming”
This is RW 2, Watermouth’s own independent radio station. In the studio with me this morning is Sally Farnham, the daughter of circus owner, Bertie Farnham. Farnham’s circus will be here in Watermouth for two weeks. That’s right, isn’t it, Sally?
Yes, that’s right. We open tomorrow for two weeks.
Has the circus arrived yet, Sally?
No, no. Not yet. It’s on the road somewhere between Sandpool and here.
I suppose there’s a lot to be done between now and the first show.
Yes, that’s right. I’ve already been here for three days. There were all the advance arrangements to be made. It’s like preparing for a small invasion.
What sort of things have you done?
Oh, there are so many things to be done, you know. There are posters to be put up, newspaper ads to be arranged, casual labour to be hired and so on.
When will the circus actually arrive?
In the next hour or so. The first trucks should be arriving any time now, and then the hard work really begins.
Most people love the circus, don’t they? But not many realize how much work there is, do they?
That’s right. We’ll be working all day and half the night. It’s a bit like moving a small army. But, fingers crossed, by tomorrow morning everything will have been set up in time for the afternoon performance. Oh, there’s the grand parade through the town centre at 11.30, so don’t forget to come and see us.
Thank you, Sally, for coming in to talk to us. Now, don’t forget, folks. The grand circus parade will start from the pier at 11.30, go along the promenade, through the gardens and finish in Jubilee Park. Farnham’s Circus will be in town for two weeks until in August. Now for some music.
1. The Yes/No Contest
Good evening! I’m Martin Smiles. Welcome to the Yes/No Contest. Now, the rules are very simple. I’m going to ask questions for 30 seconds, You mustn’t answer with “Yes” or “No”, and you mustn’t nod or shake your head. Well, here’s our first on testant… Mrs. Alice Leach from Nottingham. What’s your name?
Alice… Alice Leach.
Where are you from, Alice?
Did you say “Birmingham”?
Oh, dear, I’m sorry, Mrs.Leach. Now our next contestant is Ralf Milton, from Blackpool. It’s Mr.Milton, isn’t it?
Good… you aren’t nervous, are you?
I’m not nervous.
Did you shake your head?
Are you sure?
Oh… I’m dreadfully sorry. Better luck next time, Mr.Milton. Now, here’s our third?cont stand. It’s Brian Tankard from Bristol. Hello, Brian.
You work in a bank, don’t you?
Do you like your job?
I enjoy it very much.
Oh, do you?
I said, “I enjoy it very much”.
Now, you aren’t married, are you?
I am married.
Is your wife here tonight?
She is at home.
So she isn’t here.
Of course not.
Have you got any children?
I’ve got two children.
A boy and a girl.
And… That’s 30 seconds. Well done! You’ve done it. Isn’t that wonderful, everybody? He’s won tonight’s star prize … a brand-new fully automatic dishwasher!
2. Student Mastermind.
Our next contestant on “Student Mastermind” is Victoria Bamber who is a student at Sandpool Comprehensive. I’ll just remind you of the rules, Miss Bamber. You have two minutes in which to answer as many questions as possible. If you do not know the answer, you should say, “Pass”. I shall then go on to the next question. If you answer incorrectly, I shall then give the correct answer. You will get one point for each correct answer. If two contestants have the same number of points at the end, the one who has the fewest number of passes will be the winner. Are you ready?
Can you name the President of the United States whose early career was in Hollywood?
Er… Reagan. Ronald Reagan.
Correct. What is an instrument which shows the direction of north?
Correct. Can you tell me the name of the sea where eels go to breed and die?
Er… un… pass.
Name the person who became the first woman prime minister of Britain?
Mary… er, sorry… Margaret Thatcher.
I’ll accept that. What is the date when the United States celebrates its independence?
The fourth of July.
Correct. What do we call a person who always expects the best to happen?
Er… an optimist.
Correct. Can you tell me the language which was spoken in the Roman Empire?
No, wrong. The correct answer is Latin. What is the office people visit when they want advice about their marriage?
Who was the Egyptian queen whose beauty was famous throughout the world?
That’s correct. What’s the newspaper column where Jobs are advertised?
Er… the job adverts?
Can you be more exact?
No. I can’t think of it.
I’m afraid I can’t give you that. We were looking for “Situations Vacant”. Now can you tell me… (DING) I’ve started, so I’ll finish. Can you tell me the name of the French Emperor whose final battle was at Waterloo?
Correct. And at the end of than round Victoria Bamber has scored seven points. You passed on two. The sea where eels go to breed and die is the Sargasso Sea, and the office people visit when they want advise about their marriage is the “Marriage Quidance Council”. Thank you. Can we have our next contestant, please?
1. “This Is Your Life” is one of the most popular programmes on British and American television. Every week a famous person is invited to a television studio, without knowing that he or she will be the subject of the programme. The compère meets the person outside the studio and says: “This is your life!”. The person then meets friends and relatives from his or her past and present. The subject of tonight’s show will be an actor, Jason Douglas. The compère, as usual, will be Terry Donovan.
Good evening and welcome to “This is Tour Life”. This is Terry Donovan speaking. We’re waiting for the subject of tonight’s programme. He’s one of the world’s leading actors, and he thinks he’s coming here to take part in a discussion programme… I can hear him now… yes, here he is! Jason Douglas… This is your life!
Oh, no… I don’t believe it! Not me…
Yes, you! Now come over here and sit down. Jason, you were born at number 28 Balaclava Street in East Ham, London on July 2nd 1947. You were one of six children, and your father was a taxi driver. Of course, your name was then Graham Smith. Now, do you remember this voice? “I remember Jason when he was two. He used to scream and shout all day”.
Yes … all the way from Sydney, Australia … she flew here specially for this programme. It’s your sister, Susan Fraser!
Susan … why didn’t you tell me … oh, this is wonderful!
Yes, you haven’t seen each other for 13 years … take a seat next to him, Susan. You started school at the age of five, in 1952, and in 1958 you moved to Lane End Secondary School. Do you remember this voice? “Smith! Stop looking out of the window!”
Oh, no! It’s Mr. Hooper!
Your English teacher, Mr. Stanley Hooper. Was Jason a good student, Mr. Hooper?
Eh? No, he was the worst in the class… but he was a brilliant actor, even in those days. He could imitate all the teachers!
Thank you, Mr. Hooper. You can speak to Jason later. Well, you went to the London School of Drama in 1966, and left in 1966. In 1973 you went to Hollywood. Do you know this voice? “Hi, Jason… Can you ride a horse yet?”
Maria Montrose … who’s come from Hollywood to be with you tonight.
Hello, Jason … it’s great to be here. Hello, Terry. Jason and I were in a movie together in 1974, Jason had to learn to ride a horse … well, Jason doesn’t like horses very much.
Like them! I’m terrified of them!
Anyway, he practised for two weeks. Then he went to the director … it was Charles Orson … and said, “What do you want me to do?” Charles said, “I want you to fall off the horse”. Jason was furious. He said, “What! Fall off! I’ve been practising for two weeks … I could fall off the first day … without any practice!”
2. Moderator. Good evening, and welcome again to the “Michael Parkhurst Talkabout”. In tonight’s programme, we’re looking at the problem of energy. The world’s energy resources are limited. Nobody knows exactly how much fuel is left, but pessimistic forecasts say that there is only enough coal for 450 years, enough natural gas for 50 years and that oil might run out in 30 years. Obviously we have to do smth., and we have to do it soon!
I’d like to welcome our first guest, Professor Marvin Burnham of the New English Institute of Technology. Professor Burnham.
Well, we are in an energy crisis and we will have to do smth. quickly. Fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) are rapidly running out. The tragedy is that fossil fuels are fax too valuable to waste on the production of electricity. Just think of all the things you can make from oil! If we don’t start conserving these things now, it will be too late. And nuclear power is the only real alternative. We are getting some electricity from nuclear power-stations already. If we invest in further research now, we’ll be ready to face the future. There’s been a lot of protest lately against nuclear power- some people will protest at anything but nuclear power stations are not as dangerous as some people say. It's far more dangerous to work down a coal-line or a North Sea oil-rig. Safety regulations in power-stations are very strict.
If we spent money on research now, we could develop stations which create their own fuel and burn their own waste. In many parts of the world where there are no fossil fuels, nuclear power is the only alternative. If you accept that we need electricity, then we will need nuclear energy. Just imagine what the world would be like if we didn't have electricity ― no heating, no lighting, no transport, no radio or TV. Just think about the ways you use electricity every day. Surely we don't want to go back to the Stone Age. That's what will happen if we turn our back on nuclear research.
Moderator. Thank you, Professor. Our next guest is a member of CANE, the Campaign Against Nuclear Energy, Jennifer Hughes.
Hughes. Right. I must disagree totally with professor Burnham. Let's look at the facts. First, there is no perfect machine. I mean, why do aeroplanes crash? Machines fail. People make mistakes. What would happen if there were a serious nuclear accident? And an accident must be inevitable ― sooner or later. Huge areas would be evacuated, and they would remain contaminated with radioactivity for years. If it happened in your area, you wouldn't get a penny in compensation. No insurance company covers nuclear risks. There are accidents. If the nuclear industry didn't keep them quiet, there would be a public outcry. Radioactivity causes cancer and may affect future generations.
Next, nuclear waste. There is no technology for absolutely safe disposal. Some of this waste will remain active for thousands of years. Is that what you want to leave to your children? And their children's children? A reactor only lasts about 25 years. By the year 2000 we'll have "retired" 26 reactors in the UK.
Next, terrorism. Terrorists could hold the nation to ransom if they captured a reactor. In the USA the Savannah River plant, and Professor Burnham knows this well, lost (yes, "lost") enough plutonium between 1955 and 1978 to make 18 (18!) atom bombs.
Where is it? Who’s got it? I consider that nuclear energy is expensive, dangerous, and evil, and most of all, absolutely unnecessary. But Dr. Woodstock will be saying more about that.
Moderator. Thank you, Jennifer. Now I’m very pleased to welcome Dr. Catherine Woodstock. She is the author of several books on alternative technology.
Woodstock. Hello! I’d like to begin by agreeing with Jennifer. We can develop alternative sources of power, and unless we try we’ll never succeed. Instead of burning fossil fuels we should be concentrating on more economic uses of electricity, because electricity can be produced from any source of energy. If we didn’t waste so much energy, our resources would last longer. You can save more energy by conservation than you can produce for the same money. Unless we do research on solar energy, wind power, wave power, tidal power, hydroelectric schemes etc., our fossil fuels will run out, and we’ll all freeze or starve to death. Other countries are spending much more than us on research, and don’t forget that energy from the sun, the waves and the wind lasts for ever. We really won’t survive unless we start working on cleaner, safer sources of energy.
Moderator. Thank you very much, Dr. Woodstock. Our final speaker, before we open the discussion to the studio audience, is Charles Wicks, MP, the Minister for Energy.
Wicks. I’ve been listening to the other speakers with great interest. By the way, I don’t agree with some of the estimates of world energy reserves. More oil and gas is being discovered all the time. If we listened to the pessimists (and there are a lot of them about) none of us would sleep at night. In the short-term, we must continue to rely on the fossil fuels ― oil, coal and gas. But we must also look to the future. Our policy must be flexible. Unless we thought new research was necessary, we wouldn’t be spending money on it. After all, the Government wouldn’t have a Department of Energy unless they thought it was important. The big question is where to spend the money ― on conservation of present resources or on research into new forms of power. But I’m fairly optimistic. I wouldn’t be in this job unless I were an optimist!
R O L E P L A Y
Exercise 1. Based on the dialogue “Likes and Dislikes”.
(1) Act out the opening scene.
Norman asks Gary if the latter regularly listens to the radio. Gary answers in the affirmative, but then he adds that he does not listen to all programmes indiscriminately. He goes on to explain to his interlocutor that he switches on his radio to listen in to particular broadcasts and does not have the radio on all the time. It turns out that Norman has the radio on as a habit but his wife likes having the radio on during the day while she is busy doing housework. Gary wishes he could do the same because he really likes radio. Unfortunately, he cannot do this on account of the specific sort of work he does at home.
(2) Act out the next scene:
Norman wants to know what programmes Gary listens in to. Gary says in reply that the broadcast he is fond of is the News and he listens to it from beginning to end. Norman puts in a remark at this point expressing his doubt whether it is wise to do it, as, in his opinion, it takes too much time. But Gary completely disagrees with Norman about it, saying that if one closely listens to news broadcasts one can only glance through the newspapers later and thus save time. However, Norman is not convinced by his interlocutor’s argument and sticks to his own point of view. Then, in order to keep the conversation going, Norman asks Gary if the News is the only broadcast he likes. The reply is in the negative. It turns out that Gary is also keen on music, he prefers classical music. As far as rock and pop music is concerned; he does not like it at all. Moreover, he prefers to listen to concerts of classical music on the radio rather than watch them on television, as in this case he can concentrate on the music itself and there is nothing interfering with it. Norman agrees with his interlocutor up to a point. He believes that it is true only of classical music, but not of rock music, for instance. In the latter case one should not only listen to the music but also watch the performance. Then Norman invites Gary’s opinion about quiz shows and panel discussion. Gary replies that he makes a point of listening in to them, because they are informative and amusing at the same time.
(3) Act out the final scene:
Norman maintains that radio has its limitations. In his opinion, there are certain events which ought to be shown on television, but cannot be satisfactory presented on the radio. Amongst them are sporting events. And Gary entirely agrees with him on the point. Then Norman and Gary go on to talk about their likes and dislikes, where television programmes are concerned. They happen to have different views on the question. Gary makes it a point to watch screen versions of well-known books, especially classics, whereas Norman has an aversion to such productions. Each of them offers arguments to substantiate his point of view. At the end they touch on the problem of serials.
Exercise 2. Based on the dialogue “Likes and Dislikes”.
Act out the whole situation.
Exercise 3. Act out the following scene.
Situation: In Mr. Wright’s house.
Roles: Role 1- Mr. Wright; Role 2- Richard, Mr.Wright’s son.
Style: Role 1 (Mr. Wright) – neutral; Role 2 (Richard) – informal.
Attitudes: Role 1 (Mr. Wright) – patient, instructive;
Role 2 (Richard) – impatient, aggressive.
Description of Situation:
Role 1 (Mr. Wright). Mr. Wright comes into the living room to find his son, Richard, sitting in front of the television. His son is watching a concert of rock music. Mr. Wright does not like this sort of music. Moreover, he is eager to watch a film, a screen version of a classic, which is going to be shown in a quarter of an hour. That’s why he tries to persuade his son to change to another channel to watch the film. He presents various arguments characteristic of parents.
Role 2 (Richard). Richard is in the living room watching television when his father comes in. A concert of rock music is being televised. He is absorbed in the performance, because he is very keen on this kind of music. He is reluctant to listen to what his father is telling him. He does not like the idea of turning to another channel to watch some highbrow film. Richard detests such films. He answers back to his father. He refutes (as it seems to him) all his father’s arguments and puts forward his own.
Exercise 4. Act out the following scene.
Situation: In Mary’s living room.
Roles: Role 1 – Mary, a friend of Mike’s; Role 2 – Mike, a friend of Mary’s.
Style: informal; Role 2 (Mike) – informal
Attitudes: Role 1 (Mary) – friendly, interested;
Role 2 (Mike) – friendly, interested.
Description of Situation:
Role 1 (Mary). Mary is in the living room talking to a friend of hers, Mike. They are speaking about television. Mary asserts that she can watch television for hours on end. It does not matter to her what to watch; she likes everything. She cites a number of programmes and points out their features which appeal to her. On the whole, television is like a good companion to her.
Role 2 (Mike). Mike is in the living room talking to Mary. The topic of their conversation is television. He disagrees with Mary about the point in question. He tries to refute her arguments. In his opinion, there are few broadcasts worth watching and he presents his arguments in support of his ideas.
Exercise 5. Act out the following scenes.
(1) Situation: A radio interview.
Roles: Role 1 – Mr. Hutchinson, a politician being interviewed;
Role 2 – Mr. Webster, a radio reporter conducting the interview.
Style: Role 1 (Mr. Hutchinson) – formal; Role 2 (Mr. Webster) – formal.
Attitudes: Role 1 (Mr. Hutchinson) – self –assured, polite;
Role 2 (Mr. Webster) – inquisite, polite.
Topic being discussed: Politics on the radio.
(2) Situation: A television interview.
Roles: Role 1 – Mr. Thompson, a popular sportsman being interviewed; Role 2 – Mr. Droxler a TV reporter conducting the interview.
Style: Role 1 (Mr. Thompson) – neutral; Role 2 (Mr. Droxler) – neutral.
Attitudes: Role 1 (Mr. Thompson) – shy, self-conscious;
Role 2 (Mr. Droxler) – talkative, patronizing.
Topic being discussed: Sports coverage on television.
(3) Situation: A television interview.
Roles: Role 1 – Mr. Jackson, a film star being interviewed;
Role 2 – Mr. Baxter, a TV reporter conducting the interview.
Style: Role 1 (Mr. Jackson)- informal; Role 2 (Mr. Baxter) – informal.
Attitudes: Role 1 (Mr. Jackson) - self-assured, boastful;
Role 2 (Mr. Baxter) - active, interested.
Topic being discussed: Films and plays on television.
Exercise 6. Act as a radio announcer. Prepare and give a weather forecast.
Exercise 7. Act as a newsreader. Prepare and present a news broadcast.
F O L L O W - U P D I S C U S S I O N
Exercise 1. Talk to your partner on the following topics. Present your arguments in support of your point of view.
Radio (television) in this country and elsewhere.
The advantages and disadvantages of radio (television).
The advantages of television over radio and the advantages of radio over television.
Your favourite radio (television) programmes.
Listening to music on the radio and television.
The problems of adapting famous books, especially classics, for radio and television.
The advantage of reading a book over watching its dramatized version on television (or listening to it on the radio).
Television serials and television series. Their merits and drawbacks.
Television, the theatre and the cinema: peaceful coexistence or fierce, unscrupulous competition.
The influence of the mass media in general and radio and television in particular on people.
Radio (television) as the cause of conflicts in the family.
Television and children.
Exercise 2. Prepare and present a panel game dealing with radio (television) – its origin, history, programmes, etc. – in this country and elsewhere. Act as question master.
Exercise 3. Get ready to take part in a panel game dealing with radio (television) – its origin, history, programmes, etc. – in this country and elsewhere. Act as a contestant.
Exercise 4. Prepare and present a panel discussion about problems of radio (television) in this country and elsewhere. Act as question master.
Exercise 5. Get ready to participate in a panel discussion about problems of radio (television) in this country and elsewhere. Act as a panellist.
Radio and Television = Радио и Tелевидение
Учебно-методические материалы для студентов II курса
отделения английского языка переводческого факультета
Составитель: СЕРГЕЙ ИВАНОВИЧ ЖОЛОБОВ