для студентов университетов
Нижний Новгород 2007
Краткий тематический словарь. Война и терроризм: Учебное пособие для студентов университетов. – Нижний Новгород: НГЛУ им. Н.А. Добролюбова, 2007. – 232 с.
Настоящая работа представляет собой лексический справочник по темам, изучаемым студентами на пятом курсе. Соответствующий словарный состав сгруппирован на основе тематического принципа. Каждая лексическая единица снабжена толкованием, переводом, иллюстративными примерами ее употребления в речи, а также минимально необходимой грамматической и стилистической информацией. Кроме того, в учебное пособие включены разнообразные упражнения, которые должны помочь студентам усвоить изучаемый ими словарный материал.
© С. И. Жолобов, 2007
18.1. General concepts
18.2. Disposition of troops
18.3. Fighting a battle
18.5. Victory and defeat
confrontation [countable, uncountable] (1) a situation in which there is a lot of angry disagreement between two people or groups противоборство, противостояние, конфронтация; противоречие: (a) direct confrontation | (an) ideological / political confrontation | The Paris summit formally ended four decades of military confrontation between East and West.
(2) a fight or battle столкновение, стычка: (an) armed / military / violent confrontation | The police were obviously anticipating a confrontation, as they were heavily armed.
confrontation with / between sb: Japan seemed unlikely to risk military confrontation with Russia. | There were violent confrontations between police and demonstrators.
to provoke / lead to (a) confrontation: The issue has caused great tension between the two countries and could lead to a military confrontation.
to seek (a) confrontation стремиться к конфронтации: The point is not to seek confrontation for its own sake.
to be / get involved in (a) confrontation: You might expect Christians to be the last group of people to be involved in strong confrontations.
to avoid (a) confrontation: The commission remains so weak that it will continue to avoid confrontation with governments.
standoff | stand-off [countable] a disagreement or fight in which neither opponent can do anything to win or achieve their aim противоборство, противостояние, конфронтация: The political standoff led to a six-month delay in passing this year's budget.
standoff with / between sb: After a prolonged legal battle, she is ready to end her standoff with state authorities. | There is no sign of an end to the stand-off between Mohawk Indians and the Quebec provincial police.
to lead to a standoff: The State Department was warning that this could lead to another diplomatic stand-off.
conflict [countable; uncountable] (1) a state of disagreement or argument between people, groups, countries конфликт, противоречие, столкновение, конфликтная ситуация; коллизия: (a) political / social / ethnic conflict | It is an ethnic conflict between peoples who see each other at close range.
to be in / come into / bring sth into conflict (with sb) (over sth)
(2) fighting between two or more groups of people or countries; a war вооруженный конфликт, вооруженное столкновение, сражение; борьба: the conflict in the Middle East | the Arab-Israeli conflict | Can this peace settlement bring an end to years of conflict?
conflict over / about sth: a conflict between neighbouring countries over / about their common border
armed / military / violent conflict вооруженный / военный конфликт, война: For years the region has been torn apart by armed conflicts. | Nevertheless, national security issues and the incidence of military conflict remain highly significant. | UN troops intervened to avert a threat of violent conflict.
to cause / create / provoke (a) conflict: It was an unpopular policy and caused a number of conflicts within the party. | The issue provoked conflicts between the press and the police.
to be / get involved in (a) conflict: The United States was involved in these conflicts, sometimes as a mediator, always as a supplier of arms. | A decree in February banned the sale of weapons to countries involved in armed conflict.
to prevent / avert (a) conflict: The National Security Council has met to discuss ways of preventing a military conflict.
to avoid (a) conflict: We wish to avoid conflict between our countries.
to resolve / settle / end (a) conflict урегулировать / разрешить конфликт / конфликтную ситуацию: No conflict can really be resolved as long as these double standards prevail. | Opinion polls show that many of them are prepared to sacrifice territory to end the conflict.
resolution of (a) conflict | conflict resolution урегулирование / разрешение конфликта / конфликтной ситуации: a lawyer specializing in conflict resolution
tension [uncountable; countable – usually plural] the feeling caused by a lack of trust between people, groups, or countries who do not agree about something and may attack each other напряжение, напряженность, напряженное состояние: increasing / mounting tension | high / low tension | political / social / racial tension(s) | The tension was high in Mexico as the day of the decision approached. | The years of his government are remembered for political tension.
tension builds (up) / mounts / grows / increases / escalates напряжение / напряженность нарастает: The tension built up to a climax. | A crowd gathered and tension mounted / escalated till the riot broke out. | Tension in the region has grown due to recent bombings.
to ease / reduce / defuse tension(s) ослаблять напряжение / напряженность: The talks were due to include discussions of measures to reduce / ease / defuse tension between the two states and to promote bilateral exchanges.
tension eases / subsides напряжение / напряженность спадает: After a while the tension eased.
friction [uncountable; countable – usually plural] disagreement or unfriendliness caused by people having different opinions разногласия, противоречия, трения: political / social / racial friction | The decision is likely to lead to friction with neighbouring countries.
source of friction: This question can become a major source of friction.
tension | friction COLLOCATIONS
to cause / create / produce / generate tension(s) / friction(s) создать напряженную обстановку; вызывать разногласия / противоречия / трения: Immigration from Comoros has caused tensions on Mayotte. | Restrictions on trade have caused friction between these two nations.
tension / friction arises появляется напряжение / напряженность, появляются разногласия / противоречия / трения
to increase / heighten / raise / aggravate tension(s) / friction(s) усилить напряженность / противоречия / разногласия / трения, обострить обстановку: The failure of the talks held in Geneva at the end of September has increased / raised tensions. | The deadlock in electing a president heightened the political tension in the country. | The plan is likely only to aggravate ethnic frictions.
force [uncountable] military action used as a way of achieving your aims сила; насилие, принуждение
the use of force применение силы: After World War I the use of force to settle conflicts was prohibited. | The UN will allow the use of force against aircraft violating the zone.
by force (of arms) силой (оружия): Peace cannot be imposed by force (of arms).
to use / apply / resort to force применять силу, прибегать к использованию силы
to renounce (the use of) force отказываться от применения силы
aggression [uncountable] | act of aggression [countable] the act of attacking a country, especially when that country has not attacked first нападение; агрессия, незаконное применение силы преступное нападение: military / territorial aggression | an act of unprovoked aggression | Any eastward expansion would be regarded by the government as an act of aggression. | We shall unite to defend ourselves against aggression.
aggression against sb: As our older generation knows from experience, unchecked aggression against a small nation is a prelude to international disaster.
to commit (an act of) aggression against sb осуществить агрессию против кого-л.
to prevent (an act of) aggression предотвратить агрессию: The President promised to use all his powers to prevent further aggression. | It will inevitably be harder to prevent similar acts of aggression in future.
aggressor [countable] a person or country that begins a fight or war with another person or country агрессор; нападающая сторона, субъект преступного нападения; зачинщик конфликта: the aggressor nation | to deter potential aggressors | The situation is complex and it is not easy to determine exactly who is the aggressor in this case. | If the enemy ignites war recklessly, we shall resolutely answer it with war and completely destroy the aggressors.
enemy | foe (literary) [countable] (1) someone who is opposed to someone else and tries to do them harm враг; неприятель, противник: Our enemies were hidden in the trenches. | His foes immediately expressed fear he will launch new attacks on them.
implacable / mortal / sworn enemy заклятый / непримиримый враг
natural enemy кровный враг
formidable / powerful enemy сильный враг, сильный / достойный соперник
insidious enemy коварный враг
(2) enemy | the enemy (usually singular; can be followed by a singular or plural verb) a country, or the armed forces of a country, which is at war with another country враг; неприятель, противник: You cannot attack an enemy unless you have precise information about their numbers and position. | Britain and France decided to unite and fight against their common enemy. | The enemy were pursued for two miles.
to confront / face an enemy сражаться с врагом, столкнуться лицом к лицу с врагом
to conquer / overcome / rout / crush an enemy победить врага: He was not satisfied until he had crushed his enemies.
enemy soldiers / troops / forces / aircraft / territory / lines / attack: Enemy forces have now built up to a dangerous strength. | Over three hundred enemy aircraft were destroyed. | The Serbs were determined to halt the enemy attacks.
threat [countable – usually singular] the possibility that something very bad will happen; someone or something that is regarded as a possible danger угроза, опасность
threat of sth: There's a serious threat of military invasion / rioting.
threat to sb / sth: a threat to freedom / democracy
threat from sb: According to the Secretary of State, the Russians face no threat from an expanded NATO.
threat that… : There is a threat that violence will break out again.
to be under threat of sth: The country is under threat of attack.
to face a threat столкнуться с угрозой: They face the threat of terrorism every day.
to be / pose / constitute / present / represent a threat (to sb / sth) представлять угрозу: The fighting is a major threat to stability in the region. | The dispute poses a direct threat to peace. | The process constitutes a national threat because it will break up the United Kingdom.
to reduce a threat уменьшать угрозу: Meantime, the government is already spending less, helping to reduce the threat of inflation.
to prevent / avert a threat предотвращать угрозу: The threat of full-scale war has not been averted.
a threat escalates угроза усиливается: When the focus is upon the potential for violence, the threat escalates.
danger (1) [uncountable; countable] the possibility that something bad will happen; the possibility that someone or something will be harmed, destroyed, or killed опасность
danger of sth: If there is a danger of war, we must help.
danger from sth: The public was not aware of the danger from nuclear tests in Nevada. | Is there any danger from radioactive sources?
to be in danger / jeopardy | to face (a) danger быть в / подвергаться опасности: The refugees believe that their lives are in danger. | His political career was in jeopardy. | The soldier faced danger and death without flinching.
to be in (great / grave / real / serious) danger of (doing) sth: The peace talks are now in danger of collapse.
to be out of danger быть вне опасности
to put sb / sth in danger / jeopardy подвергать кого-л. / что-л. опасности, ставить под угрозу: The killings could put the whole peace process in danger / jeopardy.
to avert (a) danger предотвращать опасность
(2) hazard | menace [countable] something or someone that may harm or kill you опасность; угроза, риск the growing danger / menace of global war | We know the dangers / hazards of modern warfare. | There must be protection from radiation hazards.
danger / hazard / menace to sb / sth
to be / pose / constitute / present / represent a danger / hazard (to / for sb / sth)
peril [uncountable; countable] (literary or formal) great danger, especially of being harmed or killed опасность; угроза, риск
to be in (great / grave / serious) peril: The army is now in grave peril.
to be fraught with peril to be full of dangers: The journey through the mountains was fraught with peril.
to put sb / sth in peril: They put their own lives in peril to rescue their friends.
the perils of (doing) sth: Cook faced the perils of the Atlantic seas.
to threaten | to menace (formal) [transitive] to be likely to harm or destroy something грозить, угрожать: The whole community has been living in fear for far too long, menaced equally by both sets of paramilitaries.
to threaten sth (with sth): Their actions threaten the stability and security of the region.
to threaten to do sth: The dispute threatened to damage East-West relations. | The incident threatens to ruin his chances in the election.
to endanger | to jeopardize [transitive] to put someone or something in danger of being hurt, damaged, or destroyed подвергать опасности / риску, создавать угрозу безопасности: New tensions could endanger the peace process. | Any raid or rescue operation would endanger the lives of the hostages. | Large-scale military offensives could jeopardize the UN peace process.
2. Armed conflict
war [uncountable; countable] armed fighting between two or more countries or groups, involving large numbers of soldiers and weapons, or a particular example of this война: a war hero / veteran
to be on the brink / verge of war находиться на грани войны: In October 1962 the world seemed on the brink of nuclear war.
to declare war (on / against sb.) объявлять войну: When Poland was invaded, the Allies had no choice but to declare war. | Britain and France declared war on Germany in 1939 as a result of the invasion of Poland.
to launch / start / unleash (a) war | to go to war (with sb / over sth) to start to fight a war with another country начать / развязать войну: Hitler may have been right to launch his war as soon as possible, on the calculation that only by seizing the resources of the entire continent could the Reich prevail against the British Empire or the Soviet Union. | The United States alternated between brandishing carrots and sticks, to which North Korea replied with a bewildering mix of signals that culminated in a June 1994 threat to unleash war against the South. | If this country goes to war we will have to face the fact that many people will die.
to plunge (a country) into (a) war ввергать (страну) в войну: Foolish mistakes by the nation's leaders have plunged the country into a war that could have been avoided.
to set off / spark (off) / touch off / trigger (off) / provoke a war вызвать / спровоцировать войну: Careless political action can easily set of / spark off a war. | It was these national rivalries that eventually touched off the First World War. | The incident could trigger a civil war.
to incite / instigate / foment / stir up / ignite (a) war подстрекать к войне, провоцировать войну: He was blamed for fomenting war in the Balkans. | If the enemy ignites war recklessly, we shall resolutely answer it with war and completely destroy the aggressors.
war breaks out / erupts вспыхивает / разражается война: War broke out in September of 1939. | War broke out between the two countries after a border dispute. | I was still living in London when the war broke out. | However, even before the war erupted again in the early 1980s, education provision in the south was inadequate.
the outbreak of war (внезапное) начало войны: His career was interrupted by the outbreak of war. | The system started to operate in late 1914, a few months after the outbreak of war in Europe. | This preparatory work was practically complete at the outbreak of war.
to be at war / in a state of war (with sb) быть в состоянии войны (с кем-л.): In 1920 Poland and Russia were still at war. | They were in a state of war with that country.
to conduct / fight / wage war (against / on / with sb) вести войну: Britain has fought two wars this century.
to escalate / step up a war наращивать / расширять военные действия: The US government stepped up its war against terrorism.
war escalates (into sth) / intensifies военные действия расширяются: Unless the international community succeeds in bringing the two countries to the negotiating table soon, the war itself could escalate. | The local war escalated into a major conflict. | In early 1990 the guerrilla war intensified, with rising casualties among both the local population and the security forces.
war rages (on) if war rages, it continues with great violence война свирепствует: Civil war has been raging in the country for years. | The war rages on and the time has come to take sides.
to win / lose a war выиграть / проиграть войну: They had no chance of winning the war.
to end a war | a war ends закончить войну | война заканчивается: When the war ended in 1945, Europe was in chaos.
the (disastrous / dire / serious) effects / consequences of a war
to abolish / eliminate war устранять возможность возникновения войны
to ban / outlaw war запрещать военные действия, объявлять военные действия незаконными
(to fight / die / be killed) in a war (воевать / умереть / погибнуть) на войне: My grandfather fought in the Second World War. | He died in the Vietnam war.
to breed wars порождать войны
civil / cold / defensive / offensive / holy / limited / local war гражданская / холодная / оборонительная / наступательная / священная / локальная война
war of aggression / attrition / extermination / independence агрессивная война / война на истощение / война на уничтожение / война за независимость: They were fighting a war of independence against a powerful enemy.
conventional war война с применением обычных видов оружия
atomic / nuclear / thermonuclear war атомная / ядерная / термоядерная война: Both countries wanted to avoid a nuclear war.
full-scale / large-scale / all-out / total war полномасштабная / крупномасштабная война; полномасштабные / крупномасштабные боевые действия: The fighting is threatening to turn into full-scale war.
global / world war мировая война
hostilities [plural] (formal) fighting in a war; acts of fighting военные / боевые действия
to open / cease / suspend hostilities начинать / прекращать / приостанавливать военные / боевые действия
to resume / renew hostilities возобновлять боевые действия: the likelihood of renewed hostilities between the two countries | The rebels have resumed hostilities against government troops.
hostilities break out военные / боевые действия начинаются / вспыхивают: The authorities have urged people to stock up on fuel in case hostilities break out.
the outbreak of hostilities (внезапное) начало военных / боевых действий: Washington gave the military in Hawaii plenty of warning about the imminent outbreak of hostilities. | Anti-war demonstrations continued after the outbreak of hostilities.
cessation of hostilities прекращение военных / боевые действий: The UN is demanding an immediate cessation of hostilities. | This led to a wider cessation of hostilities, although it was never formalized.
war / battle zone | troubled area [countable] an area where a war is being fought район / зона военных / боевых действий: A war zone is a dangerous place to be even in the absence of combat. | He could be sent to another war zone at any time. | More front-line troops will be flown to the battle zone over the next few days. | British forces will withdraw from the troubled area as quickly as possible.
hot spot [countable] a place where there is often a lot of violence or fighting горячая точка: The border has become a major hot spot. | There were many hot spots in the region, where fighting was going on.
a hotbed of sth a place where a lot of a particular type of activity, especially bad or violent activity, happens очаг, рассадник: a hotbed of vice / crime / racial intolerance | Bavaria was a hotbed of extremist politics in the 20s and 30s. | The political party has become a hotbed of nationalism and racial bigotry.
tinderbox [countable – usually singular] a place or situation that is dangerous and where there could suddenly be a lot of fighting or problems очаг напряженности: The area is a tinderbox that could again plunge the country into civil war. | The Balkans have a long and tragically deserved reputation as a political tinderbox. | The racial tension in the area makes it a tinderbox ready to ignite.
warfare [uncountable] the activity of fighting in a war, especially when particular methods of fighting are involved война; военные действия; ведение войны; методы / приемы ведения войны: conventional / nuclear / chemical / biological warfare | desert / jungle / naval / trench warfare | It quickly made Hanoi the most heavily bombed city in the history of warfare. | More years of trench warfare and carnage on the Western Front were now almost unavoidable.
guerrilla warfare fighting by small groups of fighters in mountains, forests etc партизанская война, партизанские (военные) действия: The rebels aimed to overthrow the government through protracted guerrilla warfare.
wartime | time of war | wartime period [uncountable] the period of time when a country is fighting a war военное время: He died on a wartime bombing mission. | In time of war the government must have entire disposal of all material resources. | The mass of new information was greatly augmented during the wartime period.
in / during wartime: Military technology changes dramatically in wartime, in response to experience on the battlefield. | The original buildings were destroyed during wartime.
wartime experience(s): His parents say he's still affected by his wartime experience. | Her wartime experiences were still fresh in her memory.
peacetime [uncountable] a period of time when a country is not fighting a war мирное время: The talks were aimed at establishing normal peacetime relations between the two countries.
in / during peacetime: The British could afford to reduce defence spending in peacetime without excessive risk. | A country's army may be quite small during peacetime.
tumult | turmoil [uncountable; countable] (formal) a state of confusion, noise, and excitement, often caused by a large crowd суматоха, суета; беспорядок; грохот; гражданские волнения, неповиновение, беспорядки: the tumult of battle | The tumult of war undoubtedly touched Leonard, though his immediate family were spared its direct horrors. | From every direction, people were running and shouting and falling over each other in a tumult of confusion.
to cause / arouse tumult / turmoil: The big thing actually seemed happy to have caused so much turmoil and confusion. | They did so again amid the turmoil caused by the collapse of Soviet power in 1991. | This new party was briefly banned for arousing political turmoil that led to street insurrections in October 1993.
to be in (a state of) tumult / (a) turmoil: The whole country is in tumult. | The country is in (complete) turmoil. | The town was in a turmoil during the elections. | The country is in a state of political turmoil.
to throw sth into turmoil: Our arrangements are thrown into complete turmoil.
tumultuous [adjective] full of activity, confusion, or violence шумный, буйный, бурный: the tumultuous years of the Civil War | the tumultuous changes in Eastern Europe | the tumultuous weeks leading up to the revolution | After the tumultuous events of 1990, Eastern Europe was completely transformed.
commotion [singular; uncountable] a sudden short period of noise, confusion or excited activity суета, суматоха, шум, гам; народные волнения, неповиновение, беспорядки: There was a terrible commotion outside. | Suddenly there was a commotion by the front door, and two police officers marched in.
civil commotion народные волнения, общественные беспорядки
to cause / create / raise / make a commotion: Everyone looked to see what was causing the commotion. | His arrival caused quite a commotion.
to be in (a state of) commotion: Suddenly the whole street was in commotion.
a commotion subsides волнения стихают
disaster | calamity | catastrophe [countable; uncountable] a terrible and unexpected event that causes a lot of damage or suffering беда, бедствие, несчастье, катастрофа: a crushing / devastating / dire / great / major disaster / calamity / catastrophe | the calamity of war | From all points of view, war would be a catastrophe. | The refugee camp was a disaster area. | At the simplest level, patriotism lent meaning and purpose to personal catastrophes that would otherwise appear intolerable.
national disaster / calamity / catastrophe национальная катастрофа
to be on the brink / verge of disaster / calamity / catastrophe находиться на грани катастрофы: The peace process was on the brink of disaster.
to be heading for / move towards disaster / calamity / catastrophe двигаться / идти к катастрофе: The country seems to be moving towards catastrophe.
to court disaster навлекать беду / бедствие / несчастье: They courted disaster by sending troops into the region.
to cause / bring (a) disaster / calamity / catastrophe (to sb) | to lead (sb / sth) to disaster / calamity / catastrophe приводить к беде / катастрофе: The war brought disaster to local people. | He argues that the new policy could lead to disaster. | The war has led to a humanitarian disaster.
to end / result in disaster / calamity / catastrophe закончиться бедой / катастрофой: It could only end / result in disaster / calamity.
to avoid (a) disaster / calamity / catastrophe избегать беды / катастрофы: He made a television play but turned down all other offers that came his way, desperate to avoid another disaster.
to avert / prevent / ward off (a) disaster / calamity / catastrophe предотвращать беду / бедствие / катастрофу: Sudan requires food immediately to avert a humanitarian catastrophe. | The governments of the world failed to act to prevent the catastrophe of World War II.
to survive (a) disaster / calamity / catastrophe пережить бедствие / катастрофу
ceasefire | armistice [countable] an agreement to stop fighting for a period of time, especially in order to discuss permanent peace прекращение огня; прекращение военных действий; перемирие: a ceasefire agreement | The ceasefire won't last unless both sides are prepared to compromise. | President Chissano offered an immediate armistice, but this was turned down by the rebel leader. | Media coverage exceeded any news event in history, including the armistice that ended World War I in 1918.
temporary ceasefire временное прекращение огня
ceasefire violation(s) нарушение соглашения о прекращении огня: Each side repeatedly accused the other of ceasefire violations.
truce [countable] an agreement between enemies to stop fighting or arguing for a short time, or the period for which this is arranged перемирие: The rebels have ended a 17-month-old truce, and could strike at any time. | The fighting of recent days has given way to an uneasy truce between the two sides. | The fragile truce between the two sides is not expected to last long.
ceasefire | armistice | truce COLLOCATIONS
to call for a ceasefire / armistice / truce призывать к прекращению огня, требовать прекращения огня: They called for a ceasefire in the region and for access for humanitarian aid deliveries.
to negotiate / work out a ceasefire / armistice / truce подготовить / разработать соглашение о прекращении огня
to achieve / negotiate a ceasefire / armistice / truce добиться прекращения огня, договориться о прекращении огня: The government failed in numerous attempts to achieve a ceasefire through negotiation. | The two sides have been unable to negotiate a truce.
to call / declare / establish a ceasefire / armistice / truce объявлять о прекращении огня: They should call a truce while negotiations are given a chance. | A two-week armistice has been declared between the rival factions. | In February a ceasefire was established after King Hassan met Polisario leaders for the first time.
to sign a ceasefire / armistice / truce подписать соглашение о прекращении огня: Both leaders signed the ceasefire agreement. | He also referred to a government proposal to sign a ceasefire on April 15. | Finally, the Bolsheviks signed an armistice with Germany.
to observe / honour a ceasefire / armistice / truce соблюдать соглашение о прекращении огня: The dynamite was split between Eta, then nominally observing a unilateral ceasefire, and the Bretons.
to implement a ceasefire / armistice / truce выполнять соглашение о прекращении огня: Significant progress was nevertheless achieved in May, when the factions agreed to begin implementing a temporary ceasefire.
to break / violate a ceasefire / armistice / truce нарушать соглашение о прекращении огня: So far no one has violated the three-day ceasefire.
a ceasefire / armistice / truce comes into effect / comes into force / takes effect соглашение о прекращении огня вступает в силу: The ceasefire came into effect throughout the country at midnight.
a ceasefire / armistice / truce holds соглашение о прекращении огня соблюдается: He believed the ceasefire would hold. | UN officials are expressing cautious optimism that the latest ceasefire is holding.
bloodshed | bloodletting | the shedding of blood [uncountable] a situation in which people are killed or injured, especially in fighting or war кровопролитие, массовое убийство, резня, бойня: There was great bloodshed in Paris during the years after the Revolution in 1789. | A foreign country was accused of having instigated the bloodshed. | The army was brought in to try to prevent further bloodshed. | Troops are trying to stop the worst of the bloodletting in the capital. | The Pope called for a halt to the shedding of innocent blood.
to shed blood | to spill blood (literary) to kill or injure people, especially during a war or a fight проливать чью-л. кровь: Too much blood has already been shed in this conflict. | He is prepared to spill the blood of a million people. | If blood is spilled the countries will be at war.
to shed your blood | to sacrifice yourself / your life | to lay down / give your life (literary) to die for something you believe in strongly проливать свою кровь, жертвовать собой / своей жизнью, отдавать свою жизнь, приносить себя в жертву: Others promised to 'shed our blood and sacrifice our lives to oppose the invaders'. | A hundred thousand men sacrificed their lives on the Marne. | He considered it a privilege to lay down his life for his country. | He gave his life for the cause of freedom.
to injure [transitive] to hurt someone, for example in an accident or an attack повредить, поранить; ранить: A bomb exploded at the embassy, injuring several people. | Several policemen were injured in the clashes. | Army helicopters tried to evacuate the injured.
to wound [transitive] to injure someone with a knife, gun etc ранить: Gunmen killed two people and wounded six others in an attack today. | Two soldiers died and three others were wounded in the attack. | The bullet wounded him in the shoulder. | A bomb exploded in a hotel, killing six people and wounding another five. | Police managed to wound one of the hijackers.
to be wounded in the head / chest / arm / leg получить ранение в голову / грудь / руку / ногу: He was wounded in the head. | George himself was severely wounded in the leg.
to be lightly / slightly wounded получить легкое ранение
to be seriously / badly / severely / critically wounded получить тяжелое / серьезное ранение: Five people were killed and many others were seriously wounded in the attack. | The police chief was badly wounded in the explosion.
to be mortally / fatally wounded to be wounded so badly that you die получить смертельную рану: The great Stuart was mortally wounded. | Unfortunately, the young prince was fatally wounded while hunting in 1031. | The pistol went off and Martin was fatally wounded.
to mutilate | to maim [transitive] to wound or injure someone very seriously and often permanently калечить, увечить, изувечить, уродовать, причинить / нанести увечье: Many people were mutilated and maimed in the blast. | The prisoners were tortured and mutilated. | Landmines still kill or maim about 300 people every month. | | The United Nations estimates that 800 people are killed by mines every month, and another 1, 200 are maimed.
to fall (in battle) [intransitive] (literary) to be killed in a war гибнуть, погибать: 250 men fell to the enemy gunfire. | During the war, he saw many of his comrades fall in battle. | Many brave men fell in the fight to save the city.
to perish [intransitive] (formal or literary) to die, especially in a terrible or sudden way гибнуть, погибать; умирать: He is believed to have perished fairly early in the prolonged series of guerrilla activities he inaugurated against Rome.
to massacre | to slaughter [transitive] to kill a lot of people in a violent way, especially when they cannot defend themselves совершить массовое убийство, устраивать резню; убивать с особой жестокостью: Troops indiscriminately massacred the defenceless population. | The army massacred more than 150 unarmed civilians. | Thousands of people were slaughtered in the civil war / during the conflict.
to exterminate [transitive] to kill large numbers of people or animals of a particular type or in a particular place so that they no longer exist истреблять, уничтожать, ликвидировать: Entire peoples were exterminated in the concentration camps. | There was an attempt to exterminate ethnic groups in the north of the country. | The Khmer Rouge exterminated as many as two million Cambodians – a quarter of the population. | This uprising was ruthlessly suppressed and many Samaritans, including the leaders, were exterminated in the process.
to claim [transitive] if a war, accident, disease etc claims someone's life, they die as a result of it (used especially in news reports) уносить жизнь: The 12-year-old civil war claimed 1.5 million lives. | Its independence campaign has claimed nearly 800 lives since 1968. | The civil war claimed the life of a U.N. interpreter yesterday.
the wounded people who have been injured, especially in a war раненые: Helicopters have been sent in to rescue the wounded from the war zone. | Ambulances took the wounded to local hospital. | They were told to carry their wounded and leave their dead.
injury [countable; uncountable] physical damage to a person or part of their body caused by an accident or attack рана, ранение; травма, повреждение; ушиб
multiple injuries множественное повреждение
head / back / shoulder / ankle / knee / foot / leg injury: She was taken to hospital with serious head injuries.
to escape / avoid injury избежать повреждений: The two other passengers escaped serious injury.
wound [countable] an injury to one's body that is made by a weapon such as a knife or a bullet рана; ранение
head / chest / leg wound: There was blood pouring down his face from a head wound.
bullet / gunshot / knife wound (to the head / chest / arm / leg): He died of gunshot wounds.
self-inflicted wound ранение, нанесенное самому себе
to clean a wound промыть рану: A nurse cleaned and bandaged the wound.
to dress / bandage a wound перевязать / забинтовать рану
wound | injury COLLOCATIONS
light / slight / superficial / flesh / minor wound / injury легкое ранение / повреждение: Casualties amounted to one man killed, a few flesh wounds and two jeeps destroyed. | She sustained minor injuries from shrapnel.
serious / deep / gaping / severe / major wound тяжелое / серьезное ранение / повреждение: The wound was deep and needed eighteen stitches.
fatal / mortal wound / injury смертельная рана, смертельное ранение
to suffer / receive / sustain a wound / injury (to the / one's head / chest / arm / leg / stomach) получить ранение: Many of the troops suffered severe injuries. | He suffered wounds to his head and chest. | He also received wounds to the abdomen. | Four police officers sustained serious injuries in the explosion.
to cause a wound / injury | to inflict a wound / injury (on sb) нанести повреждение
to recover from a wound / injury выздоравливать, излечиваться, поправляться: She is at home, recovering from her injuries.
a wound / injury heals рана заживает: The wound is healing nicely and the patient is healthy. | It took several months for his wounds to heal. | The children were treated for minor injuries.
to treat sb for a wound / injury лечить , проводить курс лечения: He was treated in hospital for head wounds. | The pilot was treated for suspected internal injuries.
to die from / of a wound / injury умереть от раны: Six soldiers are reported to have died from their wounds. | He died of a single gunshot wound to the left side of his head. | He was taken to hospital, but died from his injuries.
mutilation [countable; uncountable] увечье: He admitted to the murder and mutilation of between 12 and 16 young men. | Some reports have contained lurid accounts of deaths and mutilations.
massacre [countable; uncountable] | slaughter | mass murder [uncountable] the killing of a lot of people in a violent way, especially people who cannot defend themselves массовое / жестокое / зверское убийство, резня, бойня; избиение: indiscriminate / mass / wanton / wholesale massacre / slaughter | The bombing of Dresden was one of the worst massacres in European history. | War always involves the slaughter of innocent civilians. | The fugitives, two of whom have been recaptured, are accused of genocide, mass murder and other crimes.
to order the massacre / slaughter / mass murder of sb: He ordered the massacre of 2, 000 women and children.
to carry out / commit / perpetrate a massacre совершить массовое убийство, устраивать резню: The soldiers who carried out the massacre have not been identified.
to survive a massacre: Chong plays a reporter who survives a massacre in the opening scenes, then tells her story on videotape.
carnage [uncountable] the violent killing of large numbers of people, especially in a war массовое убийство, резня, кровавая бойня, побоище: The foreign minister has asked ambassadors from several states to help end the carnage. | All those lofty ideals and principled declarations led to unprecedented carnage in the trenches. | The Battle of the Somme was a scene of dreadful / terrible carnage. | History reduces the carnage to impersonal numbers. | He said that communal carnage was ripping the country apart.
extermination [uncountable; countable] the killing of large numbers of people or animals of a particular type or in a particular place so that they no longer exist истребление, уничтожение: complete / total extermination | the extermination of hundreds of thousands of their brethren
ethnic cleansing [uncountable] the use of violence to force people from a particular racial or national group to leave an area or country этническая чистка: More have been wounded and others were victims of ethnic cleansing. | In late May, government forces began the ethnic cleansing of the area around the town. | This vile policy of ethnic cleansing must be stopped.
genocide [uncountable] the deliberate murder of a whole group of people, especially a whole nation, race or religious group геноцид: The military leaders were accused of genocide. | What is going on is not just war, it is genocide.
to carry out / commit / perpetrate (an act of) genocide совершать геноцид: They have alleged that acts of genocide and torture were carried out.
holocaust [countable] a situation in which there is great destruction and a lot of people die уничтожение, истребление; бойня; резня геноцид: A nuclear holocaust would leave few survivors. | He realized that the world had changed and that each side was capable of destroying the other in a nuclear holocaust. | Nuclear deterrence becomes nuclear holocaust when local wars get out of hand.
the Holocaust the organized killing of millions of Jews and other people by the Nazis during the Second World War холокост: On the following day Walesa visited the Yad Veshem memorial to the victims of the Holocaust.
atrocity | brutality | cruelty [countable; usually plural; uncountable] an extremely cruel and violent action, especially during a war жестокость, зверство, жестокое обращение: The brutal destruction of an entire village was one of the worst atrocities of the Vietnam war. | The report documented several incidents of mass atrocities in detail. | Civil rights activists were appalled by the brutality of the police. | There have been reports of cruelty and rape from the war zone. | He is still haunted by the cruelties he witnessed during the war.
dreadful / extreme / grisly / great / gruesome / horrible / horrid / monstrous / revolting / vile atrocity / brutality / cruelty
act of atrocity / brutality / cruelty жестокий / зверский поступок: These people are guilty of acts of great atrocity. | The killings were an act of mindless brutality.
the brutalities / cruelties of war: He was unable to escape the cruelties of war.
atrocities against sb: But the victories were tainted by accusations of atrocities against civilians.
brutality / cruelty to / towards sb: Seeing so much brutality towards prisoners had not hardened them to it.
to commit / perpetrate / carry out an atrocity / brutality / cruelty (against sb) совершить зверский поступок / злодеяние: The interest is simply focused on the few individuals who commit several serious atrocities. | Federal soldiers have been accused of perpetrating atrocities against innocent people. | Likewise Bosnia has arrested three senior officers accused of carrying out atrocities in 1993.
to demonstrate / display / exhibit brutality / cruelty проявлять жестокость
atrocities / brutalities / cruelties occur зверства совершаются: Horrifying cruelties occur in wartime.
cannon fodder [uncountable] ordinary soldiers whose lives are not considered to be very important, and who are sent to fight where they are likely to get killed пушечное мясо: Conscripts were just fed to the allied forces as cannon fodder.
to survive [transitive; intransitive] to continue to live after an accident, war, or illness остаться в живых, уцелеть: She survived the war and all the other calamities of the first half of this century. | He survived two world wars only to find himself homeless in San Francisco. | The Cathedral survived repeated bombings during the Second World War. | Only 12 from 40 passengers survived.
survival [uncountable] the state of continuing to live or exist выживание: Now they are fighting for survival. | His doctors said he had a 50-50 chance of survival.
the survival of the fittest a situation in which only the strongest and most successful people or things continue to exist естественный отбор
survivor [countable] someone who continues to live after an accident, war, or illness оставшийся в живых, уцелевший: She was the sole / lone survivor of the massacre. | He spoke about Hadassah's background as the Prague-born daughter of Holocaust survivors.
to plunder | to pillage [transitive; intransitive] to steal large amounts of money or property from somewhere, especially while fighting in a war разграблять; разорять, опустошать: The rich provinces of Asia Minor were plundered by the invaders. | The city was plundered and burned during the war. | Many works of art were plundered by Nazi troops. | Works of art were pillaged from many countries in the dark days of the Empire.
to loot [transitive; intransitive] to steal things, especially from shops or homes that have been damaged in a war or riot грабить, разграблять: The brutal soldiers looted and massacred for three weeks. | As the army advanced toward Mantes it burned and looted everything that lay in its path. | Rioters looted stores and set fires. | The town has been plagued by armed thugs who have looted food supplies and terrorized the population. | The sailors attacked stores owned by blacks and looted shooting galleries for rifles and ammunition.
to ravage [transitive] (of armies etc) to rob, plunder with violence грабить, опустошать, разорять: They ravaged the countryside. | Enemy soldiers ravaged the village.
to despoil [transitive] (literary) to steal from a place or people using force, especially in a war грабить; расхищать; захватывать; обирать: The enemy have despoiled the whole valley of its crops.
plunder [uncountable] (1) looting | pillage the act of plundering грабеж, разграбление, ограбление; мародерство; разорение: to live by plunder | to engage in looting | the plunder of Africa by European nations | Residents in the villages under attack have been unable to protect their homes from plunder. | There were no signs of violence or pillage.
(2) loot | pillage | spoils things that have been stolen during a violent attack, especially during a war добыча, награбленное добро; трофеи: Henry's army returned loaded down with plunder. | Most criminals steal in order to sell their loot for cash on the black market. | The spoils of victory / war included mounds of treasure and armour.
plunderer | looter | pillager [countable] вор, грабитель; мародер
to destroy [transitive] to damage something so badly that it no longer exists or cannot be used or repaired разрушать, рушить; сносить: It is they who carry out the traditional infantry role of closing with and destroying the enemy. | His conclusion also was that our next operation must be an all-out effort to destroy the enemy carriers. | Another project that the ministry has suddenly accelerated after two years of inaction is a new missile designed to destroy enemy radars.
to devastate [transitive] to seriously damage or completely destroy something уничтожать; опустошать, разорять: Bombing raids devastated the city of Dresden. | Years of war have devastated this island nation. | The bomb devastated the city centre. | For comparison, the atomic bomb explosions that devastated Hiroshima and Nagasaki were about 20 kilotons each.
to obliterate | to wipe out [transitive] (1) to destroy something completely so that nothing remains уничтожать, истреблять; ликвидировать: to obliterate sth completely / entirely / totally / utterly | The bombing raid has obliterated whole villages. | Their warheads are enough to obliterate the world several times over. | Hiroshima was nearly obliterated by the atomic bomb. | The missile strike was devastating – the target was totally obliterated. | The arms factory has been wiped out by our bombs.
(2) to wipe out | to blot out to remove a thought, feeling, or memory from someone's mind вычеркивать, стирать (из памяти): Nothing could obliterate the memory of those tragic events. | He tried to obliterate all thoughts of those tragic events from his mind. | There was time enough to obliterate memories of how things once were for him. | Nothing could wipe out his bitter memories of the past. | She tried hard to blot out the bitter memories of the war.
to annihilate [transitive] to destroy something or someone completely уничтожать, истреблять: Stockpiles of weapons could annihilate mankind. | Just one of these bombs could annihilate a city the size of New York. | The naval force was annihilated during the attack. | After a long and bloody battle the army succeeded in annihilating their forces.
to raze | to level | to flatten [transitive] to completely destroy a town or building разрушить до основания, сравнять с землей, стереть с лица земли; сносить
to raze sth (to the ground): The troops attacked his village and razed it to the ground. | All these houses were razed to the ground in the war. | In 1162 Milan was razed to the ground by imperial troops.
to level sth (to / with the ground): The bombing raid levelled a large part of the town. | Bombs levelled a large part of the town. | They levelled the building to / with the ground.
to flatten sth: The city has been flattened by heavy artillery bombardments.
to lay sth waste | to lay waste to sth | to lay sth to waste to cause very serious damage to a place, especially in a war опустошать, разорять, истощать: Rebel troops laid waste the town. | Villages were laid waste. | The whole area was laid waste by the advancing army, villages destroyed, crops ruined, forests burnt; the whole place was left bare and spoilt. | The bomb laid the city centre to waste.
to ravage [transitive; usually passive] to damage something very badly разрушать, уничтожать: For two decades the country has been ravaged by civil war and foreign intervention. | Cambodia has been ravaged by war for the past 20 years.
to neutralize [transitive] to destroy somebody or something that is dangerous to you during a war, such as enemy troops, a military target, or bomb разрушать, уничтожать; подавлять огнем; обезвреживать: Government forces neutralized the rebels. | The aerial bombardments have neutralized the threat of artillery attacks on allied ground forces. | After some time the job is completed and the two mortar bombs have been neutralized.
to take out [transitive] (informal) to kill someone or destroy something разрушать, уничтожать: The building was taken out by a bomb.
destructive | ruinous (adjective) causing a lot of damage or problems разрушительный; разорительный; гибельный, губительный: a ruinous civil war | ten ruinous years of terrorism | The border war has been wasteful and destructive. | If multiple warheads are deployed, the different blast waves reinforce each other, increasing their destructive power. | But, given the destructive power of modern weapons, they did not believe that civilization could be protected by war.
destruction [uncountable] the act or process of destroying something or of being destroyed разрушение; уничтожение: The death and destruction had torn apart families whose political loyalties had also been divided in what was essentially a civil war. | What came instead were world wars, a Great Depression, a Holocaust, and threats of nuclear destruction. | These are the colour changes in Tamburlaine's army on the three days before the destruction of Damascus.
devastation | obliteration [uncountable] severe and widespread damage or destruction affecting a large area уничтожение; опустошение, разорение; истребление
destruction | devastation COLLOCATIONS
widespread / wholesale destruction / devastation большие разрушения: The war caused widespread death and destruction. | Single-handed he did his best to prevent the wholesale destruction of the big houses in Spital Square.
complete / total / utter destruction / devastation полное уничтожение / разрушение: It's a scene of complete devastation.
wanton destruction / devastation бессмысленное уничтожение / разрушение
sb carries out destruction / devastation: The soldiers carried out the total destruction of the village.
sth causes / brings (about) destruction / devastation (to sth): This reaction was based on the understanding that atomic bombs cause widespread death and destruction and extreme human suffering. | A huge bomb blast brought chaos and devastation to the centre of Belfast yesterday. | To that extent they helped bring about their own destruction.
annihilation [uncountable] severe and widespread damage or destruction affecting a large area or a lot of people (полное) уничтожение, истребление: During the Cold War the threat of nuclear annihilation was always on people's minds. | Muslim political leaders fear the annihilation of their people.
ruin [countable – often plural] the parts of a building that remain after it has been severely damaged развалины; руины: People built shelters among the ruins of the city. | One dead child was found in the ruins almost two hours after the explosion. | The countryside here is dotted with the ruins of churches the government has torn down or blown up in recent weeks.
a heap / pile of ruins груда развалин / руин
smoking / charred ruins дымящиеся / обуглившиеся руины
to reduce / blast sth to a ruin / ruins / rubble / ashes to destroy something, especially a building, completely превращать / обращать в груду развалин / руин: The attack reduced the town to a smoking ruin. | The bomb reduced the house to rubble.
to be / lie in ruins (1) (of a building or city) to be extremely badly damaged so that most of it has fallen down лежать в руинах: The town lay in ruins after years of bombing. | Whole blocks of the city were in ruins after the war. | Large rural areas lay in ruins.
(2) to be in an extremely bad state лежать в руинах: After the war the Japanese economy lay in ruins. | The economy was in ruins after the war.
the ravages of sth the damage or destruction caused by something such as war, time, disease, or weather опустошение, уничтожение: The ravages of the Napoleonic Wars hit the merchant guilds particularly hard. | Bureaucracy was also a necessary evil to cope with the ravages of war. | They repaired the ravages wrought by war.
6. Exploding things
to explode [transitive; intransitive] (1) to blow up | to burst to break apart violently with a loud noise and in a way that causes damage взрываться, разрываться; взлетать на воздух: A bomb exploded at one of London's busiest railway stations this morning. | We sat in the bomb shelter listening to the enemy shells exploding. | A bomb blew up near his truck. | As I approached Lovat and the two Officers, a shell burst a short distance away. | In a trench to his rear that he had ordered to be abandoned the previous night, eight shells burst almost simultaneously.
(2) to blow up | to blast to make something break apart violently with a loud noise and in a way that causes damage взрывать, подрывать: In 1949 the USSR exploded its first atomic bomb. | The soldiers blew up the enemy bridge. | Terrorists threatened to blow up the embassy. | They threatened to blow up the plane if their demands were not met. | The town was blasted out of existence. | Then cities can be blasted to rubble. | The plane was blasted out of the sky by a terrorist bomb. | A massive car bomb blasted the police headquarters.
to set off [transitive] to make a bomb explode, or cause an explosion взрывать, приводить в действие (взрывное устройство)
to set off a bomb / explosive device: Terrorists set off a bomb in the city centre. | A small explosive device was set off outside the UN headquarters today.
to set off an explosion / blast
to go off [intransitive] (1) to explode взрываться: The bomb went off at midday. | A few minutes later the bomb went off, destroying the vehicle.
(2) to be fired выстреливать (об оружии): The gun went off and the bullet went flying over his head. | His gun went off accidentally as he was climbing over a fence.
to detonate [transitive; intransitive] to explode or to make something explode взрывать(ся), детонировать
to detonate sth: He then turned away and detonated the explosive device strapped to his body. | Army experts detonated the bomb safely in a nearby field. | The 200 kg bomb was detonated by terrorists using a remote-control device.
sth detonates: The first four bombs detonated around noon. | The device detonated unexpectedly.
to disarm | to defuse | to deactivate [transitive] to take the explosives out of a bomb, missile etc обезвредить (взрывное устройство / бомбу / мину): Experts successfully managed to disarm the bomb. | Police then evacuated the basement mailroom while they set about disarming the device. | All were disarmed by police demolition experts. | Police evacuated nearby buildings and cordoned off the area while they defused the bomb. | A few hours later bomb disposal experts defused the devices. | A bomb was deactivated at the last moment, after the fuse had been lit. | Russia is deactivating some of its deadliest missiles.
explosion (1) [countable] burst a loud sound and the energy produced by something such as a bomb bursting into small pieces взрыв; разрыв: Several people were injured in a bomb explosion. | Even modest-sized nuclear explosions can have effects detectable over intercontinental distances. | The noise of the explosion could be heard all over the city. | Surface bursts of large nuclear weapons are an essential part of strategic nuclear war.
to cause / set off / produce an explosion вызвать взрыв, привести к взрыву: The impact caused a massive explosion which ravaged the planet. | A man and a woman were charged on April 15 with conspiracy to cause explosions and with possession of explosives and arms. | This tiny rock carries enough kinetic energy to produce an explosion equivalent to several thousand tons of high explosives.
an explosion occurs / goes off происходит взрыв: Accidental nuclear explosions cannot occur; the bombs are designed so they cannot be exploded by any chance event. | Smaller explosions go off periodically.
(2) [uncountable; countable] a process in which something such as a bomb is deliberately made to explode взрыв: The explosion of nuclear devices in the Bikini Atoll was stopped in 1958. | Bomb disposal experts blew up the bag in a controlled explosion.
to carry out / set off / detonate an explosion произвести взрыв, взорвать: France has carried out an underground nuclear explosion on Mururoa Atoll in the South Pacific. | Police carried out several controlled explosions of suspect packages at the site. | Now imagine 5 billion people, the entire population of Earth, each setting off a 24-ton explosion at the same time.
blast [countable] (1) a big explosion, especially one caused by a bomb взрыв: Thirty-six people died in the blast. | A bomb blast completely destroyed the building. | The blast killed 168 people and wounded hundreds. | The blast was heard three miles away.
to set off a blast
(2) blast wave a very strong movement of air caused by an explosion ударная волна: The force of the blast threw bodies into the air. | About 40, 000 people are killed by the blast wave.
detonation [uncountable; countable] the act of making something such as a bomb explode; a large or powerful explosion взрыв; детонация: accidental detonation of nuclear weapons
to carry out a detonation произвести взрыв, взорвать: Underground nuclear detonations are believed to have been carried out.
underground detonation подземный взрыв
explosive [uncountable; countable] a substance or a device that can cause an explosion взрывчатое / взрывоопасное вещество: Such explosives would be far more powerful than existing non-nuclear explosives. | When they searched his vehicle, they found explosives. | There were traces of explosives in the bedroom. | The bomb, containing 150 grams of explosives, was planted outside the house shortly before 1 a.m.
high explosive [uncountable; countable] a very powerful explosive that can damage a large area and is often used in bombs бризантное взрывчатое вещество: The effect, enhanced in buildings and enclosed spaces, can be up to 16 times more destructive than conventional high explosives. | Further along the ridge, Ace was still throwing high explosives.
plastic explosive [uncountable; countable] an explosive substance that can be shaped using your hands, or a small bomb made from this пластичное взрывчатое вещество; пластиковая бомба: Instructions on how to make plastic explosives are on the Internet and in anti-government underground literature. | In 1991, 40 nations gathered in Montreal to develop a plan for better controls and detection of plastic explosives. | As the investigation into these bombings continues, it has reinvigorated efforts to learn more about the black market for plastic explosives.
to contaminate [transitive] to make a place or substance dirty or harmful by putting something such as chemicals or poison in it заражать, загрязнять, подвергать заражению / загрязнению: More than 100,000 people could fall ill after drinking contaminated water.
to be contaminated with / by sth: Nuclear weapons plants across the country are heavily contaminated with toxic wastes. | Much of the coast has been contaminated by nuclear waste. | Wild mushrooms continue to be heavily contaminated by radiation.
contamination [uncountable] the act of contaminating заражение, загрязнение: radioactive contamination | The water supply is being tested for contamination. | The contamination of the sea around Capri may be just the beginning.
fallout [uncountable] the dangerous radioactive dust which is left in the air after a nuclear explosion and which slowly falls to earth радиоактивные осадки: They were exposed to radioactive fallout during nuclear weapons tests. | There can be little lasting protection against the effects of radioactive fallout. | Cancer deaths caused by fallout from weapons testing could rise to 2.4 million over the next few centuries.
to conquer [transitive; intransitive] to get control of a country by force; to defeat an enemy завоевывать, покорять; подчинять; порабощать
to conquer sth / sb: The Normans conquered England in 1066. | Julius Caesar conquered Gaul, which we know today as France. | The Zulus conquered all the neighbouring tribes.
to conquer: Sailors travelled to the New World with the urge to conquer and explore.
to invade | to occupy [transitive; intransitive] to enter a country, town, or area using military force in order to take control of it вторгаться; захватывать, оккупировать
to invade / occupy sth: Hitler invaded Poland in 1939. | The Romans invaded Britain 2000 years ago. | Can a country legally invade another country that has not used military force against it? | The region was quickly occupied by foreign troops. | Alexandretta was occupied by the French in 1918 after the defeat of Turkey.
to invade: Enemy forces were almost certainly preparing to invade. | Concentrations of troops near the border look set to invade within the next few days. | They received information that the Americans were preparing to invade.
to occupy [transitive] to be in control of a place that you have entered in a group using military force оккупировать: an occupying army | U.S. forces now occupy a part of the country. | Between 1914 and 1920 large parts of Albania were occupied by the Italians.
to overwhelm [transitive; usually passive] to defeat an enemy completely разбивать, сокрушать, подавлять
to overwhelm sb / ath: In 1532 the Spaniards finally overwhelmed the armies of Peru. | They were overwhelmed by the enemy / by superior forces. | Napoleon's army was strong enough to overwhelm nearly any potential enemy. | With its greatly superior technology, the government forces completely overwhelmed the rebels. | Government troops have overwhelmed a rebel encampment.
to overrun [transitive; usually passive] to defeat an enemy and take control of their country, town, or area very quickly вторгаться; захватывать, оккупировать; опустошать
to overrun sth / sb: His troops overran two-thirds of the country. | Rebel soldiers overran the embassy last night. | Soviet troops overran the nation in 1940.
conquest (1) [uncountable; countable] the act of getting control of a country by force завоевание, покорение; подчинение; порабощение: History is the story of conquest. | Jerusalem has seen endless conquests and occupations. | The Roman legions left, opening the way for the conquest of the British Isles by the Germanic tribes. | In this first phase of conquest, the Arabs created an Empire and a State, but not yet a civilization.
(2) [countable – usually plural] the land or people that another country has taken control of by force завоевания (земли, народы, имущество и т. д.): His conquests transformed the ancient world and ushered in the Hellenistic age of great monarchies. | First campaigns among the many achievements of Charles, the most obvious is the extent of his military conquests. | He realized that Britain could not have peace unless she returned at least some of her former conquests.
invasion | occupation [uncountable; countable] an occasion when the army of one country enters another country by force, in order to take control of it вторжение; нашествие, агрессия; захват, оккупация; набег: The invasion was condemned as 'blatant aggression' by the British Prime Minister. | The importance of these functions was enhanced by the barbarian invasions of the fifth century. | They were to remain in these positions for seven days after the occupation of Midway unless the enemy attacked sooner. | Jerusalem has seen endless conquests and occupations. | Prii became fluent in German during the Wehrmacht's occupation of Estonia in 1942.
invasion / occupation of sth: Some analysts fear that increasing desperation could lead to a military invasion of the country's southern neighbours. | He was commander in chief during the invasion of Panama.
invasion / occupation by sb: The fear of an invasion by rebels is always present. | The Pantheon has survived many vicissitudes; first the barbarian invasions and later the despoliation by the Catholic Church.
to order an invasion (of sth): He refused all attempts to force him to order an invasion of Naggaroth.
to launch / mount / carry out an invasion (of / into sth) совершить вторжение / агрессию: First he launches an invasion without adequate air support, then he makes the movement pay for it. | They were planning to mount an invasion of the north of the country. | The rebels launched their invasion into the Mutara region in the north.
to repel / repulse / counter an invasion отразить нашествие / агрессию: Then two mighty heroes, the twin brothers Tyrion and Teclis, arose to succour the realm and repel the invasion. | The reserve takes in part of the Minsmere levels which were flooded during the Second World War to counter possible invasion.
an invasion occurs происходит / имеет место агрессия / захват / оккупация: In 517 a major invasion occurred when Slav horsemen advanced as far as Thermopylae and Epirus.
invasion / occupation force(s): The government fell nine days after an invasion force of five thousand troops was said to be advancing on the capital. | Preparations for the Normandy landings took place here because the terrain is similar to that which faced the Allied invasion forces.
under occupation controlled by a foreign army: The area is under occupation. | New Delhi need do no more than keep Kashmir under military occupation and keep the lid on guerrilla warfare.
conqueror [countable] someone who has taken control of a country or its people by force завоеватель; победитель: The people of an oppressed country obey their conquerors because they want to go on living.
invader [countable] a soldier or a group of soldiers that enters a country, town, or area by force in order to take control of it захватчик, оккупант: Invaders from the south ransacked the town. | The foreign invaders were finally defeated by allied forces. | The invaders were only finally crushed when troops overcame them at Glenshiel in June 1719.
to displace [transitive] to force someone to leave heir own country and live somewhere else вынуждать людей покидать свое место жительства, делать людей беженцами, превращать людей в беженцев; перемещать: In Europe alone thirty million people were displaced. | Many of its own people have been displaced by civil war or uprooted by drought or flood. | Fifty thousand people have been displaced by the fighting. | At least 50 million of them are refugees, displaced from their homes by warfare. | Aid agencies say that about 110,000 people in the peninsula are displaced because of the war.
displacement [uncountable] (formal) a situation in which a person is forced to leave their own country and go somewhere else to live вытеснение; перемещение: the gradual displacement of the American Indians | The recent famine in these parts has caused the displacement of tens of thousands of people.
refuge | sanctuary (1) [uncountable] shelter or protection from someone or something убежище; прибежище; приют
to seek refuge / sanctuary (in sth / from sth) искать убежище: Thousands of families came here seeking refuge from the civil war. | These people are seeking refuge from persecution. | But word also had it that he was seeking sanctuary from the government at a church.
to take / find refuge / sanctuary (in sth / from sth) находить убежище / приют; прятаться: They took refuge in a bomb shelter. | During the frequent air-raids people take refuge in their cellars. | These people are taking refuge from persecution. | Refugees fleeing from the advancing army found sanctuary in Geneva.
to give / provide / offer refuge / sanctuary давать / предоставлять убежище / приют
(2) [countable] place of refuge a place that provides shelter or protection from danger убежище; прибежище; приют: a refuge for earthquake victims | His home became a place of refuge for the believers.
to give / provide / offer a refuge / sanctuary (from sth) давать / предоставлять убежище / приют: The Allies are being asked to provide more refuges for those fleeing the fighting. | The basement provided us with a refuge from the fighting. | They often offer a place of refuge.
displaced person | displaced persons [countable] (technical) someone who has been forced to leave their own country and live somewhere else because of war, cruel treatment, or a natural disaster перемещенное лицо: the task of resettling refugees and displaced persons | By now she had the look of a refugee, a displaced person. | The elation of witnessing birth may be followed by a sense of disorientation at being a displaced person.
refugee [countable] someone who has been forced to leave their country, especially during a war, or for political or religious reasons беженец: Thousands of refugees fled across the border. | Refugees were streaming across the border. | We hope to help refugees from any war, any country. | Most of the refugees from the former war zone have now been sent back. | Meanwhile the fate of the refugees continues to hang in the balance. | Britain has traditionally been a safe haven for political refugees.
refugee camp [countable] a place where people who have been forced to leave their country, especially during a war, can live, usually in bad conditions and only expecting to stay for a limited time лагерь беженцев: He returned to the refugee camp where his family has lived since 1948. | Many are still facing the uncertainty of life in refugee camps a year after leaving their homes. | Hundreds of thousands of people living in refugee camps and towns near the fighting were scattered and set adrift.
to intern [transitive] to put someone in prison without a trial, for political or military reasons, especially during a war интернировать: Prisoners of war were interned in specially built camps in different parts of the country.| Many foreigners were interned for the duration of the war. | He was interned as an enemy alien at the outbreak of the Second World War.
internee [countable] someone who is put in prison without a trial, for political or military reasons, especially during a war интернированное лицо, интернированный: Like other internees, they lived in hastily built barracks with little privacy or basic comforts. | One of their demands was for a phased release of internees.
internment [uncountable] the practice of keeping people in prison without a trial, for political or military reasons, especially during a war интернирование: When war broke out he had to endure four months' internment as an enemy alien. | They called for the return of internment without trial for terrorists. | Mandela was released after 27 years' internment.
internment camp лагерь для интернированных: internment camps for dissidents / terrorists | Many of these were transferred to an internment camp at Long Kesh near Lisburn.
prisoner of war (POW) [countable] someone, usually a soldier, who is caught by the enemy during a war and kept as a prisoner пленный, военнопленный: to interrogate / repatriate prisoners of war | Her father spent three years as a prisoner of war in Korea. | The exchange of prisoners of war was one of the key elements of the UN's peace plan. | The ceasefire resolution calls for the release of all prisoners of war.
prisoner | captive [countable] someone who is taken by force and kept somewhere, for example during a war пленник, задержанный, (насильственно) задерживаемый; пленный, военнопленный: Would he spare the lives of captives? | When the town was recaptured, we found soldiers who had been captives for several years. | He described the difficulties of surviving for four months as a captive.
hostage [countable] someone who is kept as a prisoner by an enemy so that the other side will do what the enemy demands заложник: The terrorists say that they will kill the hostages if we don't agree to their demands. | The rebels have seized ten soldiers to use as hostages. | The bandits demanded that one of the travellers should stay with them as a hostage.
to rescue a hostage освобождать / спасать заложника: An attempt to rescue the American hostages ended in disaster when a helicopter crashed. | The group has threatened to kill the hostages unless the government frees 15 political prisoners. | But increasingly Waite had become involved in his attempts to rescue hostages held in the Middle East.
the release of hostages | hostage release освобождение заложников: The President is making every effort to obtain the release of the hostages.
prisoner | captive | hostage COLLOCATIONS
to take sb prisoner / captive / hostage взять / захватить в плен / в заложники, задержать: George fought in World War II and was taken prisoner by the Germans. | The captain was taken prisoner by enemy soldiers. | Armed gunmen broke into the church and took the priest captive. | Six visiting businessmen were taken hostage by rebel groups. | He was taken hostage while on his first foreign assignment as a television journalist.
to take / capture / seize a prisoner / captive / hostage взять / захватить заложника: The army advanced, taking 200,000 prisoners. | They often took captives during their raids, and sometimes raised them in the tribe. | The heavily armed gunmen initially took 24 hostages, but later released 14. | The terrorists have seized 20 hostages and are threatening to kill one a day unless their demands are met.
to hold / keep sb prisoner / captive / hostage | to hold / keep sb as a prisoner / captive / hostage держать в плену; держать в заложниках: The guerrillas kept her prisoner for three months. | The pilot was held kept prisoner by the gunmen for many hours. | The terrorists were holding several British diplomats captive. | The group are holding two western tourists hostage. | A British journalist was held hostage for over four years.
to keep / hold prisoners / captives / hostages держать пленных / заложников
to release / free a prisoner / captive / hostage освободить пленного / задержанного / заложника: The king also released any prisoner that Leonard went to visit. | She had decided not to free the prisoners, so now she had to see what happened to the passengers. | The rebels promise to release their captives unharmed if their demands are met. | The gunmen released most hostages and headed for Chechnya with the rest after receiving a promise of safe passage. | The terrorists have at last agreed to free the hostages.
captivity [uncountable] a situation in which a person is being kept as a prisoner плен; пленение, захват; неволя: At least a quarter of the prisoners died in captivity. | In his book, he describes what life was like during his long captivity. | Those who were not dead marched away into captivity. | An American missionary was released today after more than two months of captivity.
to hold / keep sb in captivity держать в плену / неволе: Folkes says that he was held in captivity for over a year.
to release sb from captivity освободить из плена / неволи: The hostages were released from captivity.
to escape from captivity бежать из плена / неволи: Both escaped from captivity but only George survived.
captor [countable] someone who is keeping another person prisoner взявший / захвативший в плен: He managed to escape from his captors. | The treatment of the prisoners by their captors is atrocious and breaks all international laws. | Hostages are said to develop similarly complex attachments to their captors. | One of their captors filmed the shootings with a video camera.
prison camp | prisoner-of-war camp [countable] a special prison in which prisoners of war are kept лагерь военнопленных: He was captured by enemy forces and sent to a prison camp for the rest of the war. | He was shot down over Denmark and spent three years in a prison camp. | McCain spent five and a half years in a prisoner of war camp in Vietnam.
concentration camp [countable] a prison where political prisoners and other people who are not soldiers are kept and treated cruelly, especially during a war концентрационный лагерь: In 1944 the woman was betrayed and imprisoned in a concentration camp. | What really struck me was that I looked like a concentration camp prisoner.
troops [plural] soldiers in an organized group войска: airborne / ground / armoured / motorized / mounted troops | regular / irregular troops | defeated / demoralized / victorious troops | The rebels blamed the massacre on the government troops and the government blamed it on the rebels. | The country massed several divisions of troops along its border. | Troops in the vicinity were put on alert. | The troops dug in along the defensive line.
force [countable; usually plural] a group of people who have been trained to fight in a war вооруженные силы, войска: He strengthened American forces in the Gulf. | The United States placed its forces in the region on alert. | The town was captured by Italian forces under the command of General Ciano.
enemy / government / allied / foreign / international / guerrilla / rebel forces: Enemy forces have now built up to a dangerous strength. | Government forces captured most of the rebels. | Rebel forces are seeking to overthrow the government.
defence / military / fighting / ground / naval / occupation / peacekeeping / security / special forces: But obvious problems will centre on the security situation, and the reconstruction of the defence forces and the economy. | We understand the concern of agencies which believe that dealing with military forces compromises their neutrality. | Peacekeeping forces were withdrawn from the region. | NATO is determined to modernize its ground forces.
troops | force(s) | army COLLOCATIONS
to deploy troops / forces / an army развертывать / дислоцировать войска: Fighting has virtually ceased as the U.N. has deployed 15,000 troops. | Traditionally, United Nations troops have been deployed only in a peacekeeping role.
to send (in) troops / forces / an army посылать / отправлять войска: But we should be very careful not to expect to send troops all over the world. | The major powers have said they will not send in ground troops. | After 23 days, the government was threatening to send in the army to clean up the streets.
to lead troops / forces / an army возглавлять / вести войска; руководить / управлять / командовать войсками: Magnus seized the opportunity and led his troops forward. | Mackay died, personally leading his troops into the thickest of the fight at the Battle of Steenkirk in July 1692. | Theseus led his army against Thebes, conquered her and forced her to allow them to be buried. | He led the Confederate army during the Civil War. | It's time to get out there and lead the Imperial army to victory, in the name of Sigmar and Karl-Franz!
to withdraw / pull back / pull out troops / forces / an army выводить / отводить войска: Both countries agreed to withdraw their troops (from the area). | Most of the troops have been pulled out. | British forces will be pulled out of the troubled area as quickly as possible. | We decided to pull back our forces and try to advance again tomorrow.
troops / forces / an army withdraw(s) / pull(s) back / pull(s) out войска отходят / отступают: Our troops had to withdraw. | Troops began pulling out of the region as soon as the order was given. | British forces will pull out of the troubled area as quickly as possible.
to commit troops / forces / an army | to send troops / forces / an army into battle вводить войска в бой: No military general would willingly send his army into battle untrained and ill-prepared, no matter how well-equipped.
friendly troops свои войска
enemy troops войска противника
the (armed) forces | military forces | the services (British English) | the service (American English) a country's military organizations, including the army, navy, and air force вооруженные силы: Measures will be taken to help modernize the country's armed forces. | Leaders are concerned about racism in the nation's military forces. | The attack has caused severe damage to American naval and military forces.
the military [singular; also + plural verb (British English)] a country's armed forces, or the people who are in charge of them вооруженные силы, войска; военные, военнослужащие; военщина; военная сила: The military has / have taken control of the government. | The military were called in to deal with these civil disorders. | The military has opposed any cuts in defence spending.
(to be / serve) in the military: My brother is in the military. | Did you serve in the military?
army [countable] a large organized group of people trained to fight on land in a war армия; войска: to equip / supply an army | to drill / train an army | a regular / irregular / rebel army | The rebel armies have taken control of the radio station. | The British Army has been involved in peacekeeping operations.
conscript army армия, комплектуемая на основе призыва / воинской повинности: Some have conscript armies, others do not. | She could do without large conscript armies to defend land frontiers and needed long-service troops who could be employed overseas for long periods.
professional / volunteer army профессиональная армия
volunteer army добровольная / добровольческая армия: It's a volunteer army with no paid professionals.
to recruit / raise an army to collect together and organize an army to fight a battle собирать / набирать / формировать армию: Each province and each city state has its own separate army which it recruits, trains, and maintains. | In 1066 William the Conqueror raised an army and invaded England. | By January he had raised an army of twenty-five thousand men and had headed north to intercept the forces of General Taylor.
to disband an army to send home the members of an army, especially at the end of a war распускать / расформировывать армию: Even David Rice Atchison was forced to disband his army. | To disband every army everywhere; now that would be something to celebrate!
the army | land / ground forces [also + plural verb (British English)] the part of a country's military force that is trained to fight on land in a war армия, сухопутные войска: He joined the army when he was 17. | Both my sons are in the army.
navy [countable] the part of a country's military forces that fights at sea военно-морской флот, военно-морские силы: It was an important battle for the navy. | Their navies are no match for ours. | At the same time both the army and the navy became better equipped.
air force [countable] the part of a country's military forces that uses aircraft and fights in the air военно-воздушные силы / войска: The air force couldn't stop it either. | Jack Mann was a Royal Air Force fighter pilot during World War II. | Until 12 months ago about 500 air force personnel worked here.
the (armed) forces | the service(s) | the army | the navy | the air force COLLOCATIONS
(to be / serve) in the (armed) forces / army / navy / air force: Both her sons are in the forces. | Reagan, who had never served in the forces himself, was a soldier's president. | He wanted to serve in the army. | My father was in the navy during the war. | Koester served in the navy for eight years.
(to be) in the service(s): Her son is in the services. | My first duty station in the service was in North Carolina. | He joined the air force in 1964 and spent ten years in the service.
to join / go into the service(s) / army / navy / air force: Maybe you should join the services. | The family has a tradition of going into the services. | After leaving school, he joined the army. | He joined the navy during the war.
infantry [uncountable; can be followed by a singular or plural verb] soldiers who fight on foot; the part of an army that fights on foot пехота: The infantry was / were sent into battle. | The infantry would use hit and run tactics to slow attacking forces. | The government said it drove the guerrillas off with infantry and air strikes. | The Belgians fell back as the infantry came under fire. | The infantry were advancing to attack the ridge.
light / heavy infantry легкая / тяжелая пехота: It's a light / heavy infantry unit.
motorized / mounted / mechanized infantry моторизованная / механизированная пехота: What was wrong was that it should never have been conducted by mechanized infantry.
infantry unit пехотное подразделение: Women are now barred from infantry and armoured units. | Frequently, infantry units dispensed with their own mortars altogether and used the mortar teams as an additional rifle squad.
infantry platoon / company / battalion / regiment / division пехотный взвод // пехотная рота // пехотный батальон // пехотный полк // пехотная дивизия: Each infantry battalion has five companies. | Will he ensure that these infantry battalions are more swiftly available in future? | The message came from the headquarters of an infantry regiment based eight miles away. | At 03.50 on the first day of the attack, 12 infantry divisions went forward in heavy mist.
the artillery [uncountable] the part of an army that uses large powerful guns артиллерия: At some stage he left the Artillery to command a radar unit.
artillery unit артиллерийское подразделение: Rebel artillery units have regularly bombarded the airport. | Missile troops positioned on hilltops are very handy for protecting artillery units.
armoured forces / troops | armour | cavalry forces that use armoured vehicles бронетанковые войска: the US Army's 1st Cavalry Division | The squadron's armour is draped in sand-coloured net that melt into the landscape.
armoured unit / division бронетанковая часть / дивизия: These front-line defences are backed up by armoured units in reserve. | Several armoured divisions are being moved from Germany. | German armoured divisions pierced the Russian lines.
airborne troops / soldiers / infantry airborne troops / soldiers / infantry are trained to fight in areas that they get to by jumping out of a plane by parachute воздушно-десантные войска: the 82nd airborne division | Airborne troops were dropped by parachute behind enemy lines.
paratrooper | para (British English) (informal) [countable] a soldier who is trained to be dropped by parachute into battle or into enemy territory парашютист-десантник: I told them that there was no doubt in my mind but that I wanted to be a paratrooper. | In the early morning of May 18, police manning barricades were replaced by army paratroopers who opened fire with machine guns. | Paratroopers were dropped behind enemy lines to capture key points on the roads into the city.
paratroops [plural] (a military unit of) paratroopers who are trained to be dropped by parachute into battle or into enemy territory парашютисты-десантники; военно-воздушный десант: The airport is in the hands of French paratroops. | They were supported by two battalions of paratroops and other crack forces. | The paratroops, known as Task Force Red, dropped in two waves from C-141 cargo planes. | Harvey gave him one of those Sorbo-rubber helmets that paratroops wear on practice drops.
commando (plural – commandos or commandoes) [countable] (a member of) a small group of soldiers who are specially trained to make quick attacks into enemy areas which are particularly dangerous or difficult to attack разведовательно-диверсионный отряд, отряд специального назначения; боец разведовательно-диверсионного отряда / отряда специального назначения, коммандос: You will then be ready to join a commando unit. | The hostages were freed in the commando raid. | One evening the conversation turned to commando raids during the war. | They conducted commando and terrorist operations both within Israel and in other countries.
special forces [plural] soldiers who are specially trained to fight against guerrilla or terrorist groups войска специального назначения, спецназ: He refused to comment on how many other special forces soldiers were involved. | Before this force of 5,000 commandos could be raised, however, Churchill's enthusiasm for special forces was tempered by reality. | Yes, we do teach elements of the special forces.
marine [countable] a soldier who works closely with the navy and is trained especially for military operations on land which begin from the sea солдат морской пехоты, морской пехотинец: The Marines have vowed to continue holding annual air shows, starting next summer. | A special force of 500 US Marines has been sent to the area. | The Marine position was very similar to where I was dug in.
the marines [plural] a part of a country's military forces which takes part especially in operations on land which begin from the sea морская пехота: He's in the Royal Marines. | Last I heard he went into the Marines.
the Marine Corps a part of the United States military forces that consists of soldiers who operate on land and at sea Корпус морской пехоты США: I have a 25-year-old brother who's in the Marine Corps. | It was co-signed by eight other Congress members, seven of whom served in the Marine Corps.
to station [transitive; usually passive] (1) to base to cause someone to be in a particular place for a period of time as part of their military duty размещать (войска): The troops were stationed near London. | My father was stationed in Europe during World War II. | Nearly twice that number of former Soviet troops were currently stationed on its territory. | Ron was stationed in Germany for three years. | The American troops were based in Korea.
(2) (formal) to post to put someone in a particular place in order to do a particular job or military duty размещать; устанавливать: Armed guards were stationed around the airport. | Two guards were stationed at the back of the room. | They have posted guards at every door to make sure no one enters the building. | Extra guards were posted at the border crossing. | Guards were to be posted around nuclear power stations. |
to post [transitive; usually passive] to send someone to another place for duty in the armed forces командировать, откомандировать; направлять: He joined the British Army and was posted to Germany. | He was then posted to 22 Squadron.
base [countable] a place where members of the armed forces live and work база; опорный пункт
to set up a base создать / построить базу: Fresh air bases were set up in Bank Mine and a team of brave and dedicated doctors went underground to assist.
military base военная база: Some convention delegates live near military bases that were closing or had closed. | Enlisted men control the main military base, where the army's weapons are stored.
air base военно-воздушная база: They had an air base there. | Their targets were the air bases. |
naval base морская база: They realized the strategic importance of the site and used it as a naval base and trading post. | When a naval base or arms factory is closed down, people move away to find jobs. | The harbour of the naval base seethed with tremendous activity.
mission [countable] an important job, usually a military one, that someone is sent somewhere to do, especially an attack on the enemy (боевая) задача, (боевое) задание: He volunteered to embark on a dangerous secret mission into occupied France. | Your mission is to isolate the enemy by destroying all the bridges across the river. | He was shot down during a mission over the Balkans. | The bomber crashed during a training mission in the west Texas mountains.
combat / military mission боевое задание: He was nervous and cocky at our briefing, the dashing leader of a combat mission to the dreaded Ia Drang. | Harman said that while the military mission has gone well, she doubts that the country can be united.
rescue mission миссия спасения, меры по спасению: Intermittent radio failure on board the boat also hampered the rescue mission. | He believes rescue missions should be carefully planned but do serve a purpose.
to launch a mission приступать к выполнению задания: A desperate rescue mission was launched.
to accomplish / carry out / complete a mission | to be on / go on a mission выполнять (боевое) задание: In essence, he accomplished his original mission. | Both have optical equipment that allows pilots to carry out night-time bombing missions. | In which free-lance warriors are selected one at a time to carry out a dangerous mission. | A Jaguar pilot, he completed 31 missions. | Your objective is to complete your mission and return to base in one piece. | But these ships were on a mission that is far from being innocent. | As Delbert saw it, they went on suicide missions, which was just the kind of action he wanted.
to fly (on) a mission выполнять (боевое) задание / (боевой) полет: We flew over 200 combat missions. | Our helicopter gunships flew 118 missions and returned safely to base. | I flew on over 280 combat missions in two wars, so I'm used to danger.
to send sb on a mission отправлять на (боевое) задание: He was sent on over 200 missions before being killed in action. | The four men who were killed were sent on a murder mission.
sortie [countable] (1) a short flight made by a plane over enemy land, in order to bomb a city, military defences etc боевой вылет: Only 24 aircraft were lost during these sorties. | The Fortress suffered a gear extension malfunction during an airborne sortie and could not extend its right main wheel.
on a sortie: But Middleton received enormous damage on that last sortie which ultimately proved fatal. | During the flying, Bob's wife, Marie, flew on one sortie as observer.
to fly / carry out / make / undertake a sortie совершать боевой вылет: He flew sorties into the Pacific war zone. | Allied aircraft flew hundreds of sorties. | The US and its allies carried out 44,000 sorties during this period. | A series of sorties was carried out at night by specially equipped aircraft. | The four planes each made two sorties yesterday. | They then remained on the island to undertake night intruder sorties over Sicily.
(2) (British English) a short and sudden attack by a military force, such as a small group of soldiers, made against an enemy position вылазка, операция
to carry out / make a sortie совершать вылазку, проводить операцию: His men made a sortie to Guazatan and took a prisoner.
to sortie [intransitive] to make a short and sudden attack on an enemy position or a flight over enemy land, in order to bomb a city, military defences etc совершать боевой вылет; совершать вылазку, проводить операцию: It was five months since the battleship had last sortied from home waters.
casualty | loss [countable; usually plural] someone who is hurt or killed in an accident or military action раненый; убитый; потери (на войне): losses in dead and wounded | The bomb caused serious damage to the building, but there were no casualties. | There were no reports of casualties from the attack. | In the fury of the battle casualties on either side were mounting appallingly. | So successful was the tactic that the return fire from the Dragoons passed over their heads without inflicting a single casualty.
casualty rate количество убитых и раненых
death toll количество убитых
casualty list список убитых, раненых и пропавших без вести (на войне): Casualty lists were not published until months after the battle. | The list was so long and detailed it resembled a casualty list following a small battle. | The casualty lists were growing longer and longer.
casualty figures данные о потерях: The respective casualty figures are, as usual, uncertain. | No casualty figures were available, but civilians living near the headquarters fled.
loss of life [uncountable] (formal) the deaths of a lot of people in an accident or military action тяжелые потери убитыми; гибель людей: The war has led to a tragic loss of life. | It was decimated by the loss of life incurred by the coup and the civil war. | Needless loss of life resulted from a policy that emphasized backing away from provocation and discouraging self-defence. | Our own little putsch was carried through without loss of life, you remember.
casualties | losses COLLOCATIONS
light casualties / losses небольшие / незначительные потери
heavy / serious / substantial / great / large / huge / many casualties тяжелые / серьезные потери: There were heavy casualties in the first battle. | Despite heavy losses, the battalion regrouped and fought on. | It ended with heavy losses to the enemy and, finally, their retreat. | Western diplomats said Mr Yeltsin could yet salvage the situation if he put a quick end to the crisis without huge casualties. | Both sides had what they wanted, and neither wanted to risk large casualties to seize what the other had. | As a result they suffered many casualties. | They're suffering greater casualties, but the outside world doesn't know.
losses in dead and wounded потери убитыми и ранеными
military casualties / losses потери среди военнослужащих: Military casualties on both sides were substantial. | Wars nowadays are fought against civilians; the bulk of military casualties these days are women and children. | A court notice reported the economic loss of the two vehicles, but did not mention any military casualties.
civilian casualties / losses потери среди гражданского населения: A series of air raids resulted in a number of civilian casualties. | Even in the days of precision strikes, attacks from the air would risk civilian casualties. | One outstanding feature of that war was how few civilian casualties there were. | The total number of civilian casualties was seventy-seven, most of whom had suffered bruises or lacerations to the head. | There were no figures given for civilian casualties.
to cause casualties / losses | to inflict casualties / losses (on sb) наносить потери: Troops fired on demonstrators near the Royal Palace causing many casualties. | The action caused 441 military casualties and 197 naval casualties. | Further shelling caused casualties in the trench and destroyed the parapet over a length of fifty yards. | The rebels claim to have inflicted heavy casualties. | Our forces inflicted heavy casualties / losses on the enemy. | Yet constant raids were causing great losses and hardship.
to suffer / sustain / take / incur casualties / losses нести / понести потери: The enemy suffered heavy casualties. | Both the armies suffered heavy losses in the battle. | Indian troops have suffered more than 1200 casualties. | According to some reports, both sides sustained heavy casualties. | B Company had already sustained heavy casualties from the landing and the patrol lost. | Beirut was under constant shelling; the Marines at the airport were taking more casualties. | Increasingly, the Iraqi population was taking casualties rather than foreigners on Iraqi soil. | Most of the civilian casualties were incurred here.
to report casualties / losses сообщать / докладывать о потерях
casualties / losses occur потери имеют место: Unfortunately heavy losses occurred during the First World War with all four being sunk.
military [adjective] used by, involving, or relating to the armed forces военный воинский, армейский: The huge influx of military and civilian personnel created a problem. | The president is sending in almost 20,000 military personnel to help with the relief efforts. | China reportedly planned to sell military equipment to Saudi Arabia. | German military power was restricted after World War II. | It is now a museum of military history, but was once full of armed men and artillery.
military force военная сила
to use military force: The United States is prepared to use military force to achieve its aims. | He fully realizes that there are situations when the world organization must be able to use military force.
military action [uncountable] | military operation / campaign [countable] военные действия; военная операция, военная кампания: Military action may become necessary. | Carter ordered the Pentagon to prepare a contingency plan for military action to rescue the hostages. | Just as we are going to have to get dirty again with our human intelligence operatives, so we are going to have to abandon our insistence that military operations somehow be conducted only from the air. | Peres said the military campaign would last as long as it took to secure the country's northern border.
to take military action: The government has threatened to take military action if the rebels do not withdraw from the area. | The government is prepared to take military action.
10. Military service
to serve (1) [intransitive] to perform official duties, especially in the armed forces служить в армии, состоять на службе в рядах вооруженных сил
to serve in the (armed) forces / army / navy / air force: He served in the Army from 1975 to 1980. | He served more than 20 years in the army. | Koester served in the navy for eight years.
to serve in / with an army / command / service: My uncle served in / with the 8th Army. | During the second world war he served with RAF Coastal Command. | Paul Alexandre, his loyal and sympathetic supporter, left Paris to serve in the army medical service.
(2) [transitive] to spend a period of time doing useful work or official duties for an organization, country, important person etc служить: And let's not forget the women who served their country in the war. | It is unfair to soldiers who have served their country well for many years.
service [uncountable] work in the armed forces, for example during a war (военная) служба: The regiment was recruited from the Highlands specifically for service in India.
to see service to perform service служить: an aircraft carrier that saw service in World War II | Tony saw service during the Gulf War.
military service | national service (especially British English) | selective service (American English) [uncountable] the system of making every adult, or every male adult, serve in the armed forces for a limited period of time военная служба; воинская повинность: All men under thirty-five were told to report for military service within three days. | After completing his national service in the Army, the youthful Dawson decided to go to Paris in search of literary inspiration. | Banks spent his national service in the Royal Navy.
compulsory military / national service воинская повинность, обязательная военная служба
universal military / national service всеобщая воинская повинность
to do / undertake military / national service проходить военную службу: Many conscripts resent having to do their military service. | He has to do his military service before going to university. | In some countries, everyone does two years' national service after leaving school. | Jehovah's Witnesses' religious beliefs precludes them from undertaking compulsory national service.
to volunteer for military / national service поступить добровольцем на военную службу: They volunteer for military service prior to age 18.
to avoid / evade / dodge military service уклоняться от / избежать призыва на военную службу: Franken also avoided military service with student deferments while at Harvard and, ultimately, a high lottery number. | He can't evade doing military service forever. | He boasts of dodging military service by feigning illness.
to abolish / abandon compulsory military / national service отменять обязательную военную службу / воинскую повинность: In Britain, national service was abolished in 1962.
to exempt sb from military / national service освобождать от военной службы / выполнения воинской повинности: Why was he exempted from military service?
to be exempt from military / national service не подлежать призыву на военную службу
exemption from military / national service освобождение от военной службы: They will consider introducing exemptions from military service.
alternative to military / national service альтернативная военная служба: They will consider introducing alternatives to military service.
(military) deferment | deferment of military / national service [uncountable; countable] отсрочка (от военной службы / призыва в армию): conflicts over the deferment of national service for French students | When I entered Columbia Law School my military deferment was in default. | Franken also avoided military service with student deferments while at Harvard and, ultimately, a high lottery number.
to conscript | to draft (American English) | to call up (British English) [transitive] to make someone join the armed forces призывать на военную службу
to conscript / call up / draft sb: Peter was conscripted like every other young man. | I was called up three months after war broke out. | The United States has called up some 150,000 military reservists. | A nationwide census, carried out every three years, was used to draft conscripts.
to conscript / draft sb into the army: He was conscripted into the army at the age of 18. | Young Frenchmen were conscripted into the army and forced to fight in Algeria. | He was drafted into the army in 1942. | During the Second World War, he was drafted into the US Army.
to recruit | to enlist | to sign up [transitive] to get people to join the armed forces вербовать / набирать / призывать / зачислять на военную службу
to recruit / sign up / enlist sb: Most of the men in the village were recruited that day. | He helped to recruit volunteers to go to Pakistan to fight. | They enlisted many recruits. | Three thousand men were enlisted.
to recruit sb into / enlist sb in the army | to recruit sb from sb / sth: Even young boys are now being recruited into the army. | At the outbreak of war, he was enlisted in the army. | Most private soldiers are recruited from the working classes. | Were men for the Navy recruited from men on merchant ships?
to enlist | to sign up | to sign on [intransitive] to join the armed forces поступать на военную службу
to enlist / to sign up / sign on: In the first year of the war a million men enlisted voluntarily. | If you join the army you have to sign on for at least three years. | How many men have signed on so far?
to enlist in / sign up for the armed forces / army / air force / navy / marines: When younger, she had treated her son so harshly that he left home and enlisted in the army. | He enlisted in the air force and eventually became a pilot. | They both enlisted in the navy a year before the war broke out. | Frank enlisted in the marines at the age of 19. | Some older men did enlist in the home guards and could be seen drilling each morning and evening. | Many men sign up for the army because they can't find ordinary jobs.
to enlist / sign on / sign up as sth: In 1942, Louis enlisted as a private. | He enlisted as a private in the Mexican War. | He signed on as a soldier in the US army.
to enlist for military service: The alacrity with which northerners enlisted for military service whenever warfare flared up on the Border speaks for itself.
to volunteer [intransitive] to agree to join the armed forces without being forced to do it поступать (добровольцем) на военную службу
to volunteer: When war broke out, my father volunteered immediately. | Andy didn't wait to be drafted – he volunteered.
to volunteer for the armed forces / army / air force / navy: He volunteered for the army in 1939. | He volunteered for the Navy when war broke out.
to volunteer for (military / war) service: They volunteer for military service prior to age 18. | No doubt some of them volunteered for war service a year later. | Most of them volunteered for service in Bosnia.
to volunteer as sth: She volunteered as a nurse in a soldiers' rest-home.
to join [transitive] | to join up [intransitive] to become a member of the armed forces поступать на военную службу:
to join sth (as sth): He joined the Army five years ago. | He joined the Royal Air Force during the war, after which he settled in London. | Two younger sisters have also joined the force. | When the Civil War broke out, Walker tried to join the Army as a surgeon.
to join up: He joined up right after leaving school. | When hostilities broke out he returned to England and joined up.
conscription [uncountable] | the draft (American English) | call-up [countable] (British English) the practice of making people join the armed forces воинская повинность; обязательная военная служба; набор (в армию), призыв на военную службу: Paradoxically he is the only free man in the community, as he pays no taxes and is not subject to conscription. | Many young men are trying to get away from compulsory military conscription. | All adult males will be liable for conscription. | The call-up of National Guard and reserve units began in late August. | A quota of ten men a day, and if we accept extra men we can reduce our conscription period.
to introduce conscription / compulsory military / national service вводить воинскую повинность / обязательную военную службу: He's been worried that the government will introduce conscription ever since the war began. | The Military Training Act of 1939 effectively introduced conscription in peacetime for the first time in Britain's history.
(the) introduction of conscription / compulsory military / national service: In April 1939, under pressure from Tory backbenchers, the Government announced the introduction of military conscription.
to abolish / abandon conscription / compulsory military / national service отменять воинскую повинность / обязательную военную службу
to avoid / evade / dodge conscription / the draft уклониться от / избежать призыва на военную службу: Many young men went abroad to avoid the draft. | During the Vietnam war, he moved to Canada to dodge the draft.
recruitment [uncountable] the practice of finding people to join a military force or an organization набор, вербовка, привлечение к военной службе, комплектование личным составом: The Air Force is mounting an aggressive pilot recruitment campaign.
draft dodging (especially American English) [uncountable] the act of avoiding an order to join the armed forces уклонение от призыва на военную службу
enlistment [uncountable; countable] (1) the act of joining the armed forces добровольное поступление на военную службу; вербовка в состав вооруженных сил; зачисление на военную службу: Canadians seek enlistment in the US Marines because they don't see as much opportunity in the Canadian armed forces.
(2) enlistment period the period of time for which someone is a member of the armed forces срок службы добровольца (по контракту): Only 31 percent of sailors re-enlist after their first enlistment period.
to extend one's enlistment продлить срок службы по контракту
conscript | draftee (American English) [countable] someone who has been made to join the armed forces призывник, новобранец: conscript soldiers | Many conscripts receive only the most basic training. | The average number of conscripts in training has fallen from 80,000 to about 15,000.
recruit [countable] someone who has recently joined the armed forces новобранец, призывник: Recruits were being drilled on the parade ground. | No questions were asked as long as recruits accepted the harsh conditions and the unit's strict code of honour.
new / raw / fresh / green recruit someone who is completely untrained: Raw recruits were trained for six months and then sent to the war front. | Drill sergeants have eight weeks to turn fresh recruits into soldiers.
(army) recruiting centre / office [countable] призывной пункт: A bomb exploded at an army recruiting office.
recruiting officer | recruiter [countable] офицер, отвечающий по призыв на военную службу: a Marine recruiter
call-up papers [plural] повестка о явке на призывной пункт: He protested strongly when her call-up papers came. | He was imprisoned between 1988 and 1990 for refusing his call-up papers.
to receive / get call-up papers получать повестку: She was very upset when her boyfriend received his call-up (papers). | He got his call-up papers in July.
to serve call-up papers (on sb) вручать повестку: The Ministry of Defence served call-up papers on 390 army reservists.
volunteer [countable] someone who joins the armed forces without being forced to do it доброволец, волонтер: They fought as volunteers with the Afghan guerrillas. | What I want now is two volunteers to come down to the front.
to recruit volunteers набирать добровольцев
draft dodger [countable] (especially American English) someone who illegally avoids joining the armed forces even though they have been ordered to join лицо, уклоняющееся от призыва на военную службу: They thought he was a draft dodger, and it wouldn't be long before some one came to the correct conclusion.
commission [countable] the position of an officer in the armed forces звание офицера, офицерский чин: He accepted a commission as a naval officer.
to have a commission иметь звание офицера / офицерский чин
to award sb a commission | to award a commission (to sb) | to confer a commission (on sb) давать / присваивать звание офицера / офицерский чин
to get / receive / win / obtain / earn a commission получать звание офицера / офицерский чин: to win a battlefield commission | He obtained a commission in the Royal Air Force.
to resign one's commission подавать / уходить в отставку (с военной службы): Haley was asked to resign his commission.
to commission [transitive; usually passive] to make someone an officer in the armed forces давать / присваивать звание офицера / офицерский чин
to be commission (by sb): He was called to Washington and commissioned by President Lincoln.
to be commissioned (as) sth: She was commissioned a second lieutenant. | He was commissioned as second lieutenant in the Air Force.
to be commissioned into sth: He was commissioned into the Royal Engineers.
commissioned officer [countable] a military officer who has a commission офицер (в отличие от младшего командного состава): Only commissioned officers qualify for the Military Cross.
non-commissioned officer | NCO [countable] an officer of low rank in the British army; a member of the armed forces who has achieved the rank of officer by rising from the lower ranks rather than by receiving a commission военнослужащий сержантского состава, сержант; унтер-офицер: He chose to stay in the army as an NCO. | But it was appalling to me to see the lack of career NCOs out in the front lines. | Now, not only do you have a green lieutenant, but you also have green NCOs.
enlisted man солдат; военнослужащий рядового или сержантского состава
enlisted men / personnel / troops солдаты; военнослужащие; военнослужащие рядового или сержантского состава: I had a very good relationship with my officers and my enlisted men. | One is the contrast between the way officers and enlisted personnel are treated. | The same is true with regard to enlisted troops, if the conduct has a direct and palpable effect upon the military.
enlisted (adjective) having a rank below that of an officer in the armed forces
to raise | to recruit | to build up [transitive] to collect together a large group of people, especially soldiers собирать / набирать / формировать армию: The rebels quickly raised an army. | In 1066 William the Conqueror raised an army and invaded England. | Each province and each city state has its own separate army which it recruits, trains, and maintains. | The regime built up the largest army in Africa.
to mobilize [transitive; intransitive] to prepare, or to order the armed forces to prepare, to fight, especially in a war мобилизовать; мобилизоваться: Britain mobilized its forces. | The government has mobilized several of the army's top combat units. | Troops have been mobilizing for the past three weeks. | Sudan even threatened to mobilize in response to the ultimatums. | It means that their whole army will mobilize.
to demobilize [transitive; usually passive; intransitive] to release someone from the armed forces, especially at the end of a war демобилизовать: Large numbers of soldiers were demobilized. | Key points of the UN plan include disarming and demobilizing the rebel troops. | Unemployed demobilized soldiers drifted towards the cities. | It is highly unlikely that the rebels will agree to give up their weapons and demobilize.
to disband [transitive; intransitive] to stop existing as an organization, or to make something do this распускать, расформировывать: Even David Rice Atchison was forced to disband his army. | All the armed groups will be disbanded. | The rebels were to have fully disbanded by June the tenth.
mobilization [uncountable; countable] мобилизация
to order mobilization призывать в армию, объявить призыв в армию / мобилизацию
to carry out mobilization осуществлять призыв в армию / мобилизацию
full / general mobilization всеобщая мобилизация
partial mobilization частичная мобилизация
demobilization [uncountable] демобилизация: The government had previously been opposed to the demobilization of its 100,000 strong army.
11. Attitudes to war
loyal (adjective) faithful to your country, friends, principles etc верный, преданный; лояльный; верноподданный: Klein prided himself on being a loyal subject who had served his adopted country with honour.
to be / feel loyal to sb / sth: Dennis will always be loyal to this government, whatever it does.
patriotic (adjective) having or expressing strong feelings of love, respect, pride and duty towards their country (used to show approval) патриотический: patriotic fervour / pride | Relatives remembered him as a deeply patriotic man. | The volunteers were fortified by their patriotic belief. | At Llewellyn's funeral service, she was remembered as a patriotic American who had served her country well. | I'm not very patriotic.
the Great Patriotic War Великая Отечественная война
nationalist (adjective) trying to achieve political independence for a particular nation национально-освободительный: Nationalist candidates managed to win only one seat in the elections. | The newspaper has campaigned vigorously for the nationalist cause. | The crisis has set off a wave of nationalist feelings in Quebec.
nationalistic | nationalist | chauvinistic | chauvinist | jingoistic believing that your own nation is better than any other nation, and having no respect for people from other countries (used to show disapproval) националистический, шовинистический, ура-патриотический: They were encouraging nationalistic sentiment among the students. | As nationalistic feelings grew, life became increasingly difficult for immigrants. | Political life has been infected by growing nationalist sentiment. | The crowd was enthusiastically singing chauvinistic songs.
xenophobic (adjective) showing strong dislike or fear of people from other countries and cultures ненавидящий иностранцев: The party is right-wing and xenophobic. | Xenophobic nationalism is on the rise in some West European countries.
warlike (adjective) aggressive and eager to start a war; experienced at fighting in wars воинственный: | a warlike stance / speech | warlike behaviour / preparations | The Scythians were a fiercely warlike people. | They were warlike and imperialistic. | The world is uneasy and some regions are warlike, but peace generally reigns.
warlike attitude воинственность
belligerent (adjective) (1) aggressive | pugnacious (formal) | bellicose (formal) very unfriendly and wanting to argue or fight агрессивный, воинственный, боевой; драчливый; враждебный, готовый начать войну: Then the sections of the Second International divided up between the different belligerent powers. | The President was in a pugnacious mood when he spoke to journalists about the rebellion. | | The general made some bellicose statements about his country's military strength. | The government is continuing its bellicose statements threatening tough action against illegal strikes.
(2) (formal) [only before noun] warring being at war with another country воюющий, находящийся в состоянии войны: They tried to arrange a truce between the belligerent nations / powers. | Fighting between the various warring factions was destroying the country.
militaristic (adjective) used to describe groups, ideas, or policies which support the strengthening of the armed forces of their country in order to make it more powerful (used to show disapproval) милитаристский: a militaristic regime / government / policy
defeatist (adjective) behaving in a way that shows you think you will fail пораженческий, капитулянтский: It is difficult to understand why the Democratic leadership should have been quite so defeatist in 1981. | Being defeatist will get us nowhere. | Yet it would be wrong to end this chapter on a defeatist note.
(to have / adopt) a defeatist attitude: He's got such a defeatist attitude. | There is no point going out there with a defeatist attitude.
disloyal (to sb / sth) (adjective) unfaithful to your country, friends, principles etc нелояльный, предательский, изменнический, вероломный: He felt he had been disloyal to his friends. | Treason therefore was a crime no greater than being disloyal to one who claimed to be an overlord.
allegiance | loyalty [uncountable; countable – usually plural] the quality of being faithful to a leader, country, belief etc верность, преданность, лояльность: They should be based wherever possible on existing boundaries in order to maintain continuity and build upon traditional loyalties. | Our entire culture is built around those loyalties. | | Don't let political loyalties affect your judgement.
allegiance / loyalty to sb / sth: For the bureaucracy, allegiance to the Emperor came before democratic representation. | Her loyalty to the cause is impressive. | Loyalty to the person of the monarch gave way to allegiance to the abstraction of the state. | A spirit of nationalism, national self-consciousness, and loyalty to constituted authority were in embryonic evidence.
to swear / pledge allegiance / loyalty клясться в верности, присягать на верность; брать на себя обязательство соблюдать лояльность: Soldiers must swear allegiance to the Crown / the King. | They swore allegiance to the government / the flag of the United States of America. | In many American schools, the students pledge allegiance (to the flag) at the beginning of the school day. | Then he pledged loyalty to Frick and to his leadership.
to proclaim / declare allegiance / loyalty заверять в своей преданности, заявлять о своей верности / лояльности: Opposition leaders have proclaimed their allegiance to the new government.
to owe / give allegiance to have a duty to someone быть верным / преданным: You owe allegiance to your king. | New ruling administrators owed allegiance to the state. | But it is not only Marxists who argue that bureaucracies may owe their primary allegiance to a particular class.
to switch / transfer allegiance (to sb / sth) to start to support a different a leader, country, belief etc: The reasons they switched their allegiance included anxiety about globalization, a rejection of political corruption and fear of immigration. | If Henry failed to abide by these terms his barons were to transfer their allegiance to Philip and Richard.
to renounce / repudiate allegiance отказываться присягнуть на верность: He expressed his admiration for the educational efficiency of the Jesuits and politely renounced his allegiance to their church.
to feel loyalty (to / towards sb / sth) чувствовать преданность: These people feel a lot of loyalty to / towards the country.
to develop loyalty (to / towards sb / sth) почувствовать преданность: She developed strong loyalties to the Manet family.
to command / inspire loyalty to have someone's loyalty вызывать чувство преданности / лояльности: Much will depend on whether the government of Mr Hun Sen can continue to command the loyalty of its troops and bureaucrats. | But in the long run the city of Mondovi could not command the loyalties of its dependent territory. | He commands uncommon loyalty from workers despite sometimes harsh personnel policies. | She inspires great loyalty among her staff.
to show / demonstrate loyalty (to / towards sb / sth) выказывать преданность: He has been netted by the Hague tribunal because no one showed greater loyalty to Karadzic. | As Wendy's birthday fell on the Saturday her endeavours showed true loyalty to the Royal cause.
to win loyalty завоевать преданность / лояльность: These moves were hardly calculated to win her loyalty, already strained by Edward's favourites.
to maintain loyalty (to sb / sth) | to remain / stay loyal (to sb / sth): For their part, the Kamajors maintained their loyalty to the ousted president and vowed to see to his return to power. | The country's armed forces remained / stayed loyal to the elected government. | The army remained loyal to the government / president / constitutional order.
divided / mixed loyalties two strong feelings of loyalty that you must choose between; a feeling of wanting to be loyal to two people or groups that oppose each other: The war has created divided loyalties in many families, setting brother against brother and father against son. | The death and destruction tore apart families whose political loyalties were also divided in what was essentially a civil war.
to divide loyalties: It would probably divide its loyalties between the competing political authorities, leading in the worst case to civil war.
oath of allegiance / loyalty присяга на верность; воинская присяга
to take / swear an oath of allegiance / loyalty (to sb / sth) присягать на верность; давать воинскую присягу: The knights swore an oath of allegiance to their king. | I have sworn an oath of loyalty to the monarchy.
patriotism [uncountable] strong feelings of love, respect, pride and duty towards their country and the willingness to defend it (used to show approval) патриотизм: The wave of patriotism swept the country. | He was a country boy who had joined the army out of a sense of patriotism and adventure. | We live in an age when patriotism is often sneered at. | The president has appealed to the Brazilian people for patriotism and community spirit. | Patriotism is every politician's stock-in-trade.
ardent / fervent / strong / sincere / profound patriotism: Anna's patriotism was profound.
perverted patriotism: the assertion of a perverted patriotism
to display / show patriotism проявлять патриотизм
nationalism [uncountable] (1) the desire by a group of people of the same race, origin, language etc to form an independent country патриотизм, стремление к национальной независимости; национализм: The rising tide of Slovak nationalism may also help the party to win representation in parliament.
(2) chauvinism | jingoism the belief that your own nation is better than any other nation; excessive patriotism (used to show disapproval) национализм, шовинизм, ура-патриотизм: to foster nationalism | the rise of nationalism in Eastern Europe | Under his leadership, a strong sense of nationalism emerged. | Bandaranaike used Sinhalese chauvinism to gain power. | Only the most narrow jingoism can allow us to deny this.
extreme / fierce / rampant nationalism крайний национализм: The leaders discussed the danger posed by an upsurge of extreme nationalism. | This kind of fierce nationalism is a powerful and potentially volatile force.
xenophobia [uncountable] a strong fear and dislike of people from other countries and cultures ксенофобия, ненависть к иностранцам и всему иностранному: In an atmosphere of growing xenophobia many foreigners were deported or even imprisoned. | We ourselves were unaware of the dimensions of this new xenophobia.
militarism [uncountable] the belief that it is necessary to have strong armed forces and that they should be used in order to win political or economic advantages (used to show disapproval) милитаризм: Economic success has replaced nationalism and militarism as the dominant force in a region once terrorized by war and revolution. | She wants her army to be the world leader in peacekeeping and to shift from militarism to humanitarianism. | The country slipped into a dangerous mixture of nationalism and militarism. | They hoped that the very talk of a general strike would act as a restraining influence on militarism.
warmongering [uncountable] подстрекательство к войне, милитаризм: The president was accused of warmongering.
sabre-rattling | warlike gesture [uncountable] talking and behaving in a way that threatens military action бряцание оружием; угрозы: What the situation calls for is calm discussion – not sabre-rattling. | It is too early to say whether the threats are mere sabre-rattling. | The sabre-rattling is empty gesturing.
belligerence | belligerency | aggressiveness | aggression | pugnacity (formal) | bellicosity (formal) | militancy [uncountable] being warlike воинственность, агрессивность; враждебность: to demonstrate / display / exhibit belligerency | Television violence can encourage aggression in children. | He is legendary for his fearlessness and pugnacity. | The group has always been characterized by an uncompromising militancy.
defeatism [uncountable] an attitude that shows you think you will fail пораженчество, капитулянтство: This is not realism; it is defeatism, even appeasement. | There is a spirit of defeatism among some members of the party.
disloyalty [uncountable] the quality of being unfaithful to a leader, country, belief etc нелояльность, предательство, измена вероломство: Charges had already been made against certain officials suspected of disloyalty.
to demonstrate disloyalty (to sb / sth) изменять, предавать, поступать предательски (по отношению к кому-л.)
patriot [countable] someone who has strong feelings of love, respect, pride and duty towards their country and is willing to defend it (used to show approval) патриот: Pinochet called the convicted man a patriot. | The Presbyterians found it easy to be patriots for many reasons. | They clashed at parties and at country house weekends with fellow guests who might be termed patriots.
true patriot: Mr Bush praised Weinburger as 'a true American patriot'.
ardent / fervent / staunch / sincere patriot горячий / пламенный / искренний патриот: They were staunch British patriots and had portraits of the Queen in their flat.
intense / fanatical patriot: Perhaps it is because of a hearty dislike of chauvinism and exaggerated nationalism that I have not become an intense patriot. | As a boy he was a fanatical patriot.
nationalist [countable] (1) someone who is involved in trying to achieve political independence for a particular nation борец за независимость своей родины: Indian nationalists finally won independence for their country in 1947.
(2) chauvinist | jingoist | jingo someone who believes that their nation is better than any other nation and who has no respect for people from other countries (used to show disapproval) националист, приверженец национализма, шовинист, ура-патриот: His father was a nationalist during the civil war. | Religious chauvinists have been the main cause of trouble in the province. | He was a confirmed jingoist and would frequently speak about the dangers of Britain forming closer ties with the rest of Europe.
xenophobe [countable] a person who strongly dislikes or fears people from other countries and cultures ксенофоб
militarist | hawk | warmonger | instigator of war [countable] someone, especially a politician or a military leader, who is too keen to increase the size and power of their country's armed forces so that it can attack other countries; a politician who prefers using military force to more peaceful methods (used to show disapproval) милитарист, сторонник жесткого курса (в политике); сторонник военных действий; поджигатель войны: The militarists wanted Japan to invade China. | They became overheated nationalists, militarists, and they were out to conquer. | The hawks in the government would never permit any talks with the enemy. | We don't yet know whether the new President is a hawk or a dove. | Some saw him as a great statesman, but others saw him as a ruthless warmonger.
belligerent [countable] (formal) one of the countries involved in a war воюющий, воюющая сторона: The belligerents were due, once again, to try to settle their differences.
defeatist [countable] someone who thinks that they will fail пораженец, капитулянт
dove [countable] a politician who wants to use peaceful methods to solve problems rather than fighting сторонник мира, сторонник мирного урегулирования вопроса: The doves called Johnson a monster. | But the cabinet doves seemed unperturbed. | Thus the doves, representing nearly half the population, were left without a candidate for President in 1968. | Both hawks and doves have expanded their conditions for ending the war. | A clear split over tactics appears to be emerging between doves and hawks in the party.
morale | fighting spirit [uncountable] the level of confidence and positive feelings that people have, especially when in a dangerous or difficult situation боевой дух / настрой; моральное состояние: His death dealt a severe blow to the army's morale. | The failing morale of the enemy helped to shorten the war. | The failed coup caused a dramatic loss of morale within the army. | On the battlefield armament was still much less important than discipline and fighting spirit. | With so many enemies, we need a great deal of fighting spirit.
high / good // low / poor morale высокий / низкий боевой дух: Morale among the soldiers has been low. | The army's sudden collapse has been attributed to poor leadership, exhaustion and poor morale. | Many pilots are suffering from low morale. | Morale is low, and many people are disillusioned.
to boost / lift / raise / improve / build morale поднимать боевой дух: Churchill's visit did a great deal to boost morale among the troops. | They hope to boost the morale of their troops. | He decided his first task was to try to raise the battered morale of his troops. | An effort was made to improve the morale and morals of the army. | This autonomy not only fosters responsive government, it builds morale and unleashes creativity.
to keep up / maintain morale поддерживать боевой дух: I do accept that occasionally it's necessary to promote a volunteer in order to keep up morale in the ranks. | The media feels pressure to keep the morale of the country up in wartime. | The real reason, we believe, was to maintain public morale and support for the war.
to restore / recover morale восстанавливать боевой дух: These men helped to restore the morale of our army. | The army recovered its morale and fighting power.
to destroy / undermine / diminish morale подрывать боевой дух, деморализовать, вносить разложение: Recent national reforms undermined their morale. | Sensible and justifiable decisions, properly communicated would raise morale rather than diminish it.
valour (literary) | bravery | courage [uncountable] the ability to do something that you know is right or good, even though it is dangerous, frightening, or very difficult бесстрашие, героизм, мужество, неустрашимость, отвага, смелость, храбрость: He was promoted to the rank of major in recognition of his valour during the battle. | It was an act of the utmost bravery and disregard for personal safety. | He reached high rank and for bravery was made a Hero of the Soviet Union.
to demonstrate / display / show valour / bravery / courage проявлять отвагу / мужество / бесстрашие: He showed outstanding bravery. | The partisans showed great courage, but some of them had to withdraw from the Parma Apennines down towards Tuscany.
to decorate sb for (one's) valour / bravery / courage / with a medal | to award sb a medal for (one's) valour / bravery / courage награждать (знаком отличия): He was decorated for bravery / valour in the war. | The Queen decorated the young soldier for courage in the face of the enemy. | After the war, my uncle was awarded a medal for (his) bravery. | The young soldier was decorated with the Military Cross for bravery.
to get / receive / win earn a medal (for sth) получать медаль / орден: In 1944, he won the Military Cross for bravery.
exploit | heroic / brave / daring deed | deed of valour | brave / heroic feat | feat of valour [countable – usually plural] a brave and exciting adventure that someone has had подвиг, героический поступок; деяние: The wicked characters are imprisoned, and Wilkin is made a captain for his heroic deed in battle. | His heroic deeds were celebrated in every corner of India. | Wagner in his day preached purity of heart and heroic deeds.
heroic / military / wartime exploit: This was not his last military exploit, however. | His wartime exploits were later made into a film and a television series.
to perform / do an exploit / heroic deed совершать подвиг: Therese, who died of tuberculosis in 1897 at the age of 24, performed no great deeds while she was alive. She's always helping people and doing other good deed.
to perform / accomplish / achieve a brave feat / heroic feat / a feat of valour совершать подвиг: the woman who performed the feat of sailing around the world alone | Crawford was still in camp during the 1918 season, and was able to perform great feats for Wellington. | He led his team to victory for the tenth time, a feat no captain had achieved before. | Steger crossed Antarctica, and performed a similar feat at the North Pole. | At one level this has enabled him to achieve the considerable feat of maintaining reasonably stable government for more than twenty years.
to betray [transitive] | to sell out [transitive; intransitive] (informal) (1) to be disloyal to your country or a person, often by doing something harmful such as helping their enemies предавать, изменять, продавать
to betray sb / sth (to sb / for sth): He was accused of betraying his country during the war. | You have betrayed your country and your religion. | In wartime many people accused of betraying their country were executed. | The group were informers, and they betrayed the plan to the Germans. | For years they betrayed Britain's secrets to Russia. | There are people who are prepared to betray their country for money. | The West was shocked and felt betrayed.
to sell sb / sth out: French farmers feel they've been sold out by their government in the negotiations.
to sell out to sb / sth: The officer was charged with selling out to the enemy. | Many of his Greenwich Village associates thought Dylan had sold out to commercialism.
(2) to stop supporting your old beliefs, principles, ideals, especially in order to get power or avoid trouble предавать, изменять; продаться
to betray / sell out your beliefs / ideals / principles / promises etc: Greene was denounced for betraying his Catholic beliefs and siding with the Communists. | The new government has betrayed the ideals of the revolution. | Who had persuaded the other to defect, to betray his fundamental principles in the name of personal loyalty? | The government has been accused of betraying its election promises. | The country has sold out its principles in yielding to the demands of a small but powerful group.
to sell out: When the Socialists changed their policy on nuclear weapons they were accused of selling out. | Many of the radicals of the 1960s sold out – they became accountants and salesmen.
betrayal [uncountable; countable] the act of betraying your country or a person, often by doing something harmful such as helping their enemies предательство, измена: Additionally there were protests from the Elf colonies in the Old World who saw the departure of the armies as a betrayal. | Some politicians are calling the President's policy a betrayal of American principles. | This was the first in a series of betrayals.
sell-out | sellout [singular] (informal) (1) a situation in which someone has not done what they promised to do or were expected to do by the people who trusted them предательство, измена: Anti-nuclear campaigners are calling the president's acceptance of nuclear testing a complete sell-out. | Several groups have decried the peace accord as a sell-out. | His decision to become a Socialist candidate at Sunday's election was simply a sell-out.
(2) someone who has not done what they promised to do or who is not loyal to their friends or supporters, especially in order to become more popular, richer etc предатель, изменник; ренегат: Many black students regarded him as a sellout.
treachery (1) [uncountable] behaviour or an action in which someone is not loyal their country or to a person who trusts them измена, предательство; вероломство: Selling military secrets is an unforgivable act of treachery. | When the king learned of his brother's treachery, he quickly ordered his execution. | Treachery was the ultimate sin. | Corley said she was standing down as leader because of the treachery of her own colleagues.
(2) [countable – usually plural] a disloyal action against someone who trusts you измена, предательство
treason [uncountable] the crime of being disloyal to your country or its government, especially by helping its enemies or trying to remove the government using violence измена, предательство; государственная измена: She was imprisoned by Mary on charges of treason. | It is treason to sell military information to a foreign power. | She deserved to die for attempted treason.
high treason treason of the worst kind государственная измена: Any criticism of the emperor was treated like high treason. | They were shot yesterday after being convicted of mutiny and high treason. | Stone was arrested on a charge of high treason on 3 May 1794 and was taken to the Tower of London.
treason against sb / sth: an act of treason against the state | The offence constituted an act of treason against the constitutional government.
to plot treason организовывать / составлять заговор; замышлять измену
to commit (high) treason предавать, изменять: How do we know Buckingham committed treason?
to try sb for (high) treason / on charges of (high) treason судить по обвинению в измене: He was now arrested, tried for treason for his support of Jane Grey and condemned to death. | He was tried on charges of treason and served nine years of a 13-year sentence.
(to be) guilty of (high) treason виновный в измене: The spy was guilty of high treason.
to accuse sb of / charge sb with (committing) (high) treason обвинять в измене, предъявлять обвинение в измене: Richter is accused of committing treason against the state. | He was accused of treason against the nation for his willingness to negotiate with Texas and the United States. | He was then accused of treason and eventually beheaded. | On June 8, 1862, he was arrested and charged with treason. | All five of the men will be charged with committing treason against the state. | Thirteen people have been charged with treason – an offence which can carry the death penalty.
to convict sb of (high) treason | to sentence sb for treason признать виновным в измене, осудить за измену: The defendant was convicted of high treason and sentenced to death. | Norris was sentenced to 20 years for treason.
to acquit sb of (high) treason оправдать по обвинению в измене
to execute sb for (high) treason казнить за измену: Guy Fawkes was executed for treason after he took part in a plot to blow up the British Parliament building.
treacherous (adjective) someone who is treacherous pretends that they support you but secretly tries to harm you, for example by helping an enemy изменнический, предательский; вероломный: a treacherous plot to overthrow the leader | treacherous behaviour / thoughts | It was treacherous to reveal such secrets to the enemy. | The President spoke of the treacherous intentions of the enemy.
treasonable | treasonous (adjective) if something is treasonable / treasonous, the law considers it to be treason изменнический, предательский: a treasonable act against the head of state | treasonable activities | a treasonable offence | They were brought to trial for treasonable conspiracy. | It is treasonous to deal with the enemy during wartime.
traitor [countable; uncountable] | betrayer [countable] someone who is not loyal to their country, friends, or beliefs; someone who tells secrets about their own country to a country that is their enemy предатель, изменник: There were traitors among us who were sending messages to the enemy. | The leaders of the rebellion were hanged as traitors.
a traitor to sb / sth: Adams was a spy, and a traitor to his country. | The press increased its din and accused all who favoured a peaceful settlement of being traitors to the nation. | When he left Nicaragua for the US, he was denounced as a traitor to the revolution.
to turn traitor (to sb / sth) to became a traitor стать предателем / изменником: Of millions of men and women, only a handful turned traitor. | The politician turned traitor to the King / government / state.
bullying | hazing (American English) [uncountable] дедовщина
alliance | bloc [countable] an arrangement in which two or more countries, political parties or people agree to work together to try to change or achieve something; a group of two or more countries, political parties or people who work together to achieve something союз, объединение, блок; альянс: NATO is sometimes called the Atlantic Alliance. | He said this summer that the Warsaw Pact had to become a political rather than a military alliance. | In a world of shifting political alliances, it has always been true that where you stand depends on where you sit. | The European Union is a powerful trading / trade bloc. | The two issued a joint statement calling for the continuation of negotiations between the two blocs. | Throughout the alliance the will was lacking to create conventional forces on the scale needed to balance those of the Eastern bloc.
alliance / bloc with / between / against sb / sth: The Socialists' electoral strategy has been based on a tactical alliance with the Communists. | Kabbah's close link with them predictably alienated the army, driving it into an even closer alliance with the rebels. | The three smaller parties have forged / formed an alliance against the government.
to make / form / forge / build / create an alliance / bloc to agree to work together создавать союз: They formed an alliance with their neighbours against the common enemy. | Clinton and Brown overcame early political tensions to forge their strong alliance. | They built a political alliance with their old partner. | Rather than act independently, many developing countries have tried to increase their competitiveness by forming regional trade blocs.
an alliance / bloc forms: If that agreement is carried through, new alliances may form as the election nears.
to enter into / join an alliance / bloc вступить в союз, присоединиться к союзу, стать членом союза: The two countries entered into a defensive alliance. | The three countries were invited to join the Western military alliance in 1999. | After all, that is what happens whenever a state joins a multilateral alliance or economic community.
to seek entry into an alliance / bloc стремиться / пытаться / предпринимать попытки вступить в союз / присоединиться к союзу / стать членом союза: Kwasniewski, a deft politician, insists his policy is still to seek entry into the alliance.
to strengthen / cement an alliance / bloc укреплять / крепить союз: To cement the alliance with Lombardy, Charles married Desiderata, the daughter of Desiderius.
to maintain an alliance / bloc поддерживать / сохранять союз: Successive French governments maintained the alliance with Russia.
to dissolve / disband an alliance / bloc распустить союз
an alliance / bloc ends: Yeltsin's alliance between the oligarchs and international capital is ending.
in alliance (with sb / sth) if two or more countries, political parties or people are in alliance, they work together to achieve something or protect each another в союзе (с кем-л. / чем-л.): In the fifth century the popes embarked, in alliance with the local aristocracy, on a programme of urban renewal. | The political imperatives are those choices faced by states, either solely or in alliance with others.
to ally | to align [transitive; intransitive] to publicly support a country, political group, or person that you agree with, for example in a war or disagreement соединять(ся), объединять(ся); присоединяться: Any decision in favour of change has to be allied with the ability and the confidence to change. | At that time the country was partitioned among wartime allied powers.
to ally (oneself / itself) with / to sb / sth (against sb / sth): They allied themselves with / to the other western states after the war. | Some of the northern cities allied themselves with the emperor.
to align oneself / itself / sb with sb / sth: A leading figure in the Arab world, he is sure that the Third World should not align itself with either superpower. | He aligned himself with the left wing of the party. | He has attempted to align the Socialists with the environmental movement.
members were aligned with the chairman; only a few disagreed.
alignment | line-up [uncountable; countable] support given by one country or group to another in politics, defence etc; the way in which countries or groups are arranged or allied; a grouping расстановка, группировка (сил); блок: There was a new alignment of European powers. | There was a new line-up of Afro-Asian powers. | His increasing alignment with the Reagan administration nearly cost him re-election.
alignment of forces расстановка сил
non-aligned (adjective) a non-aligned country does not support, or does not receive support from, any of the powerful countries in the world; neutral неприсоединившийся (к союзам, блокам; политически или идеологически): A group of 20 nonaligned nations urged a treaty to ban space weapons. | In both cases they were related to earlier initiatives by the non-aligned states. | The Soviet leadership could anticipate diplomatic dividends from these initiatives among the non-aligned countries.
non-alignment [uncountable] the state or policy of being non-aligned неприсоединение (к союзам, блокам; политическое или идеологическое); политика неприсоединения, политика нейтралитета: non-alignment policy | The Afro-Asian nations approved the basic general principles of non-alignment.
ally [countable] (1) a country that has agreed officially to give help and support to another one, especially during a war союзник: During World War One, Turkey and Germany were allies / Turkey was an ally of Germany. | The United States is a close ally of South Korea, and maintains forces there for its defence. | The two countries have been close allies to the United States and one another| North Korea is one of China's staunchest allies.
(2) someone who helps and supports you when other people are trying to oppose you союзник; друг, сторонник: a close / staunch (= very close) ally of President Soares | Ridley was one of the Queen's closest allies. | She knew she had found an ally in Ted. | By the end of World War I, however, she faced a widening split with her radical allies.
the Allies the countries that united to fight against Germany in the First and Second World Wars, or against Iraq in the Gulf War Союзники; Антанта; Тройственный союз (Англия, Франция и Россия): By the end of January the allies claimed to have flown over 30,000 sorties. | The troubles of the Soviet economy are fast becoming a pre-occupation of the Western allies.
14. Arms race
arms / armaments race [countable – usually singular] competition between countries to have a larger number of powerful weapons гонка вооружений: All the assurances that the treaty would not inaugurate an arms race or cost the United States anything were brushed aside. | Arms races sometimes culminate in extinction, and then a new arms race may begin back at square one. | Nevertheless, the arms race went on. | They can emphasize the danger of a new arms race. | They say that it could erode existing arms control agreements and lead to a new arms race.
to provoke / spark (off) / trigger (off) / touch off an arms race провоцировать / инициировать гонку вооружений: A test ban that could not inspire confidence would undermine stability and might even provoke a new arms race.
to be involved / engaged in the arms / armaments race участвовать в гонке вооружений: They were engaged in the same armaments race, piling up more and more armaments.
to escalate / step up the arms race усиливать гонку вооружений
an arms race escalates гонка вооружений усиливается: The arms race between the superpowers has escalated still more. | The Soviet Union tested its own hydrogen bomb within a year, and the nuclear arms race escalated further.
to curb / control the arms race сдерживать гонку вооружений: They held a conference on ways to control the arms race in the region.
to halt / stop / put an end to the arms race остановить гонку вооружений, положить конец гонке вооружений: Halt the nuclear arms race, for one thing; stop the spread of nuclear weapons, for another.
to arm [transitive; intransitive] to provide weapons for yourself, an army, a country etc in order to prepare for a fight or a war вооружать(ся)
to arm sb (with sth / against sb): No government should be arming terrorists. | The rebels armed a group of 2000 men to attack the city. | We must arm ourselves against the enemy. | The army was well armed.
to arm for sth: They are currently arming for war.
to spread [intransitive] to cover, reach or affect a larger area or a larger number of people распространяться: Nuclear weapons quickly spread all over the world. | UN leaders were sure that the conflict would not spread to neighbouring countries. | American ground troops are to join the UN peacekeepers to try to stop the war from spreading.
to proliferate [intransitive] (formal) to increase quickly and spread to many different places распространяться; разрастаться; быстро увеличиваться: Nuclear weapons have proliferated all over the world. | In recent years commercial, cultural, travel and other contacts have proliferated between Europe and China.
spread [singular] the growth or development of something, so that it covers, reaches or affects a larger area or a larger number of people распространение: There were concerns about the spread of fighting to other regions. | Thanks to the spread of modern technology, trained workers are now more vital than ever. | The greatest hope for reform is the gradual spread of information.
proliferation [singular, uncountable] a sudden increase in the amount or number of something распространение; быстрое увеличение
nuclear (weapons) proliferation распространение ядерного оружия: Nuclear proliferation has returned to centre stage in international affairs.| Suddenly nuclear proliferation became a high-priority concern in Washington. | Under nuclear proliferation safeguards, plutonium shipments have to be accompanied by armed vessels. | Lugar has devoted most of his ad time and speeches to foreign policy, particularly the threat of nuclear proliferation. | The legislation stated that the plant posed serious environmental hazards and increased the risk of nuclear proliferation. | Discussions of future reactor safety should revolve about two critical issues: nuclear waste disposal and nuclear weapons proliferation.
spread | proliferation COLLOCATIONS
the spread / proliferation of sth: He campaigned for peace and against the spread of nuclear weapons. | The rapid spread of small arms and light weapons facilitate the recruitment of child soldiers. | Such conditions fuelled discontent and facilitated the spread of radical ideas.
to lead to / result in the spread / proliferation of sth приводить к распространению чего-л., быть причиной распространения чего-л.
to contribute to / encourage the spread / proliferation of sth содействовать / способствовать / потворствовать / попустительствовать распространению чего-л.
to halt / stop the spread / proliferation of sth остановить распространение чего-л., положить конец распространению чего-л.: It would also put in jeopardy the global effort to halt the spread of nuclear weapons. | Halt the nuclear arms race, for one thing; stop the spread of nuclear weapons, for another. | Such exemplary action would do much to halt the spread of these evil weapons.
to prevent the spread / proliferation of sth предотвращать распространение чего-л.: The aim of US foreign policy at that time was to prevent the spread of communism. | Thus, it remains essential to maintain adequate defences against such dictators and to prevent the further proliferation of nuclear arms. | We will in addition work for a global ban on chemical and biological weapons and stronger controls to prevent proliferation of ballistic missiles.
to deter [transitive] to stop someone from doing something by making them realize it will be difficult or have bad results удерживать (от совершения чего-л.); отпугивать: It is time to go beyond the shibboleth that conventional forces, unlike nuclear ones, cannot deter.
to deter sb (from sth / doing sth): Will atomic weapons deter powerful nations from war? | The government proposed measures to deter potential aggressors. | Supporters of the death penalty argue that it would deter criminals from carrying guns.
to deter sth: These measures are designed to deter an enemy attack. | The main aim of cruise missiles is to deter an attack. | Arming the police doesn't deter crime.
deterrent [countable] something that makes someone less likely to do something by making them realize it will be difficult or have bad results средство устрашения; средство сдерживания: As in human warfare, chemical defences are essentially deterrents rather than everyday weapons. | His idea of a minimum deterrent is to maintain 2,500 warheads.
deterrent to / against / for: A deterrent must still be maintained against any small country that puts together a bomb and threatens to nuke an American city. | Investigate the extent to which capital punishment is a deterrent to murder.
to act / serve as a deterrent: Whether that would act as a deterrent is, of course, another question altogether. | Tougher prison sentences may act / serve as a deterrent to other would-be offenders.
nuclear deterrent the nuclear weapons that a country has in order to prevent other countries from attacking it ядерные силы / ядерное средство устрашения / сдерживания: The nuclear deterrent has been very effective in ensuring the security of the west over the past 40 years. | We are the only party unambiguously committed to the preservation and modernization of our independent nuclear deterrent. | Britain's credible and effective independent nuclear deterrent is the ultimate guarantee of our security.
to build / deploy a nuclear deterrent развертывать ядерные силы сдерживания: The idea of building a nuclear deterrent is completely off the political agenda.
the deployment of a nuclear deterrent развертывание ядерных сил сдерживания: We will complete the deployment of the next generation of Britain's minimum nuclear deterrent.
deterrence | containment [uncountable] the threat of using a particular weapon as a way to stop an enemy from attacking сдерживание; устрашение; политика сдерживания: a policy of nuclear deterrence / containment | the concept of deterrence | the Cold War policy of containment | The government is pursuing a policy of containment / a containment policy. | Dulles used massive retaliation as the chief instrument of containment. | Containment and traditional deterrence, relied on for the past half-century, are clearly no longer adequate to deal with the new world of terrorists armed with weapons of mass destruction. | Furthermore, the threat of pre-emption could be seen, and used, as a form of deterrence.
containment by deterrence сдерживание путем устрашения (Доктрина "сдерживания коммунизма", первоначально выдвинутая в 1946 Дж. Кеннаном; с 1952 предусматривала опору на ядерное оружие как главный гарант эффективности силового давления на СССР и его союзников в политической, военной и экономической сферах.)
nuclear deterrence the threat of using nuclear weapons as a way to stop an enemy from attacking ядерное устрашение / сдерживание: There is no sign that nuclear deterrence can prevent all conflicts. | How does that set an example to countries that he wishes to discourage from adopting nuclear deterrence? | Yet the theory of nuclear deterrence assumes the reverse. | How does that set an example to countries that he wishes to discourage from adopting nuclear deterrence?
to escalate [intransitive; transitive] to become, or make something become, much worse or more serious расширять, обострять (конфликт, положение); расширяться, обостряться (о конфликте, положении); перерастать
to escalate sth: We do not want to escalate the war. | Defeat could cause one side or other to escalate the conflict. | Rebel forces have escalated the fighting. | The decision to escalate UN involvement has been taken in the hopes of a swift end to the hostilities.
sth escalates: The war escalated, on the ground, in the air, and at sea. | The fighting on the border is escalating. | Gunfire could be heard in the city all day, but the violence escalated late in the evening. | When the focus is upon the potential for violence, the threat escalates. | The tension escalated until it became unbearable.
sth escalates into / to sth: Any one of these border disputes could escalate into war. | The local war escalated into a major conflict. | After the Soviet Union disintegrated in 1991, the protests escalated into war. | | Incidents escalated into violence with ever-increasing frequency. | The acute danger of any use of nuclear weapons is that this could escalate to a full-scale strategic exchange between the superpowers.
to step up [transitive] to increase the size, amount or speed of a process that is intended to achieve something расширять, увеличивать; усиливать, повышать (напряжение): The US government stepped up its war against terrorism. | Following the bomb explosion, security has been stepped up at the airport. | Security is being stepped up to deal with the increase in violence. | And it left open the fourth option, to step up military action against Hanoi and otherwise escalate the war. | There are reports of stepped-up fighting in El Salvador.
to step up efforts наращивать усилия: He urged donors to step up their efforts to send aid to Somalia. | The police are stepping up their efforts to fight crime.
escalation [uncountable; countable] эскалация, увеличение масштабов, расширение, распространение; обострение (конфликта и т. п.): The threat of nuclear escalation remains. | The US military wants to avoid the graduated escalation that marked the Vietnam War. | From the point of view of the environment, stopping the war before there is further escalation and use of weapons of mass destruction is paramount.
escalation in / of sth: It's difficult to explain the recent escalation in / of violent crime. | Any unexpected circumstance that arises may catalyze a sudden escalation of violence. | He said that the aim was to send a clear message to the Lebanese Government, Hezbollah and 'indirectly' to the Syrians that the escalation of Hezbollah attacks on Israeli forces had to stop.
to stockpile | to build up | to amass [transitive] to collect, for example large amounts of weapons and military equipment накапливать, наращивать: The Superpowers are stockpiling nuclear arms. | The rebels have been stockpiling weapons. | An enormous volume of explosives was stockpiled inside one of the buildings. | Both sides have built up huge stockpiles of arms. | War has become inevitable because of the weaponry which both sides are amassing.
to build up [intransitive; transitive] to gradually become bigger or greater накапливаться, наращиваться; усиливаться: Enemy forces have now built up to a dangerous strength. | The tension built up to a climax. | Tension is building up between the two communities.
build-up [countable – usually singular] a gradual increase in the amount or level of something наращивание, увеличение (сил, средств); сосредоточение: There has been a build-up of troops on both sides of the border. | The build-up of troops in the region makes war seem more likely. | This could signal the biggest military build-up since the Cold War. | The "Open Skies" plan was designed to protect nations against military build-up and surprise attack.
arsenal | stockpile | stock | supply [countable] a large collection of weapons and military equipment запас; резерв: an arsenal / stockpile / stock / supply of (nuclear) weapons / missiles / guns / ammunition | a nuclear / arms arsenal / stockpile | nuclear / arms arsenals / stockpiles / stocks / supplies | We saw a case for considering what our nuclear arsenal would be and whether it was completely necessary. | Some 2,600 Russian troops, once under the command of Alexander Lebed, a Russian presidential contender, still guard a huge arms stockpile. | In resuming strategic-arms negotiations with the Soviet Union in 1982, U.S. President Ronald Reagan renamed the talks START and proposed radical reductions, rather than merely limitations, in each superpower's existing stocks of missiles and warheads. | The IRA had extensive supplies of arms.
to have / hold / possess an arsenal / stockpile / stock / supply of weapons: The country is believed to have stockpiles of chemical weapons. | They have a stockpile of weapons and ammunition that will last several months. | It is perhaps that long-term perspective which is at the root of present-day concern over the nuclear arsenal held by the superpowers. | They possess a formidable arsenal of rifles, machine guns, landmines and teargas.
to build up / increase an arsenal / stockpile / stock of weapons создавать / накапливать / наращивать запасы оружия: Both sides have built up huge stockpiles of arms. | The country has been building up its stock of weapons.
an arsenal / stockpile / stock of weapons builds up / increases / piles up запасы оружия увеличиваются / накапливаются: The nuclear arsenals of the superpowers have increased.
to maintain an arsenal / stockpile / stock / supply of arms иметь / сохранять запасы оружия: Power was dependent on maintaining a stockpile of arms and professional soldiers.
to reduce / cut an arsenal / stockpile / stock of weapons сокращать запасы оружия: We welcome the proposals to reduce the superpower arsenals. | The country has agreed to reduce its nuclear arsenal. | The United States and Russia hope to conclude a treaty to cut their nuclear arsenals by two-thirds. | The two leaders also approved treaties to cut stockpiles of chemical weapons.
to destroy a nuclear arsenal / stockpile // a stock of weapons ликвидировать запасы ядерного оружия: Russia and the other republics are committed to destroying most of their nuclear arsenals.
a reduction / cut in a nuclear arsenal / stockpile // a stock of weapons сокращение запасов ядерного оружия: They must show potential proliferators that they are prepared to secure further reductions in their nuclear arsenals.
militarized (adjective) a militarized area is one that is controlled by an army and has a lot of weapons and soldiers in it милитаризованный: North Korea is said to be the world's most heavily militarized country, with over 1 million men in the armed forces. | Kalinigrad is a highly militarized zone.
15. Arms control and disarmament
arms control [uncountable] the attempts by powerful countries to limit the number and types of weapons that exist контроль над вооружениями: We committed ourselves to arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation and to the conclusion of a chemical weapons convention this year. | There may be no missile that is survivable, affordable and compatible with arms control. | Both countries agreed to implement arms control agreements. | They say that it could erode existing arms control agreements and lead to a new arms race. | Bush made an important speech on arms control policy last week in Washington. | Old Cold War-era arms control issues linger on, needing to be negotiated away.
disarmament [uncountable] a process by which a country reduces or gets rid of its weapons or armed forces разоружение; демилитаризация: He said that he thought it wrong to encourage a military spirit, and that it was contrary to the ideals of disarmament. | Negotiations for disarmament have in general led nowhere. | Unfortunately, President Reagan's cold-war rhetoric has worsened the climate for disarmament talks. | The Mitterrand Government also announced their plans for worldwide disarmament initiatives covering nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. | The league was charged also with responsibility for collective security, so that individual states could embark on a programme of disarmament.
nuclear disarmament ядерное разоружение: The world appears to be moving towards nuclear disarmament. | In a way, nuclear disarmament makes matters worse. | In the long term, however, assuring peace and true national security requires some type of mutual and verifiable nuclear disarmament. | The goal would be to increase political stability in the region and accelerate the pace of nuclear disarmament. | Might this not be the moment to give nuclear disarmament a push, by keeping the test-ban promise?
general / universal / total disarmament полное / всеобщее разоружение: He saw total nuclear disarmament in the grasp of his President, then saw it slip away.
general and complete disarmament всеобщее и полное разоружение: The Assembly also adopted the 13-part Resolution 45/58 on general and complete disarmament.
partial disarmament частичное разоружение
multilateral / bilateral disarmament многостороннее / двустороннее разоружение: Their new Social Democratic Party favoured multilateral disarmament as opposed to unilateral nuclear disarmament. | The next government will play an energetic role in seeking multilateral nuclear disarmament.
unilateral / one-sided disarmament одностороннее разоружение: Not so long ago Mr Kinnock was strongly committed to unilateral disarmament. | As late as last year a narrow conference majority wanted to hold the party to unilateral nuclear disarmament. | Unpopular policies such as unilateral disarmament were ditched.
disarmament agreement / treaty соглашение / договор о разоружении: The challenge for the negotiators was as great as for any disarmament treaty. | And it could monitor the implementation of disarmament treaties.
to disarm (1) [intransitive] to reduce the size of your armed forces and to reduce the number of your weapons or get rid of them разоружаться: It is difficult to persuade the Great Powers to disarm. | Both sides must disarm before the peace talks. | Terrorist groups are unlikely to disarm. | He wanted to disarm to give his people a better standard of living.
(2) [transitive] to take away someone's weapons so that they can no longer use them разоружать: U.N. peacekeepers will disarm both forces. | The troops will not attempt to disarm the warring militias. | Five hundred rebels were captured and disarmed.
non-proliferation [uncountable] the limiting of the number of nuclear or chemical weapons in the world, especially by stopping countries that do not yet have them from developing them нераспространение (ядерного / химического оружия): The declaration deals with disarmament and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. | All that argues for the vigorous pursuit of nuclear non-proliferation. | That is the most difficult and persistent area of non-proliferation.
non-proliferation of weapons: The declaration deals with disarmament and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.
to pursue non-proliferation проводить политику нераспространения: We must also pursue nuclear non-proliferation as vigorously as we can.
(nuclear) non-proliferation treaty договор о нераспространении (ядерного оружия): Over 20 countries have now signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. | France today announced its plans to join the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. | Both countries are signatories to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
neutral (adjective) (1) not supporting any of the people or groups involved in an argument or disagreement нейтральный: The army has remained largely neutral in the unprecedented fight to force democratic reform from Milosevic. | The television coverage was by no means neutral. | Those who had decided to remain neutral in the struggle now found themselves required to take sides.
(2) a country that is neutral does not support any of the countries involved in a war нейтральный: Switzerland remained neutral during World War II. | The Congress endorsed a call for neutral countries to mediate between the belligerents. | Nor was the aim ever to destroy an opponent since this might draw neutral states into a hostile coalition. | Otherwise the neutral zone can become an utterly bewildering array of possibilities. | The peace conference would have to be held in a neutral country. | Russia promised to remain neutral unless Germany attacked France.
neutral territory / waters land or sea that is not controlled by any of the countries involved in a war нейтральная территория, нейтральные воды: In this war, there's no neutral territory.
on neutral ground / territory in a place that is not connected with either of the people, groups, or countries that are involved in a discussion, argument, war, or competition на нейтральной территории: The talks will be held on neutral ground. | Let's meet on neutral territory.
neutrality [uncountable] the state of not supporting either side in a war, disagreement etc нейтралитет: This was an unusually specific Soviet comment in the 1970s on neutrality in the Third World. | Their hand-in-glove co-operation has destroyed the final pretence of army neutrality in eastern Bosnia. | But this argument by itself does not justify political neutrality. | In it two standards of neutrality conflict.
strict neutrality строгий нейтралитет
armed neutrality вооруженный нейтралитет
to declare one's neutrality заявлять о своем нейтралитете
to assume neutrality занимать нейтральную позицию: They assume objective political neutrality.
to maintain / observe neutrality сохранять нейтралитет: The Queen has maintained political neutrality throughout her reign. | She maintained a cold neutrality, concentrating on what was, blocking out what might be.
to abandon neutrality отказываться о нейтралитета: Sweden isn't likely ever to abandon its traditional neutrality.
neutrality ends: In 1917, U.S. neutrality ended when two of their ships were torpedoed. | After Pearl Harbor, U.S. neutrality ended.
policy of neutrality политика нейтралитета: The doctrine of political neutrality seeks to implement it through a policy of neutrality.
neutral | neutralist [countable] a country or person that is not fighting for or helping any of the countries involved in a war нейтральное государство; нейтральный / незаинтересованный человек: Sweden and Switzerland were neutrals during the war. | For Britain, Switzerland was a useful and friendly neutral.
to neutralize [transitive] to make a country or population neutral in a war объявлять нейтральной зоной; исключать из сферы боевых действий: The priority was to neutralize the borderlands against the Whites and foreign intervention, to ensure the military security of the Republic.
to demilitarize [transitive – usually passive] to remove military forces and weapons from an area so that there can be no fighting there демилитаризировать; разоружать: He said the UN had made remarkable progress in demilitarizing the region.
demilitarization [uncountable] демилитаризация; разоружение: He said demilitarization of the country was out of the question.
demilitarized zone an area where it is not allowed to have military forces or installations, usually as a result of an official decision to end a war демилитаризованная зона / территория: A demilitarized zone has been created on the border between the warring countries. | The area could be turned into a demilitarized zone. | The demilitarized zone between the two countries is heavily guarded.
weapon [countable] an object that is used in fighting or war, such as a gun, bomb, missile, sword, knife, etc оружие: to modernize nuclear weapons | modernization of nuclear weapons | to redirect one's resources from weapons to the needs of humanity | a redirection of resources from weapons to the needs of humanity | a debate calling for the elimination of all weapons of mass destruction | At the same time, they committed themselves to the massive importation of weapons from the West.
weapons of war | war weapons орудия войны; средства ведения войны
light / heavy weapons легкое / тяжелое вооружение: And it will plan how to monitor heavy weapons if a ceasefire takes hold. | But this week's guerrillas numbered more than 1,000, some of them with heavy weapons. | There were no signs that heavy weapons or aircraft had been brought to the area, and little fortification was visible. | Intense shooting and the boom of heavy weapons erupted in the capital, Lome, before dawn.
offensive / defensive weapon наступательное / оборонительное оружие: He appealed to Khrushchev to remove the offensive weapons under United Nations supervision. | Conventional troop cuts will be accompanied by a reorganization of units in charge of offensive nuclear weapons.
strategic weapons стратегическое оружие: The United States still had a substantial lead in strategic weapons. | This meant that the world would be free of strategic nuclear weapons by the year 1996. | The United States considers strategic weapons negotiations the most pressing issue to be sorted out at the summit.
tactical weapons тактическое оружие: Beneath this umbrella of deterrence are tactical weapons. | Denis Healey was again in the forefront of the efforts to devise satisfactory guidelines for the use of tactical nuclear weapons.
short-range / intermediate-range / long-range weapons оружие малой дальности / средней дальности / большой дальности, оружие малого / среднего / дальнего (радиуса) действия: This is particularly true for a defensive system based on comparatively small, independent units, armed with short-range weapons.
conventional weapons обычные виды вооружений: They proposed new disarmament initiatives covering all categories of conventional and nuclear weapons. | With conventional weapons, the destruction is not so drastic, far more controlled, and more accurate and economical. | It was believed that the Soviets already had superiority in conventional armies and weapons. | During the last decade, the international trade in conventional weapons has almost doubled in volume every five years.
weapons of mass destruction | unconventional weapons weapons that can kill a very large number of people оружие массового уничтожения / поражения
atomic weapons атомное оружие: B-29s were known around the world as the bombers that carried atomic weapons. | They argued that the use of atomic weapons violated both conventional and customary international law. | Under Eisenhower, the United States developed smaller atomic weapons that could be used tactically on the battlefield. | In 1974 congressional committees began raising questions in public about the security and usefulness of the atomic weapons.
nuclear weapons ядерное оружие: Very few of these factors apply to the use of nuclear weapons. | The United States retained its extensive military facilities but agreed to remove its nuclear weapons from the island. | In the ensuing years much larger nuclear weapons were developed. | Distinctions between categories of nuclear weapons should therefore be discouraged.
nuclear / conventional forces ядерные / обычные силы: It committed the forthcoming summit to draw up a mandate for negotiations on short-range nuclear forces. | It was also important to demonstrate the ability of nuclear forces to ride out a surprise attack. | Urging restraint in the development of conventional forces, the statement said that otherwise these could exacerbate political tensions. | Meanwhile, its conventional forces are plenty good enough to banish the nuclear option to the realm of the theoretical.
thermonuclear weapons термоядерное оружие
chemical weapons a poisonous substance, especially a gas, used as a weapon in war химическое оружие: Mitterrand suggested extending Bush's measures to chemical and biological as well as conventional weapons and applying the plan globally. | Many of its chemical weapons are kept in aging and unsafe facilities. | The completion of multilateral negotiations on the abolition of chemical weapons will be pursued. | If we refuse to ratify, some governments will use our refusal as an excuse to keep their chemical weapons.
biological weapons биологическое оружие: Experts say chemical, biological and nuclear weapons are available as never before.
deadly weapon смертоносное оружие: The trebuchet; a twelfth-century example of this deadly weapon, capable of enormous destruction as a siege engine. | He was booked into the Vista jail on charges of assault with a deadly weapon on a police officer.
weapon(s) system система вооружения: But each also has the capability of being built into defensive weapons systems. | Many of the weapons systems that we use now are bigger than before and have longer ranges, and so on. | There were certain additional restrictions upon the types of weapon systems that could be deployed within these limits.
to fire a weapon стрелять из оружия: The troops marched around him, firing their automatic weapons.
to deploy weapons развертывать вооружения: So the United States has no deployed chemical weapons today and will have none in the future.
to develop / create weapons разрабатывать / конструировать / создавать / совершенствовать оружие: It would make it harder to develop new weapons, but not impossible. | By these criteria, some high-tech weapons are cost-effective to develop, even if enemy weapons stagnate.
to make / manufacture / produce/ build weapons производить / выпускать оружие: The amount of uranium in the belt is about four billion tons, enough to make roughly a trillion tactical nuclear weapons. | They tell us that we should not manufacture and deploy nuclear weapons. | They began a crash program to modernize and strengthen their fleet and to build nuclear weapons with ICBMs to carry them.
to acquire / get / obtain weapons приобретать оружие: It is even more worrying that relatively minor powers are now acquiring nuclear weapons. | Some are trying to obtain nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.
to reduce / cut one's reserves / stockpile(s) / arsenal(s) of weapons сокращать запасы оружия: a treaty to reduce the number of nuclear weapons | They pledged to reduce their reserves of long-range nuclear weapons by 30 percent and their chemical weapons stockpile by 80 percent.
to abolish / eliminate weapons of mass destruction уничтожать / ликвидировать оружие массового уничтожения / поражения
to ban weapons of mass destruction запрещать оружие массового уничтожения / поражения: The accord also authorized the creation of a mechanism to monitor the observance of conventions banning biological weapons. | Next week he will appeal to the Senate to ratify a global treaty to ban chemical weapons.
weaponry [uncountable] weapons in general, or all the weapons that a country or army has оружие, вооружение: nuclear / conventional weaponry | It is a highly-trained army, with very sophisticated modern weaponry. | Many of the world's poorer countries are now beginning to invest in nuclear weaponry. | She will recall that Britain halved its sub-strategic nuclear weaponry only last year. | It is true that modern weaponry depersonalized war. | Here the army has its ranges where Rapier missiles and other weaponry are tested.
arms [plural] weapons used for fighting wars оружие: Sales of arms to the Middle East have dramatically increased. | The government is cutting arms expenditure.
small arms стрелковое оружие
a call to arms an order for people to fight against an enemy призыв взяться за оружие
to take up arms (against sb / to do sth) to get weapons and fight взяться за оружие: Boys as young as 13 are taking up arms to defend the city.
under arms with weapons and ready to fight вооруженный, под ружьем: All available forces are under arms. | About one million men are still under arms because the war is not yet over.
to lay down one's arms to put your weapons down and stop fighting сложить оружие, сдаться, капитулировать: He appealed for the rebels to lay down their arms. | The terrorists were urged to lay down their arms. | The State Council gave the armed groups an ultimatum to lay down their arms by March 30 and to open transport routes.
arms trade торговля оружием: Campaigners against the arms trade also voiced concern that the Government is still refusing to allow Parliament proper scrutiny of exports. | The Government has taken some positive measures towards cleaning up the arms trade since coming to power. | The arms trade increases Third World debt, which is a burden born by the poorest.
arms embargo | embargo on arms trade запрет / эмбарго на торговлю оружием / поставки оружия: The deal violated international arms embargoes.
to impose / put / place an arms embargo (on / against sb / sth) вводить / налагать / устанавливать запрет / эмбарго на торговлю оружием / поставки оружия (против кого-л.): The government has imposed an arms embargo on countries involved in international terrorism. | The story starts in 1985, when Britain put an arms embargo on Saddam's military state.
to lift an arms embargo (on / against sb / sth) снимать / отменять запрет / эмбарго на торговлю оружием / поставки оружия (против кого-л.): The United Nations will lift its arms embargo against the country.
delivery system [countable] средство / система доставки (боезарядов к цели): But by 1990 the world was no longer bipolar, except in strategic nuclear weapons and delivery systems.
firearm [countable] (formal) a gun that can be carried easily огнестрельное оружие: Before the next battle Ahmad Granj was strongly reinforced, especially with firearms. | Nevertheless, they were forced into submission, in the first place by a demonstration of the killing power of firearms.
gun [countable] a metal weapon which shoots bullets огнестрельное оружие; ружье; пистолет, револьвер: The British police do not carry guns. | Two policemen were killed in a gun battle last night. | You could hear the noise of guns firing in the distance. | He was shot dead in a gun battle with police.
(automatic) pistol | handgun [countable] a small gun which is held in and fired from one hand пистолет; револьвер: He will identify those two automatic pistols as weapons he test-fired at the Ballistics Lab in order to obtain exemplary rounds. | Kelly screwed the silencer onto the pistol. | Police said Cosby was shot once with a handgun.
revolver [countable] a kind of handgun in which bullets are kept in a revolving cylinder револьвер: He drew out the heavy Colt revolver. | He had only seven rounds of ammunition for the revolver. | His hands were too weak to cock his revolver.
rifle [countable] a long gun which you hold up to your shoulder to shoot, which is designed to be accurate at long distances винтовка; нарезное оружие: I reached for our rifles but they had been removed. | The world overflows with these rifles and their clips. | He carried the rifle in one hand, a couple of magazines in the other.
rifle fire: The air outside snapped with rifle fire. | Those who advanced under the rifle fire of the Marines who had remained in position did not fall.
automatic rifle [countable] автоматическая винтовка
assault rifle | submachine gun [countable] a light machine gun that you hold against your hip or your shoulder when shooting автомат; пистолет-пулемет: They are holding automatic rifles and wearing steel helmets. | They shot him at point blank range with an automatic rifle. | Guards with AK47 assault rifles patrol the camp perimeter but there is no need to keep people in. | A Soviet soldier with a submachine gun checked each person and his or her baggage. | Raymo was out the door, saying something into the bursts from his submachine gun.
machine gun [countable] an automatic gun which can fire a lot of bullets one after the other very quickly пулемет: They used light machine guns and AK forty-sevens. | The two sides joined battle once again using artillery, mortars and heavy machine guns.
machine gun / machine-gun fire: Wounded men all round him tried to get up and retreat, but only brought eruptions of machine gun fire. | Planes dropped bombs and raked the beach with machine gun fire. | There came the sound of men shouting and a burst of machine-gun fire. | Several journalists were caught in machine-gun fire.
gun | pistol | handgun | rifle | submachine gun | machine gun COLLOCATIONS
to be armed with a gun / pistol / handgun / rifle / submachine gun / machine gun быть вооруженным огнестрельным оружием / пистолетом / винтовкой / автоматом / пулеметом: The robbers were usually armed with a pistol and shotgun. | But the police are already complaining about their poor pay and the fact that they are armed only with handguns.
to load a gun / pistol / handgun / rifle / submachine gun / machine gun заряжать огнестрельное оружие / пистолет / винтовку / автомат / пулемет: It was now just light enough on the roof for him to see to load his pistols. | When I was in a safe place, I loaded my pistols, this time with dry powder.
to aim / point / level a gun / pistol / handgun / rifle / submachine gun / machine gun at sb / sth целиться из огнестрельного оружия / пистолета / винтовки / автомата / пулемета в кого-л.: Then he aimed the rifle again, this time at one of the men in the front rank. | The sentries at the Yalu River checkpoint aimed their rifles at me instead of letting me hurry across. | Two men in their late teens or early twenties came into the office and pointed their guns at the cashier's face. | He snapped off a shot, hardly even bothering to point the gun before he squeezed the trigger. | He said thousands of Koreans still levelled guns at one another along the demilitarized zone between them.
to fire / shoot a gun / pistol / handgun / rifle / submachine gun / machine gun стрелять из огнестрельного оружия / пистолета / винтовки / автомата / пулемета, сделать выстрел из огнестрельного оружия / пистолета / винтовки / автомата / пулемета: Suddenly, Joyce fired his pistol and the battle had begun. | The villagers then shoot guns into the branches to ward off evil spirits.
a gun / pistol / handgun / rifle / submachine gun / machine gun fires / goes off пистолет / винтовка / автомат / пулемет выстреливает / стреляет: A police gun went off accidentally during a search of his home.
a gun / pistol / handgun / rifle / submachine gun / machine gun misfires пистолет / винтовка / автомат / пулемет дает осечку
gun / pistol / handgun / rifle shot выстрел из огнестрельного оружия / пистолета / винтовки / автомата / пулемета: Then a pistol shot rang out. | The policeman fired some pistol shots in the air, but there was no answer. | The window frames rattled violently and glass cracked with the sound of a pistol shot.
artillery [uncountable] large powerful guns that are used by an army and are moved on wheels or fixed in one place артиллерия: Our artillery opened up and we heard a fearful wailing and screeching. | The rattle of rifles and the roar of artillery are simply awful. | You can hear the artillery going to work on his defences. | The area has been the scene of sporadic artillery duels over the last six weeks. | Rockets, mortars and artillery rounds rained on buildings.
light / heavy artillery легкая / тяжелая артиллерия: Elite Republican Guard troops deployed tanks and heavy artillery against lightly armed guerrilla units. | Using tanks and heavy artillery, they seized the town.
long-range artillery дальнобойная артиллерия
artillery attack: Winston Churchill, with extraordinary perspicacity, wrote at the time: Meeting an artillery attack is like catching a cricket ball.
artillery fire / shelling / bombardment артиллерийский огонь / обстрел: The hospital had been hit with heavy artillery fire. | He had decided, as he had at York town, that no attack was possible unless preceded by extensive artillery fire. | There has already been artillery fire, and many expect a new offensive in the coming weeks. | Bill Lucas, used the lull to call in artillery fire and F-18 Hornet bomber strikes on suspected enemy positions. | There was fierce hand-to-hand fighting and the area was coming under heavy tank and artillery shelling. | The effects of the artillery bombardment and the air strikes were devastating. | The next day they withdrew under sporadic artillery bombardment. | The city has been flattened by heavy artillery bombardments.
artillery battery артиллерийская батарея: There were also artillery batteries and thousands of yards of interlocking systems of barbed wire defences. | An artillery battery belonging to the Seventh Virginia Regiment galloped after and did some damage.
artillery shell артиллерийский снаряд: What the Navy needs, critics say, is a ship that can fire lots of relatively inexpensive artillery shells. | Enemy forces lobbed a series of artillery shells onto the city.
gun | artillery piece [countable] a metal weapon which shoots shells (артиллерийское) орудие, пушка: Enemy guns fired a shell every two or three minutes. | About 300 tanks, artillery pieces and other heavy vehicles will have crossed the pontoon bridge by Wednesday, military engineers say. | The move from the wood carried the advance units through the long line of artillery pieces.
heavy gun тяжелое орудие: Our troops came under prolonged bombardment by heavy guns.
anti-aircraft gun / weapon a gun used against enemy aircraft зенитное орудие, зенитная установка, зенитка: Then the anti-aircraft guns opened up, firing into the air against an imagined air raid. | Around airfields and other installations of national importance emplacements of the distinctive Soviet ZSU-23 multi-barrelled anti-aircraft guns could be seen. | Both factions were firing anti-aircraft guns and large-calibre machine guns indiscriminately at civilian housing.
cannon [countable; plural – cannon or cannons] (1) a large heavy powerful gun, especially one that was used in the past to fire heavy stone or metal balls (артиллерийское) орудие, пушка: The stillness of night was broken by the boom of a cannon. | Only if none of these targets is available will I open fire on the big battalions with cannon. | They were pursued by cannon fire.
cannon shell / ball снаряд: But it's different, there's a strange hush in the air and the endless rumbling of 50,000 cannon shells. | The cannon ball travels forward this distance before striking the ground. | Unlike the solid cannon ball a mortar shell is hollow and filled with gunpowder.
(2) a gun on an aircraft, ship or tank (артиллерийское) орудие, пушка: I could clearly hear the roar of engines above me, and distinctly heard one long burst of cannon fire.
mortar [countable] a large gun with a short wide barrel which fires bombs or shells very high into the air over a short distance миномет: They used helicopters, airplanes and mortars. | Half a mile up the hill, heavy mortars are lined against them. | The two sides exchanged fire with artillery, mortars and small arms. | The 120mm mortar has a range of 18,000 yards. | Grenades and mortars rained down on Dubrovnik.
mortar attack: He was killed in a mortar attack.
mortar fire: Around dawn they were hit with mortar fire. | I gave no thought to this until heavy mortar fire began to hit extremely close. | Their car came under mortar fire and they had to cross five military checkpoints. | The enemy directed heavy mortar fire at the artillery positions while an assault was launched on all sides of the perimeter.
to fire a mortar стрелять из миномета: The army responded by firing mortars.
launcher [countable] a vehicle or object used for firing a missile or other large weapon пусковая установка, пусковая система: Specifically, the treaty limited each side to 2,400 launchers of all types.
mobile launcher передвижная пусковая установка / пусковая система: You cannot destroy all the mobile launchers, such as Polaris submarines. | Our bombers have knocked out the mobile launchers.
grenade launcher [countable] гранатомет: He is trained to handle a 60-pound automatic grenade launcher.
rocket launcher [countable] a weapon like a tube used for firing military rockets into the air ракетная пусковая установка: Soldiers using a multiple rocket launcher scored a direct hit on the steeple of a church. | Over 7,000 assault rifles, 500 rocket launchers and several tonnes of explosives have been recovered. | We have a report that four unidentified persons have set up a rocket launcher two hundred yards west of seventeenth green.
missile launcher / site / base | (missile) launching site / base [countable] a weapon used for firing military missiles into the air ракетная пусковая установка: The main problem was that the missile launchers were often mobile, moving from site to site. | Here is the line of United States missile sites – the launching sites for defensive and intercontinental missiles – with which the US will protect its food-producing areas. | It is the movement of the United States missile bases to our own Canadian North. | Its terms would include the transfer of all missile-launching bases to the North of Canada.
missile system [countable] ракетная система: There are also important questions about the handling, safeguarding and transport of missile systems. | The Patriot missile system is a good example. | It was reported that the agreement covered missile systems, light armoured vehicles and sea surveillance aircraft.
missile defence system | missile defence(s) | defence(s) against missiles [countable] система ракетной обороны: I believe all responsible countries should contribute the financial and technological resources to develop a global missile defence system. | When that happens, it will be too late to start building a missile defence. | He has been appointed to build national missile defences. | Either side could then deploy defences against missiles.
anti-missile (defence) system [countable] система противоракетной обороны: Next year, the United States unveils its anti-missile defence system. | They are equipped with the 1960s Sea Dart anti-missile system, which is of limited use against modern missiles.
armour [uncountable] specially protected military vehicles carrying weapons, for example tanks and armoured cars бронетанковая техника: The troops were backed by tanks, artillery and other heavy armour. | The squadron's armour is draped in sand-coloured nets that melt into the landscape.
tank [countable] a heavy military vehicle that has a large gun and runs on two metal belts, called tracks, fitted over its wheels танк
light / medium / heavy tank легкий / средний / тяжелый танк
amphibious tank танк-амфибия
tank attack танковая атака
tank mine противотанковая мина
armoured vehicle [countable] боевая машина пехоты: More than forty armoured vehicles carrying troops have been sent into the area. | Then to David Stirling's fury they saw a convoy of light armoured vehicles moving across their line of advance. | Each side could also retain 18,000 armoured infantry combat vehicles weighing between 6 and 16.5 tonnes, and 12,000 lighter armoured vehicles.
armoured personnel carrier [countable] a special vehicle covered with strong metal which is used for carrying soldiers бронетранспортер: The tracks are 28-ton personnel carriers that can carry two dozen Marines, including the three-man crew. | Slowed by heavy rains, the convoy was shielded by helicopter gunships and armoured personnel carriers.
aircraft [plural – aircraft] | plane | aeroplane (British English) | airplane (American English) [countable] a flying vehicle with wings and at least one engine самолет
military / war aircraft / plane военный самолет: At least three military aircraft were destroyed. | The technology of military aircraft is distinct from the civilian variety. | The military planes were headed for Andrews, having completed a training exercise off the coast. | As many as 44 military planes and helicopters have been badly damaged. | Any unauthorized war planes flying in the area are to be shot down.
combat aircraft / plane | war plane | warplane боевой самолет: Any unauthorized war planes flying in the area are to be shot down. | NATO warplanes bombed a dozen towns on Thursday. | The village was attacked by enemy warplanes. | The city was in ruins after a prolonged onslaught by enemy warplanes.
friendly / enemy aircraft / plane свой самолет / самолет противника: Another program, called the battlefield combat identification system, is similar to an Air Force system used to identify friendly aircraft. | They came under attack from enemy aircraft.
reconnaissance aircraft | spy plane [countable] разведывательный самолет, самолет-разведчик: Three reconnaissance aircraft are permanently on patrol. | At one point U.S. military and intelligence services had 17 spy planes over Escobar's home city of Medellin. | During the Cold War, U-2 spy plane pilots installed rear-view mirrors on the aircraft to monitor their exhaust.
cargo / transport aircraft / plane [countable] грузовой / транспортный самолет: The operation would use 11 military cargo planes. | The paratroops, known as Task Force Red, dropped in two waves from C-141 cargo planes. | That cargo plane of yours has a range of three thousand, six hundred sea miles.
(jet) fighter (aircraft / plane / jet) [countable] a small fast military aircraft used for chasing and destroying enemy aircraft истребитель: He was shot down by enemy fighters. | The F22 would clearly outperform any existing fighter aircraft. | That incident occurred about 10 to 15 miles offshore, as the four fighter planes were returning from a training mission. | The plan seems to be to use airlift escorted by fighter planes.
bomber [countable] a large military aircraft that carries and drops bombs бомбардировщик: The invasion on land was supported by bombers in the air. | They were flying the route taken by the heavy bombers 50 years before.
light / heavy bomber легкий / тяжелый бомбардировщик: Two heavy bombers moved across the sky at about ten thousand feet.
long-range / strategic bomber бомбардировщик дальнего действия, стратегический бомбардировщик: The second type of target is strategic bomber bases.
dive bomber пикирующий бомбардировщик: Our dive bombers found numerous carrier-type aircraft lined up on the apron of the field and quickly set them ablaze. | The first wave was composed of 183 planes: level bombers, dive bombers, torpedo planes, and fighters.
fighter bomber [countable] истребитель-бомбардировщик: Knowing that it would call up the fighter bombers, the convoy scattered into whatever cover could be found. | At one point Dostam used fighter bombers to attack the presidential palace and defence ministry. | Pentagon officials acknowledge using two Stealth fighter bombers to drop 2,000 pound bombs.
interceptor [countable] (1) a small fast military aircraft that is designed to intercept and attack enemy aircraft истребитель-перехватчик
(2) a ground-based missile system designed to intercept and attack enemy aircraft or missiles ракета-перехватчик: But the interceptor missed its target in a second test in January. | It would take until 2007 to deploy 50 interceptors – about half the number the Clinton administration originally planned for that date.
attack plane [countable] штурмовик
helicopter | chopper (informal) [countable] a type of aircraft with large metal blades on top which turn around very quickly to make it fly вертолет: Commanders naturally depended greatly on their helicopters. | The injured were ferried to hospital by helicopter. | There was a police chopper waiting for us.
a helicopter hovers вертолет неподвижно зависает в воздухе: The helicopters hovered overhead in formation. | A giant helicopter was hovering overhead, its spotlight trained on the field below.
(helicopter) gunship [countable] a military helicopter used to protect other helicopters and to destroy enemy guns тяжело вооружённый вертолет: Our helicopter gunships flew 118 missions and returned safely to base. | There were two gunships with us, and they circled around first and took no fire. | We were about a minute away from touchdown when the gunships started firing.
aircraft | plane | fighter | bomber | fighter bomber | helicopter COLLOCATIONS
to fly an aircraft / plane / fighter / bomber / fighter bomber / helicopter управлять самолетом, пилотировать самолет; летать на самолете: In March the manufacturer's test pilot flew the aircraft for its annual inspection check flight. | This made him the ideal choice to fly this naval fighter. | Maybe I ought to fly my helicopter up there and find out.
an aircraft / plane / fighter / bomber / fighter bomber / helicopter takes off // lands самолет взлетает // приземляется
to shoot down / down an aircraft / plane / fighter / bomber / fighter bomber / helicopter сбить самолет: The guerrillas shot down one aeroplane and captured the pilot. | Today our fighters have shot down twenty enemy planes. | His plane was shot down over North Vietnam in 1967. | We downed three enemy planes with our missiles. | The jet was downed by a surface-to-air missile.
aircraft carrier [countable] a large ship that carries military aircraft and has a long flat surface where they take off and land авианосец
warship [countable] a ship with guns that is used in a war военный корабль: It will be the largest gathering of warships since the Jubilee Review of 1977. | It will be accompanied by five other warships, including destroyers and guided missile cruisers, and a fuel tanker. | He sailed in the flagship, the greatest warship in the world.
submarine | sub [countable] a ship, especially a military one, that can travel under water подводная лодка: He served aboard the Trident ballistic missile submarines Alabama and Florida. | The planes were on their way to neutralize any enemy submarines which might be lying in wait for us outside Bungo Strait. | Yet it had to be done, for we were entering waters patrolled by enemy submarines. | The submarine lies at a depth of 6,000 feet in the Barents Sea. | We were trying to plot the course of the submarine. | Some two hundred obsolete warships and submarines have been taken out of service during the past five years. | Around 100 submarines withdrawn from service are moored at sea because there are no facilities for treating their radioactive components.
conventional submarine обычная подводная лодка
atomic / nuclear / nuclear-powered submarine атомная / ядерная подводная лодка: It would not be able to spot nuclear submarines, such as Polaris, for example. | He was executive officer aboard the Honolulu, a nuclear attack submarine.
submarine force подводный флот: In contrast with its surface fleet, Britain's submarine force was relatively small.
submarine base база подводных лодок
a submarine emerges подводная лодка всплывает на поверхность
a submarine plunges подводная лодка погружается под воду
a submarine sinks a warship подводная лодка потопляет военный корабль: When she was two hundred and fifty miles off the coast of Ireland the Athenia was attacked and sunk by a submarine.
capability [countable] the number of weapons, soldiers etc that a country has for fighting a war; the ability that a country has to take a particular kind of military action потенциал; возможности; способность: They have the capability to destroy the enemy in days rather than weeks. | The country is nearing the capability to produce nuclear weapons. | The European states retained a latent capability to menace Britain's own security.
military / defence / nuclear (weapons) capability военный / оборонительный / ядерный потенциал, военные / оборонительные / ядерные возможности: Their military capability has gone down because their air force has proved not to be an effective force. | The country has virtually no military capability of its own. | The country would continue to need a robust defence capability as insurance against the unexpected. | The allies agreed to retain NATO's nuclear capability. | Control over these armed forces and the massive nuclear capability is uncertain. | They are responsible states with undeclared, and to a large extent unproven, nuclear weapons capabilities.
to develop / build a military / defence / nuclear capability создавать военный / оборонительный / ядерный потенциал: Several countries are trying to develop a nuclear capability.
ammunition | ammo (informal) [uncountable] bullets, shells, bombs etc that can be fired from a weapon боеприпасы; снаряды, патроны; боезапас: The soldiers kept on firing until they had no more ammunition. | They seem to have an inexhaustible supply of ammunition. | Government forces are running short of ammunition and fuel. | Stocks of ammunition were running low.
live ammunition боевые патроны / снаряды: Policemen who were stoned by the crowd used live ammunition to disperse it, killing at least one person. | They trained in the jungle using live ammunition.
blank / dummy ammunition холостые боеприпасы / патроны / снаряды
ammunition depot склад боеприпасов; артиллерийский склад
bomb [countable] a weapon made to explode when it hits something (авиационная) бомба: From June 1944 the flying bomb attacks were less concentrated spatially, but even more destructive. | We got in there, and the first thing we noticed were the bomb craters.
nuclear bomb a very powerful bomb that uses nuclear energy to kill a lot of people and destroy large areas ядерная бомба: Nuclear bombs were detonated in tests in the desert. | Systems for delivering nuclear bombs to distant targets are very difficult and expensive to produce.
atom / atomic / fission bomb a nuclear bomb that splits atoms to cause an extremely large explosion атомная бомба: The United States might have created the atomic bomb in hundreds of different ways. | Much controversy has surrounded Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb. | For comparison, the atomic bomb explosions that devastated Hiroshima and Nagasaki were about 20 kilotons each. | Far sooner than anyone thought possible, the Russians exploded an atomic bomb.
hydrogen / fusion bomb a very powerful nuclear bomb водородная бомба: On 12 July 1953, when the Soviet Union exploded its first hydrogen bomb, equilibrium was restored. | The Soviet Union tested its own hydrogen bomb within a year, and the nuclear arms race escalated further.
neutron bomb a type of nuclear bomb that kills people but is not intended to cause much damage to buildings, roads etc нейтронная бомба
napalm bomb напалмовая бомба
fragmentation bomb осколочная бомба
dirty bomb грязная бомба (начиненная радиоактивными материалами)
to make / build / manufacture / produce a bomb производить / выпускать бомбу: That is enough to make between 10 and 20 nuclear bombs. | Physics may tell us how to build a nuclear bomb but not whether it should be built. | In retrospect, the decision to build the bomb was fraught with agonizing ambiguities.
to drop a bomb (on sth) | to release a bomb (over sth) сбрасывать бомбу: Enemy planes dropped over 200 bombs during the raid. | They dropped ninety-three bombs and caused casualties and damage at a rate Paris had not experienced before. | During the Second World War, the British dropped a huge number of bombs on Dresden. | He was a crew member of the Enola Gay, the B29 that dropped a bomb on Hiroshima. | The plane released its bombs at 10 000 feet. | Thousands of bombs were released over Dresden.
a bomb falls (on sth): Bombs fell on the city every night for two weeks. | Most of the bombs fell in the south.
unexploded bomb невзорвавшаяся / неразорвавшаяся бомба: to dispose of an unexploded bomb | Unexploded bombs were found there as late as the 1960s.
the bomb / Bomb (old-fashioned) nuclear weapons, considered as a group, especially the hydrogen bomb ядерное оружие; водородная бомба: The US was the first country to have the bomb. | Voices of dissent began to rise against the bomb. | What if the government decided to use the bomb?
nuke [countable] (informal) a nuclear weapon ядерное оружие; ядерная бомба: Pyongyang now warns that it may be forced to resume building nukes and missiles. | They have nukes, and if they're sufficiently pushed, they'll use them.
bomb | explosive device [countable] a weapon made to explode at a particular time взрывное устройство, бомба: In April 1995 a truck bomb exploded in front of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, killing 168 people and injuring more than 500. | There were two bomb explosions in the city overnight. | The bomb disposal unit destroyed the bomb with a controlled explosion. | An explosive device was found at one of London's busiest stations this morning. | A small explosive device was set off outside the UN headquarters today. | The explosive device was timed to go off at the rush hour.
time bomb бомба замедленного действия: It is a time bomb waiting to explode.
to plant / place a bomb / explosive device устанавливать / закладывать взрывное устройство / бомбу: The terrorists planted a bomb near the police station. | Loyalist extremist groups which planted bombs, on the other hand, often gave no warning. | A bomb was planted at the railway station. | They placed bombs on two isolated aircraft and then headed for the hangars
to set off / detonate / explode a bomb / explosive device взрывать / приводить в действие взрывное устройство / бомбу: Terrorists set off a bomb in the city centre. | Terrorists have been setting off bombs in Underground trains. | The terrorists planted and detonated the bomb. | A small explosive device was set off outside the UN headquarters today. | The bomb was detonated by remote control. | The 200 kg bomb was detonated by terrorists using a remote-control device. | What makes him do that is his belief that the man is about to explode a bomb.
a bomb / explosive device goes off / detonates / explodes взрывное устройство / бомба взрывается / срабатывает: The bomb went off at midday. | Bombs went off at two London train stations. | The explosive device was timed to go off at the rush hour. | The first four bombs detonated around noon. | An explosive device detonated on the roof of the building late last night. | A bomb exploded near the country's busiest airport before dawn today. | The bomb exploded on a bus in Jerusalem during the city's morning rush hour.
homemade bomb самодельное взрывное устройство: Between 1978 and 1995, an anarchist and terrorist known as the Unabomber planted or mailed homemade bombs that killed 3 people and wounded 23 others in 16 separate incidents throughout the United States.
bomb threat угроза взрыва: The station was closed for six hours following a bomb threat. | Officials at the school say they received a bomb threat at approximately 11:30 a.m. today. | It belongs to the man who called in the bomb threat 18 minutes before it detonated. | Last Monday, a bomb threat against the county courthouse was delivered by telephone. | Schools cancelled extracurricular activities, and many parents took their children out of classes after word of the bomb threat spread.
missile [countable] a weapon that can fly over long distances and that explodes when it hits the thing it has been aimed at ракета; реактивный снаряд: It also recommends a study of how to protect aircraft from missiles. | They believed U-2s went much higher and they knew Soviet missiles could not reach these altitudes. | Ivanov proposed multilateral talks to assess the threats that prompted the United States to consider developing a missile shield. . | The plane was shot down in error by a NATO missile. | It was established that the missile had landed on a test range in Australia. | Nearly half the missiles landed wide.
nuclear missile ядерная ракета: If the nuclear missiles are militarily useless, why risk alienating the West by hanging on to them? | If they accepted, nuclear missiles would vanish from the earth.
anti-aircraft missile ракета "земля-воздух"
short-range // intermediate-range / medium-range // long-range missile ракета ближнего / среднего / дальнего радиуса действия: How distant now seem the quarrels of the spring over the introduction of new short-range missiles. | He is very keen to reach agreement with the US on reducing long-range nuclear missiles.
tactical / strategic / intercontinental missile тактическая / стратегическая ракета: They have removed all tactical nuclear missiles that could strike Europe. | In August the Soviet Union announced that it would cease producing rail-mounted strategic nuclear missiles from the beginning of 1991.
(intercontinental) ballistic missile межконтинентальная баллистическая ракета: He realized that the Soviets were just as capable of adapting a ballistic missile to carry satellites as he was. | The Western hemisphere would soon be in range of and vulnerable to Soviet intercontinental ballistic missiles, carrying megaton warheads.
guided missile управляемая ракета: Nuclear warheads were also being developed for defensive guided missiles. | Government expenditures can reabsorb these resources in the production of guided missiles, military aircraft, and new schools and highways.
cruise missile крылатая ракета: Another threat to the F-22 is the cruise missile. | Indeed, reports have reached the West of Soviet efforts to develop their own cruise missiles.
to deploy missiles развертывать ракеты: Unlike the United States, Britain had no large sparsely-populated desert areas in which to deploy strategic missiles.
to fire / launch a missile запускать ракету: The missiles were fired / launched at / against enemy targets. | The authorities offered to stop firing missiles if the rebels agreed to stop attacking civilian targets. | The aircraft would be able to launch the missiles at a considerable distance from well-defended targets. | Could a computer failure automatically launch a nuclear missile?
to intercept a missile перехватить ракету
to shoot down a missile сбивать ракету: They claimed to have shot down one incoming missile.
warhead [countable] the front part of a bomb or missile that explodes боеголовка: Britain's stock of plutonium from the civil power programme is estimated to be enough to build 14000 missile warheads. | He asked for immediate help from the United States to dismantle the warheads. | Their warheads are enough to obliterate the world several times over. | If he believes in friendship and partnership, at whom will we be pointing the Trident warheads?
conventional / nuclear / chemical / biological warhead: Currently, the Royal Navy is expected to carry 512 nuclear warheads on its Trident fleet. | It revealed 10,000 chemical bombs, as well as 50 Scud missiles, including at least 30 with chemical warheads for long-range missiles. | Faced with the threat of nuclear, chemical or biological warheads, missing one or two is not an acceptable option.
single / multiple warhead: If multiple warheads are deployed, the different blast waves reinforce each other, increasing their destructive power. | Moscow would order the upgrading of the country's nuclear forces replacing single warheads with multiple warheads.
a missile carries a warhead ракета имеет боеголовку / снабжена боеголовкой: These missiles can carry several warheads each, bringing the total to 6400. | Initial fears that the Scuds were carrying chemical warheads proved groundless. | It is so small and mobile that it could easily be hidden, and it can carry nuclear or conventional warheads.
(artillery) shell [countable] a metal container, like a large bullet, which is full of an explosive substance and is fired from a large gun артиллерийский снаряд: We ran for cover as shells dropped all around us. | Artillery and mortar shells were landing on the outskirts of the city.
to fire / lob a shell выпустить / выстрелить снаряд: What the Navy needs is a ship that can fire lots of relatively inexpensive artillery shells. | The army plans later to fit Challenger with a new gun operating at even higher pressure and firing an improved shell. | Enemy forces lobbed a series of artillery shells onto the city. | Our artillery was lobbing shells into enemy positions.
mortar shell / bomb [countable] минометный снаряд, (минометная) мина: Three mortar shells landed close to a crowd of people. | The mortar shell explodes before it is fired. | Unlike the solid cannon ball a mortar shell is hollow and filled with gunpowder. | A well placed mortar shell can therefore kill a great many victims at once. | Several other mortar bombs have been thrown out into the darkness. | Another bizarre idea thought up by a general was dropping mortar shells from a helicopter.
to fire a mortar shell выпустить / выстрелить минометный снаряд: Rebels fired mortar shells directly into the town square. | Now declare how far you want to fire the mortar shell.
rocket | projectile [countable] a weapon shaped like a tube that flies through the air and explodes when it hits something реактивный снаряд: Heavy artillery and rocket attacks rained down on the camp. | Those rockets landed in the desert. | The projectile was imperfectly aimed but exploded in Verdun, smashing down part of the Archbishop's palace. | The second projectile exploded after hitting a tank.
to fire a rocket выпустить / выстрелить реактивный снаряд: The rebels were firing anti-tank rockets. | He fired a rocket into the middle of the clearing, and the blast broke the string.
rocket attack: These included bombs on London railway lines and a daring rocket attack on the headquarters of MI6 by the Thames. | Mortar and rocket attacks varied in frequency, but they were always a threat. | There has been a renewed rocket attack on the capital.
bullet [countable] a small piece of metal that is fired from a gun пуля: He was killed by a single bullet. | He was shot with six bullets through the window of a hut as he slept. | Several bullet holes could be seen beside a window. | She was hit by an assassin's bullet.
to fire / shoot a bullet выпустить пулю: He fired one more tap-loaded bullet, then ran back parallel to the road. | A gun is known to fire bullets at precisely three hundred and thirty metres per second. | Then it just shot bullets at a tin can.
to riddle sb / sth with bullets / bullet holes изрешетить пулями: The man was riddled with bullets. | The door was riddled with bullet holes.
to take a bullet to be shot: He took a bullet in his thigh.
a bullet lodges somewhere пуля попадает куда-л.: A bullet lodged in the boy's leg.
a hail / volley of bullets град пуль: Three West Belfast men died in a hail of bullets. | The man got within twenty yards of the tape before a hail of bullets finally brought him down. | They grabbed rifles and fired volley after volley into the air to show their erstwhile companions that it could be done.
stray bullet шальная пуля
bullet wound пулевое / огнестрельное ранение: Some of them also had other bullet wounds. | She would die within hours from a bullet wound to her head.
bomb | missile | shell | bullet COLLOCATIONS
a bomb / missile / shell / bullet hits a target бомба / ракета / снаряд / пуля попадает в цель / поражает цель: Multiple-warhead missiles can hit many targets at a time. | The bomb failed to hit its target. | According to first reports, some bombs have hit schools and hospitals. | None of the missiles hit their target.
a bomb / missile / shell / bullet misses a target бомба / ракета / снаряд / пуля не попадает в цель / не поражает цель, ракета пролетает / проходит мимо цели: The missiles missed their target. | All of the missiles missed their target and the attacks resulted in no casualties and little damage to property.
cartridge [countable] a small tube containing explosive powder and a bullet for use in a gun патрон
live cartridge боевой патрон
blank cartridge холостой патрон
cartridge case гильза: Kneeling down on the floor, he picked up an empty cartridge case.
spent cartridge стреляная гильза: Several spent cartridges have already been found. | He aimed his rifle, fired a single shot, then ejected the spent cartridge.
(live) round (of ammunition) | round of live ammunition [countable] a single shot from a weapon, or a bullet or shell for one shot боевой патрон; снаряд: He had only seven rounds of ammunition for the revolver. | He had a handgun and several rounds of live ammunition. | The soldiers had only twenty rounds left. | Rockets, mortars and artillery rounds rained on buildings.
to fire a round произвести / сделать выстрел: Gunmen fired more than 100 rounds into his black Chevrolet Suburban, killing him instantly. | One of the tanks was firing beehive rounds point-blank. | Then Charlie started firing mortar rounds. | Just prior to our assault, they fired 6000 rounds of artillery and bombed it all morning.
grenade [countable] a small bomb that is thrown by hand or fired from a gun граната: In each case the hijackers bluffed the crew using fake grenades. | Tense soldiers detonated concussion grenades in an effort to disperse the crowds. | Simon caught the grenade and hurled it back. | Grenades and mortars rained down on Dubrovnik.
hand grenade a small bomb that is thrown by hand ручная граната: Guerrillas attacked a patrol with hand grenades.
to throw / lob a grenade бросать гранату: A hand grenade was thrown at an army patrol. | My idea of checking out a tunnel is throwing a hand grenade down it.
launch a grenade выстрелить гранату: He was my friend in the team, we were in the field and the army was launching grenades at us.
to pull the pin out a grenade выдернуть чеку гранаты: I pulled the pin out of the grenade.
mine [countable] a type of bomb that is hidden just below the ground or under water and that explodes when people, vehicles, or ships touch it мина
to lay a mine устанавливать мину: They learnt how to set ambushes and lay mines. | We were taught about hand grenades and explosives, and how to set ambushes and lay mines in the most effective pattern.
to strike / hit / go over / run over a mine наткнуться на мину, подорваться на мине: The ship struck a mine and sank. | Five sailors were killed when their ship hit a mine. | We'd been providing cover for the convoy, when a vehicle went over a land mine. | He was killed when his tank ran over a mine.
to detect a mine найти / обнаружить мину
to remove / defuse a mine обезвредить мину
to clear sth of mines очищать от мин: The US forces were clearing the surrounding area of mines.
to detonate / set off / explode a mine взрывать мину: The driver let the blade down and detonated a land mine.
a mine blows up / explodes мина взрывается
land mine наземная мина, фугас: The story deals with the aftermath of warfare, particularly the devastation wreaked by land mines.
antipersonnel mine противопехотная / осколочная мина
antitank mine противотанковая мина
submarine mine подводная мина
delayed-action mine мина замедленного действия
18. The conduct of war
18.1. General concepts
battle [countable; uncountable] a fight between opposing armies, groups of ships, groups of people etc, especially one that is part of a larger war бой, битва, сражение: the Battle of Trafalgar | A career soldier, he had died leading his men into battle at Spion Kop during the Boer War. | The fierce battle for Travnik was now over, the sources said.
to join battle (with sb) | to plunge into battle вступить / ввязаться в бой: Get a good night's rest, men; we join battle with the enemy at first light. | He went to join the battle and, all unskilled in warfare, he was killed at once. | We do not readily plunge into battle with such powerful forces.
to fight / wage a battle вести бой: We invaded Ireland and fought our own battles there. | We are determined and able to fight battles. | He denied yesterday it was waging a battle on two fronts.
to win a battle выиграть сражение: They won the battle by sheer weight of numbers.
to lose a battle проиграть сражение: The French lost the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. | It may be, in the long run, more productive to lose the battle but win the war.
bloody battle кровавое сражение: one of the bloodiest battles of the Second World War
fierce / pitched / raging battle ожесточенный бой; жестокая схватка, яростная битва; решительное сражение: There sieges were less frequent and pitched battles more important. | He describes how he killed two young workers taken prisoner in a pitched battle inside a factory workshop.
at the battle of… в битве при…: Napoleon was defeated by the Duke of Wellington at the battle of Waterloo. | He is finally met and defeated at the Battle of Osterwald.
combat [uncountable; uncountable] organized fighting, especially during a war бой, битва, сражение: These troops have very little experience of active / armed combat. | It is no coincidence that combat soldiers, particularly paratroops, wear camouflage uniforms that somewhat resemble a leopard's spotted coat. | There was fierce combat between the two sides.
close combat ближний бой: This will get your cavalry into close combat and hopefully out of the hail of missiles fairly quickly.
combat mission боевое задание: We flew over 200 combat missions. | In all, there are 15 combat missions involving both subs and surface vessels.
combat unit боевое подразделение: The women were excluded from the combat units. | Friedman was a member of a logistics team rather than a combat unit. | The battle casualties of the combat units were nearly as bad as those on World War II battlefields.
combat zone поле боя: She was actually in the combat zone now and she noted uneasily that once again she was placed firmly beside the count.
fighting [uncountable] a situation in which people fight, especially in a war бой, битва, сражение: The UN failed to stop the fighting in Rwanda. | The fighting is threatening to turn into full-scale war. | There was fighting on the streets of Paris yesterday when police and demonstrators clashed.
fighting breaks out / erupts / starts: Fighting broke out between army units. | The ceasefire appeared to be in tatters on Monday after heavy fighting erupted in Tetovo. | And it was on this day that heavy fighting started at Thermopylai.
to end fighting: On February 19, Aoun and Geaga agreed a six-point pact to end the fighting.
house-to-house fighting уличный бой
heavy / fierce / bitter fighting жестокое сражение: Meanwhile, heavy fighting was going on in and around Tan Son Nhut. | Tass still reported heavy fighting around Bagram on March 8. | Fierce fighting has continued all day on the outskirts of the town. | There was fierce combat between the two sides.
battle | combat | fighting COLLOCATIONS
to send sb into battle / combat: Troops were sent into battle. | Lyndon Johnson first sent U.S. combat troops into battle in March 1965.
to get into / go into / enter into battle / combat вступить в бой: Goblins are primarily support troops – their role is to ensure that your core troops get into combat against their chosen target. | We know we're going into combat. | Neither side was particularly willing to enter into serious combat.
to engage in battle / combat | to be engaged in battle / combat участвовать в бою: Earlier in the day, warriors will engage in mock battle. | At least 200 rebels were engaged in battle. | The soldiers were engaged in hand-to-hand combat.
to be killed / die in battle / combat: Her only brother was killed in battle. | King Olaf died in battle, in 1030. | Corporal Gierson was killed in combat (with the enemy forces). | Over 16 million men were killed in combat. | No one knew how many troops had died in combat.
to be locked in battle / combat to be involved in a long, serious fight with someone: Since then, the rebels and the armed forces of Sierra Leone have been locked in combat.
hand-to-hand combat / fighting рукопашный бой: Infantry deliberately placed themselves in positions where they would be engaged in hand-to-hand combat.
a battle / fighting rages (on) if something such as a battle or war rages, it continues with great violence or strong emotions: The battle raged all day. | The battle raged on. | Except for a Christmas truce, the battle of Hanoi raged through December. | Fierce fighting raged for several days.
action [uncountable] fighting during a war бой; боевые действия: When the action ended there were terrible losses on both sides. | There have been reports of widespread enemy action in the area. | The United States threatened military action against Iraq. | The government warned about the possibility of future military action.
to go into action вступить в бой
to send sb into action направлять в бой: The navy was sent into action. | The men were sent into action with little or no training.
to be in action воевать, вести бой: The army has been in action for the past three months.
to step up action (against sb) усиливать / интенсифицировать боевые действия: And it left open the fourth option, to step up military action against Hanoi and otherwise escalate the war.
to break off action прекратить бой
to see action to take part in military fighting: He saw action in Korea. | He saw action in the trenches.
to be / be listed as / be reported killed in action погибнуть / пасть в бою; числиться погибшим в бою: His father was killed in action in Vietnam. | He was never listed as killed in action. | Their son was reported killed in action.
to be / be listed as / be reported wounded in action быть раненым в бою; числиться раненым в бою: 9 soldiers were killed and 15 wounded in action. | Their son was reported wounded in action.
to be / be listed as / be reported missing in action пропасть без вести; числиться пропавшим без вести: Approximately 58,000 soldiers were dead or missing in action. | Their son was reported missing in action. | Kip was never listed as missing in action.
fight [countable] a battle between two armies, especially the fighting that happens at one particular place and time бой, битва, сражение: the fight for Bunker Hill
bloody / messy / scrappy / violent fight: The town was recaptured after a bloody fight.
to put up a (brave / fair) fight (against sb): They put up a brave fight against the attackers.
engagement [countable; uncountable] (formal) a battle between armies бой, битва, сражение: Heavy engagements are reported between rebels and government forces. | The constitution prohibits them from military engagement on foreign soil.
to fight [intransitive; transitive] to take part in a war or battle сражаться, воевать: The soldiers fought from house to house. | The troops were fighting at close quarters.
to fight against / with sb | to fight sb воевать против кого-л. / с кем-л.: In World War II, Britain fought with Germany. | He fought against the Nazis during World War II. | Vietnam fought France and the US over 30 years. | These men fought the Japanese in the Second World War.
to fight with sb воевать на чьей-л. стороне: In World War II, the Americans fought with the British and French against the Germans. | They fought with the North against the South.
to fight (a war) over / for / about sth воевать за что-л.: The two countries started fighting over control of the northern plains. | The United States fought a war with Mexico over their common border. | Britain and Argentina fought for control of the islands. | We believed we were fighting for freedom and democracy.
to fight in a war: My grandfather fought in the last war. | His grandfather fought on the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War.
to fight a war / battle / campaign вести войну / бой: Neither country is capable of fighting a long war. | The terrorists claim that they are fighting a just war. | We must fight this battle through to victory. | They fight guerrilla campaigns, as befits their savagery, which are extremely difficult to subdue.
to fight on two / several fronts: The war for independence was fought on several fronts.
to fight to do sth: Allied troops fought to liberate the city.
to fight bravely / heroically / valiantly смело сражаться: The young soldiers fought valiantly but were soon defeated.
to fight hard / stubbornly упорно сражаться
to fight to the end / finish to fight until one side is completely defeated сражаться до конца: The two opposing armies fought through to the end. | This battle is our last chance; we must fight to the finish.
to battle [intransitive] to fight against an enemy сражаться
to battle: The opposing armies battled on until night. | For years the two nations battled over territory.
to battle against / with sb: The soldiers battled against the opposing army all day. | Tomorrow we shall battle with old enemies and defeat them.
to engage [intransitive; transitive] to attack or begin to fight with an enemy in battle вступать в бой; открывать огонь
to engage: The two armies engaged at dawn. | Our army engaged with the enemy at the first light of day.
to engage sb: The general did not engage the enemy. | Enemy planes engaged the troops as they advanced into the mountains. | It could engage the enemy beyond the range of hostile torpedoes.
war effort [singular] work that is done during a war, usually by people who are not fighting but are doing other things to help their country keep fighting военная экономика; тыл: He could not participate in the war effort. | He says that Churchill had told them they could be proud to have mined coal for the war effort.
martial law [uncountable] a situation in which the army controls an area instead of the police, especially because of fighting against the government; direct military government, by which ordinary law is suspended, for example during a rebellion военное положение
curfew [uncountable; countable] a law that does not allow people to go outside between a particular time in the evening and a particular time in the morning, especially during a war or a period of political trouble, or the period of time during which people must not go outside according to a curfew law комендантский час: Anyone found in the streets after curfew was shot. | The curfew will end next March, when his debt to society will officially have been paid. | You'll be in trouble if you get home after curfew. | Thousands of people have taken to the streets in defiance of the curfew. | A twelve hour night time curfew is in force.
to break / defy a curfew нарушать / не соблюдать комендантский час: He was shot for breaking the curfew. | In Lucknow crowds of people defied the curfew to celebrate on the streets.
state of emergency [countable] a temporary system of rules to deal with an extremely dangerous or difficult situation, especially when this involves limiting people's freedom чрезвычайное положение
martial law | curfew | state of emergency COLLOCATIONS
to be under martial law / curfew (в стране) действует военное положение / комендантский час: According to press reports, the country is now under martial law. | The town was under curfew, and access to journalists remained restricted for several day.
to declare / impose martial law / a state of emergency ввести / объявить военное положение / чрезвычайное положение: To restore order, the government declared martial law. | The government may declare martial law in response to the latest violence in the region. | Unlike past military rulers, General Musharraf has neither imposed martial law nor suppressed fundamental rights. | The government responded to the outbreak of violence by declaring a state of emergency in Bangkok and four surrounding provinces. | As rebel forces loyal to Nabiyev approached the capital, a state of emergency was imposed on October 22.
to place sth under martial law / curfew ввести / объявить военное положение / чрезвычайное положение: The whole town was placed under curfew. | The whole area was immediately placed under curfew and restrictions were not relaxed until December.
to impose a curfew (on / in / throughout sth) ввести / объявить комендантский час: On May 18 the state authorities imposed a dusk-to-dawn / all-night curfew. | The military regime decided to impose a curfew on the town. | On September 9 it imposed a night curfew in large parts of the republic. | The government imposed a night-time curfew throughout the country.
to lift martial law / a curfew / a state of emergency отменить военное положение / комендантский час / чрезвычайное положение: The military leadership have lifted martial law in several more towns. | Certain constitutional restrictions remained in force until March 22, but the curfew had been lifted as of March 6.
the imposition of martial law / a curfew / a state of emergency: Fighting in the capital led to the imposition of martial law.
the lifting of martial law / a curfew / a state of emergency: Many foreign commentators described the lifting of martial law as a cosmetic exercise. | There has been a call for the lifting of the state of emergency.
combatant [countable] someone who fights in a war воин, боец
non-combatant [countable] (1) someone who is in the army, navy etc during a war but who does not actually fight, for example an army doctor нестроевой солдат / сержант / офицер
(2) civilian someone who is not in the army, navy etc during a war гражданское лицо: Many innocent civilians were killed during the war.
18.2. Disposition of troops
disposition [countable; uncountable] the position or arrangement of something in a particular place диспозиция; дислокация: a map showing the disposition of the American forces | There are questions about the disposition of thousands of American troops in Germany.
to deploy [transitive; intransitive] to organize or move soldiers, military equipment etc so that they are in the right place and ready to be used развертывать(ся); размещать, дислоцировать; перебрасывать (на позицию)
to deploy sb (in a particular place / against sb): They decided it was time to deploy more troops. | Moreover, they were forced to deploy an army for both attack and defence. | Troops have been deployed in the area to counter a possible attack. | The army was deployed against demonstrators calling for an end to one-party rule and the release of detainees.
to deploy sth (in a particular place): NATO decided to deploy cruise missiles. | Either side could then deploy defences against missiles. | The US-made Patriot anti-missile system was deployed in the Gulf war. | This included the number of warheads to be deployed on submarines and other missiles.
to deploy sb / sth to a particular place: Evelyn Y. Gregory, when word came that she was being deployed to Bosnia.
to deploy to a particular place: Senior Marine Corps officers were preparing to deploy to the Gulf.
to position [transitive – always + adverb / preposition] to carefully put something or someone in a particular place размещать, дислоцировать: The French generals positioned thousands of troops along the border. | The army was positioned to the north and east of the city. | Federal troops were positioned around the city. | Army units are to be positioned at all major installations including factories and power stations.
deployment [uncountable; countable] the organization or movement of soldiers, military equipment etc so that they are in the right place and ready to be used развертывание; расположение, размещение; дислоцирование; базирование: the deployment of American forces in the region | the deployment of troops into townships | The General's visit to Sarajevo is part of preparations for the deployment of extra troops. | The Chief of Police ordered the deployment of 2,000 troops to try to stop the rioting. | Missile deployment did much to further polarize opinion in Britain. | The perpetuation of nuclear deployments is morally unacceptable.
position [countable – usually plural; uncountable] a place where an army has put soldiers, military equipment etc позиция; расположение: They were manoeuvring for position. | The enemy, aware of the strength of his position, simply sat still and waited for us.
military / battle position: UN Forces attacked Serb military positions around Sarajevo. | Government forces destroyed military positions and captured enemy soldiers.
enemy position позиция / расположение сил противника / врага: an attack on the enemy positions | Bombs were dropped on the enemy position.
fortified positions укрепленные позиции
defensive position оборонительная позиция, оборонительный рубеж, полоса обороны
offensive position наступательная позиция, позиция для наступления
to be in position находиться на позиции: As soon as his officers were in position, the police commander walked up the path towards the house.
to take up a position | to move into position занимать позицию: The troops took up their battle positions at the front line. | Some 28,000 US troops are moving into position.
to attack / storm a position атаковать позицию, нанести удар по позиции
to take / capture / occupy a position занять / захватить позицию
to hold a position удерживать позицию
to give up / surrender a position сдать позицию; капитулировать; потерпеть выражение
line [countable] the edge of an area that is controlled by an army, where soldiers stay and try to prevent their enemy from moving forward оборонительный рубеж; линия фронта: Their unit was shelling the German lines only seven miles away. | German armoured divisions pierced the Russian lines.
line of defence линия обороны
to break through the line(s) прорвать оборону: They finally broke through the German line.
behind / inside (enemy) lines в тылу (противника): Paratroopers were dropped behind enemy lines to capture key points on the roads into the city. | Airborne troops were dropped by parachute behind enemy lines. | They were taken prisoner while on a reconnaissance mission behind enemy lines. | There was little or no sabotage behind the lines. | One regiment was trapped behind enemy lines. | The base was stationed 100 miles inside enemy lines.
front | front line [countable] the area where two armies face each other and fight during a war фронт, передовые позиции, передовая; линия фронта; авангард He joined the army, and was immediately sent to the front. | Her husband was shot down over the Western Front. | These front-line defences are backed up by armoured units in reserve.
at / on the front: Her husband is fighting at the front. | There has been no activity on this front. | Her grandfather spent four years on the Western Front. | Yet the news wasn't all bad on the northern front.
at / in / on the front line(s): Tens of thousands of soldiers died at the front line. | It would be like having all our soldiers in the front line at the same time. | 68% of people approve of women fighting on the front lines.
behind / beyond the front line: We were now just a few kilometres behind the front line. | Or his practice of filming in the front line, and even beyond the front line?
the field (of battle) the time or the place where there is fighting in a war – used especially to talk about fighting in general район боя; поле боя / сражения: Civilians walked miles to villages away from the field of battle.
in / on the field (of battle): The new weapon has not yet been tried out in the field. | The new tank has yet to be tested in the field. | He was awarded a medal for distinguished service in the field. | It is better to negotiate than to settle political disputes on the field of battle. | Numbers on the field of battle counted for little.
battlefield | battleground [countable] a place where a battle is being fought or has been fought поле боя / сражения: The need to win air superiority over the battlefield was as vital as ever. | They carried the wounded from the battlefield. | The helicopters are designed to quickly lift soldiers and equipment to the battlefield. | New guns firing high explosive shells were incorporated into the battlefield.
on / in a battlefield / battleground: Thousands died on the battlefields of northern France. | Thousands of soldiers met their doom on this very battlefield. | The Gulf War was a disaster for men and women fighting together on the same battlefield.
home front [singular] the activities and living conditions of the people who stay at home during a war тыл (вся страна в противоположность фронту): Other news from the home front.
on the home front в тылу: It was correctly viewed as the low point of wartime morale on the home front. | During World War I she was conspicuous for her public relief work on the home front. | The film is set on the home front in 1943. | Racial violence on the home front and the war abroad contended for headlines.
the rear [singular] the back part of an army, fleet, etc тыл: We moved from the orchard taking the prisoners with us and leaving the wounded to be taken to the rear.
from the rear с тыла: The column was attacked from the rear. | They had us pinned with fire from the front, the left flank, and the rear.
to bring up the rear to be at the back of a line or group of people замыкать (колонну)
flank [countable] a position on the right or left side of an army, or the people in that position фланг: The right flank was less well defended and the nature of the terrain complicated defences. | A troop of enemy cavalry trotted towards the Dutch right flank.
on the (right / left) flank на (правом / левом) фланге: I was out on the flank with my platoon, and to my right was some high elephant grass. | Four 109s came in on the left flank, firing from such a ridiculous range that Patterson knew the pilots were inexperienced.
from the flank с фланга: The assault element, led by Captain Ramirez, opened up from their right flank.
flank attack фланговая атака
to attack the (right / left) flank | to make a (right / left ) flank attack | to attack the enemy on the (right / left) flank атаковать противника с фланга: We were attacked on our left flank.
to turn the enemy's flank обойти фланг противника
18.3. Fighting a battle
to clash [intransitive] if two armies, groups etc clash, they start fighting (used in news reports) столкнуться, схватиться; вступать в (вооруженное) столкновение
sb / sth clashes: Troops clashed near / on the border.
sb / sth clashes with / against sb / sth: US planes clashed with enemy fighter aircraft again today. | Greek forces clashed against Turks in the hills. | Police have clashed with demonstrators again today.
sb / sth clashes with sb / sth over sth: France and Britain are likely to clash over the proposed space programme.
to skirmish [intransitive] to be involved in a skirmish перестреливаться; сражаться мелкими отрядами: They were skirmishing close to the minefield now. | They skirmished briefly with soldiers from Fort Benton. | Police skirmished with youths on the estate last Friday.
to spot | to locate | to pinpoint [transitive] to find or discover the exact position of something определять местонахождение (противника); засекать (цель): Luckily, the enemy planes were spotted early. | Police are still trying to locate the suspect. | The enemy was trying to pinpoint our position. | The team went behind enemy lines to pinpoint the exact locations of missile launchers. | Our planes pinpointed the target. | Satellite pictures helped to pinpoint the locations of 13,000 troops. | Computers pinpointed where the shells were coming from.
to fire [intransitive; transitive] to cause a weapon to shoot bullets or missiles стрелять; вести огонь
to fire: He regained his balance, took aim, and fired. | As soldiers jumped out of the lorries, firing all around, helicopter gunships appeared overhead. | The gunmen fired, and police fired back.
to fire at / on / into sb / sth: As soon as we crossed the border, enemy troops started firing at us. | Soldiers fired on the crowd. | Seventeen people were killed when security forces fired on demonstrators. | Police fired into the crowd. | Then the anti-aircraft guns opened up, firing into the air against an imagined air raid.
to fire a gun / weapon / rifle / pistol (at sb / sth): Joyce fired his pistol and the battle had begun. | Suddenly the car stopped, and the passenger got out and fired a Kalashnikov rifle at the police car. | It was reported that several missiles were fired at the army base. | The rebels had held Makati since Saturday, firing mortars and machine guns at government troops ringing the district. | The rebels fired their machine guns into the air. | The pistol / gun / rifle / weapon has obviously been fired recently.
to fire bullets / rounds / shells / missiles / rockets (at sb / sth): Guerrillas fired five rockets at the capital yesterday, killing 23 people. | The guerrillas still fire rockets from well inside the security perimeter. | The F 16 fighter plane fired two missiles at the enemy aircraft. | The ambassador denied that any missiles had been fired across the border. | There exist rifles which fire bullets faster than the speed of sound. | By one analysis, Saddam's forces have fired more missiles in the last year than in the previous nine. | Just prior to our assault, they had fired 6, 000 rounds of artillery and bombed it all morning.
to fire point-blank (at sb) стрелять в упор
to shoot (1) [transitive] to deliberately kill or injure someone using a gun застрелить; расстрелять
to shoot sb (dead): The police had orders to shoot anyone who attacked them. | A policeman was shot dead in the city centre last night.
to shoot someone in the head / leg / stomach etc: He was shot in the head / back / leg while trying to escape. | She was shot three times in the head.
to shoot someone at close / short / point-blank range / close quarters | to shoot sb point-blank to be very close to them when you shoot застрелить в упор: The victim was shot at close range. | Both men were shot at point-blank range. | The victim was shot point-blank in the chest.
to shoot (sb) on sight to shoot someone as soon as you see them: Armed officers had instructions to shoot the kidnapper on sight.
(2) [intransitive; transitive] to cause a weapon to shoot bullets or arrows стрелять
to shoot: Troops began shooting in all directions. | Make sure you hold the gun steady and shoot straight.
to shoot a gun / weapon / rifle / pistol etc: I learned to shoot a gun / rifle / revolver when I was a child. | Tod's grandfather taught him to shoot a rifle. | He let her shoot his gun from the hip.
to shoot bullets / arrows: It's only a toy – it doesn’t shoot real bullets. | Then it just shot bullets at a tin can. | They shot arrows from behind the thick bushes.
to shoot at sb / sth // into sth: Two guys walked in and started shooting at people. | We used to shoot at empty bottles for practice. | The villagers then shoot guns into the branches to ward off evil spirits.
to shoot to kill to intend to kill someone when you shoot at them стрелять на поражение: The troops were told to shoot to kill. | The Defence Minister ordered troops to shoot to kill if attacked.
to shoot down / up [transitive] to kill or seriously injure someone by shooting them, especially someone who cannot defend themselves застрелить; расстрелять: The army were accused of shooting down unarmed demonstrators. | Then two men came in and shot up the entire lobby.
to shoot down | to down [transitive] to make an enemy plane crash to the ground, by firing weapons at it сбить (огнем) самолет: The guerrillas shot down one aeroplane and captured the pilot. | Tanimizu is said to have shot down 32 enemy aircraft. | The plane was shot down in error by a NATO missile. | He was shot down over Denmark and spent three years in a prison camp. | His plane was shot down over France in 1944. | We downed three enemy planes with our missiles. | A couple of jet fighters were downed during the five-week rebellion. | The jet was downed by a surface-to-air missile.
to launch [transitive] to send a missile or spacecraft into the air or into space запускать / выпускать (военную ракету, реактивный снаряд); запускать (космическую ракету, спутник)
to launch a missile / rocket: On the first day of the war over 400 missiles were launched. | The missiles were launched against enemy targets. | They could launch their rockets before you could get to your office.
to launch a (space) rocket / satellite / shuttle: A test satellite was launched from Cape Canaveral. | China is planning to launch a space rocket later this month. | NASA will try to launch the space shuttle again on Sunday. | The first artificial earth satellite was launched from a site in the U.S.S.R. on October 4, 1957.
to blaze (away) [intransitive; transitive] to fire quickly and continuously, making a lot of noise стрелять непрерывно, строчить
to blaze (away) (at sb / sth): The captain ordered the men to blaze away. | They blazed away at the enemy. | An enemy plane roared overhead, its gun blazing. | The guns were blazing away at them but they just kept coming. | The artillery blazed without a pause throughout the battle. | She took the gun and blazed away with calm and deadly accuracy.
to blaze sth away: He blazed away all his ammunition.
to bomb [transitive] to attack a place by dropping bombs on it from a plane бомбить, сбрасывать бомбы: NATO aircraft bombed the town again last night. | Government aircraft have been bombing civilian areas. | They bombed the target in perfect weather and unopposed, and returned to Jersey.
to be heavily / badly bombed: This whole area was heavily bombed during the conflict. | The town was heavily bombed in World War II.
to be bombed out to be forced to leave a place because of being attacked by bombs разбомбить; оставить без жилья, разбомбив его
sb is bombed out (of sth): My aunt was bombed out during the war, and had to live with my mother. | Half the town was bombed out of their homes in the raid.
sth is bombed out: London was bombed out. | He started the new school after his former school was bombed out.
to nuke [transitive] (informal) to attack an enemy with nuclear weapons использовать ядерное оружие (против кого-л. / чего-л.), нанести ядерный удар: A deterrent must still be maintained against any small country that puts together a bomb and threatens to nuke an American city. | The two countries were threatening to nuke each other.
to bombard [transitive] to attack a place by firing guns at it for a long time or dropping a lot of bombs on it подвергать артиллерийскому / минометному обстрелу, бомбардировать, подвергать бомбардировке
to bombard sth (with sth): The allied forces bombarded the enemy trenches for weeks. | Rockets bombarded residential areas of the Afghan capital Friday. | The town has been heavily bombarded by the army backed by the air force. | For a whole week, the little town was bombarded with enemy shells until the citizens were forced to yield. | When the police tried to advance they were bombarded with petrol bombs.
to shell [transitive] to fire shells at something, especially from large guns обстреливать из артиллерийских орудий, вести артиллерийский огонь, бомбардировать: The army has been shelling the town since yesterday. | The rebels shelled the densely-populated suburbs near the port. | Border towns have been shelled by enemy aircraft for the past two months.
to snipe (at sb) [intransitive] to shoot at people from a hidden position стрелять из укрытия; вести снайперский огонь: The rebels have started sniping at civilians. | Gunmen have repeatedly sniped at US Army positions. | A member of the security forces was killed and two others were wounded in sniping incidents.
to target [transitive] (1) to aim to aim something, such as a missile, bomb, or weapon, at a target нацеливать
to target sth on / at sb / sth: Nuclear missiles will no longer be targeted on these cities. | The missiles were targeted on the enemy capital. | The missiles are targeted at several key military sites.
to aim sth at sb / sth: The rocket-launchers are aimed at Washington. | There are hundreds of nuclear missiles aimed at the main cities.
(2) to intend or try to attack someone or something выбирать в качестве цели: The army headquarters were targeted and badly damaged. | In 23 attacks, the terrorists targeted military bases. | It is hoped that civilians will not be targeted during the war.
to aim [intransitive; transitive] | to point [transitive] to direct a weapon towards someone or something that you want to hit целить(ся), прицеливаться
to aim: He picked up his shotgun, aimed, then fired. | Aim (the arrow) a little above the target.
to aim sth (at sb / sth): When given the order, the squad aimed their weapons. | The sentries at the Yalu River checkpoint aimed their rifles at me instead of letting me hurry across.
to aim at / for sb / sth: The rebels claim they only aim at military targets. | You can tell he was a professional killer – they always aim for the chest.
to point sth at sb / sth: He stood up and pointed his gun at the prisoner. | Jake was pointing a gun at the door.
to take aim (at sb / sth) to point a gun or weapon at someone or something you want to shoot прицеливаться: For those few seconds when they are taking aim, the soldiers are exposed to enemy fire. | The second enemy took aim at point-blank range. | Alan took aim at the target.
clash [countable] a short fight between two armies or groups (used in news reports) (вооруженное) столкновение, стычка, конфликт: Ten soldiers were wounded in a clash with the rebels. | In the last two months, there have been numerous border clashes. | Four people were reportedly killed during violent clashes with the Army in the capital. | According to an April 22 official report, 15 rebels and seven others were killed in clashes between rebels and security forces.
skirmish [countable] a short fight between small groups of soldiers, ships etc, which is usually not planned, especially one that happens away from the main part of a battle (used in news reports) перестрелка между мелкими отрядами; небольшой бой, небольшая стычка / схватка: The young soldier was killed in a skirmish with government troops. | Government soldiers ran into a group of rebels, and a skirmish followed. | Last night skirmishes were reported along the border. | Border skirmishes between India and Pakistan were common. | This was the first tiny skirmish in what was to be a major battle.
fire [uncountable] shots fired from a gun, especially many guns at the same time огонь, стрельба: You will soon be facing enemy fire. | There was a sudden burst of machine gun fire. | We noticed that the enemy fire was now being directed at our part of the field. | His car was raked with fire from automatic weapons. | I gave no thought to this until heavy mortar fire began to hit extremely close.
to open fire (on sb / sth) открывать огонь: | The colonel gave the order for the soldiers to open fire. | Troops opened fire on the rebels. | Troops opened fire on a group of unarmed demonstrators in the city centre.
to hit sb / sth with / by fire: Around dawn they were hit with mortar fire. | The ship was hit by fire from a German plane. | It was destroyed in a forced-landing having been hit by anti-aircraft fire.
to be / come under fire подвергаться обстрелу: Our platoon was under fire from a machine gun position. | The planes came under anti-aircraft fire. | Peacekeeping forces came under fire in isolated incidents. | The city came under fire from anti-government forces last night.
to cease fire | to hold one's fire прекращать огонь: The command was given to cease fire. | The rebels agreed to hold their fire.
to return fire отвечать на огонь: The troops returned fire and then retreated. | Our tanks and tracks kept going a little bit and stopped to return fire immediately.
to be in the line of fire / firing line to be where you may be hit if someone shoots находиться на линии огня: The reporters happen to be sitting there in the line of fire with nothing better to do. | A couple of civilians were caught in the firing line.
to exchange fire (with sb) перестреливаться, обмениваться огнем
exchange of fire перестрелка: Armed police arrived on the scene, and there was an exchange of fire. | The two were reportedly killed in an exchange of fire during a police raid.
shot [countable] (1) the action of firing a gun or another weapon выстрел: The policeman was killed by a single shot. | He murdered Perceval at point blank range with a single shot.
to fire / take a shot at sb / sth выстрелить: He pulled out his rifle and fired three shots. | The gunmen fired shots or threw grenades. | The police fired two shots at the suspects before they surrendered. | Police fired shots into the air and used water cannon to disperse the crowd. | A crazy man took a shot at her from a rooftop.
to miss a shot промахнуться
a shot hits / misses sb / sth: The third shot hit the officer in the chest. | The first shot missed my head by just a few inches.
(2) the sound of a gun being fired выстрел, звук выстрела: From the hut behind them they heard a single shot. | The neighbours say they heard four shots.
a shot rings out звучит / раздается выстрел: A shot rang out and then there was silence. | Two shots rang out, and security guards rushed over, guns drawn.
burst [countable] a short sudden and usually loud sound автоматная / пулеметная очередь: We heard a sudden loud burst of machine gun fire. | Hours later, three short bursts of automatic gunfire sent police scurrying for cover. | He sprayed two bursts of gunfire into a crowd outside the defence ministry and injured 10 people before he was fatally wounded.
to fire (in) a burst: At that moment, he fired a burst and killed the enemy. | He fired an experimental burst into the air, and waved his armoured troops forwards. | The men waded fast through the water after him, crouching, firing short bursts towards the trees. | I ran to join them and raised my rifle to fire a burst for cover as they ran past me. | They fired in long bursts, which depleted their ammunition.
volley / hail [countable] a lot of shots from guns fired at the same time залп (одновременный выстрел из нескольких огнестрельных орудий); град пуль / снарядов: The soldiers fired a volley into the air as a warning to the crowd. | Three mounted officers rode into the field after the volley.
hail / volley of bullets / shots / fire: Sandra Mitchley, 35, died immediately in a hail of bullets. | The man got within twenty yards of the tape before a hail of bullets finally brought him down. | Three West Belfast men died in a hail of bullets. | The aircraft were met by a hail of gunfire. | Before it was lowered into the ground, a volley of shots was fired over the General's coffin.
to fire / let off a volley дать залп: He fired off a volley of shots from his semi-automatic rifle. | A man fired a volley of shots at them. | Even as the funeral took place, guerrillas hidden nearby fired / let off a fresh volley of machine-gun fire.
to salute the enemy with a volley of fire встретить врага залпом огня
bombing [uncountable; countable] the use of bombs to attack a place бомбометание; бомбежка: The bombing lasted for two nights. | Heavy bombing has gutted the city. | Aerial bombing of rebel positions is continuing.
around-the-clock bombing круглосуточная бомбежка
area / carpet / saturation / indiscriminate / random bombing бомбометание со сплошным поражением, ковровое бомбометание, беспорядочная бомбежка
pinpoint / precision bombing прицельное бомбометание
bombing campaign / raid: The south-west of the country suffered an intensive bombing campaign. | Nixon meanwhile began the Christmas bombing campaign against Hanoi. | Targets for R.A.F. bombing raids were pinpointed. | Thousands had died on the battlefields, in rearguard bombing raids and in repressive purges.
bombardment [uncountable; countable] a continuous attack on a place by big guns and bombs артиллерийский / минометный обстрел, бомбардировка: The bombardment continued for a terrible nine hours. | These factors made the camps prime targets for enemy attack and bombardment. | There was much anger over the bombardment of the capital city.
heavy / intensive / sustained bombardment: Despite a heavy bombardment of the Occra Hills the abuses resumed almost immediately. | The city has been flattened by heavy artillery bombardments.
preliminary bombardment артиллерийская подготовка: The preliminary bombardment was the heaviest so far mounted: over two weeks 3,100 guns fired some 471/2 million shells.
aerial / air / artillery / naval bombardment an attack from the air, land, or sea: In 1932 Stanley Baldwin had revealed that, in the opinion of the experts, there was no defence against aerial bombardment. | The use of modern weapons has made it more difficult to protect civilians from aerial bombardment. | Air bombardment raised criticism on the humanitarian grounds that innocent civilians might suffer. | The devastating air bombardment of the last four weeks is only the latest of a series of assaults by foreign armies. | The effects of the artillery bombardment were devastating. | Their presence frequently meant indiscriminate artillery bombardments against innocent villages suspected of harbouring the Vietcong.
to begin / mount / conduct a bombardment: The Germans began their bombardment of Paris in early 1870. | The preliminary bombardment was the heaviest so far mounted: over two weeks 3,100 guns fired some 471/2 million shells.
(to be / come) under bombardment | to suffer a bombardment: The capital is still under constant bombardment by the rebel forces. | Sarajevo is coming under heavy bombardment from Serb forces. | Rebel fighters are still holding out under a relentless artillery bombardment. | Scarborough even suffered a naval bombardment.
shelling [uncountable] the firing of shells, especially from large guns артиллерийский обстрел / огонь: Out on the streets, the shelling continued. | It was almost dark now and everyone had settled into their dugouts, prepared for another night of shelling and mortaring. | They appeared completely unconcerned about the shelling going on around them.
light // heavy / intensive shelling: Soon after dawn there was another round of heavy shelling in the eastern part of the city.
constant / round-the-clock shelling
shelling of sth: The shelling of the town continued well into the night. | Shelling of enemy lines continued all day.
shelling begins / breaks out / erupts: Shooting and shelling erupt sporadically from both sides.
to start / begin // resume shelling: The shelling was resumed, and the machine gun finally knocked out by a heavy shell.
target [countable] an object, person, or place that is deliberately chosen to be attacked цель; мишень: Any major airport or station is potentially a terrorist target.
target for / of sb / sth: The docks are the main target for the bombing raids. | Foreigners have become targets for attack by terrorists. | The commonly used roads are the targets of heavy fire.
military / civilian target: potential military targets such as air bases and oil fields | The GIA continued its attacks on civilian targets.
ground / aerial target наземная / воздушная цель
to fire / shoot at a target стрелять по цели / в мишень
to hit / strike a target попасть в цель, поразить цель: The Lancasters had to drop the bouncing bomb from precisely sixty feet to hit their target. | I had four shots but I didn't even hit the target.
to miss a target промахнуться, не попасть в цель: The missiles missed their target. | The bomb missed its target by several kilometres. | But the interceptor missed its target in a second test in January.
off target неточно, мимо цели
target area район цели: When the plane gets to the target area, it drops the missile and returns to base.
prime target (of / for sb / sth) a very likely target: These points will form the prime target of an enemy attack. | Railway stations are prime targets for bombs. | Holding a US passport makes these tourists a prime target for terrorists. | These factors, however, made the camps prime targets for enemy attack and bombardment.
pinpoint accuracy very exact (очень) высокая точность: The missiles can hit targets with pinpoint accuracy. | The missiles can be fired against enemy targets with pinpoint accuracy. | Radar can locate an underwater target with pinpoint accuracy.
a good / excellent / crack shot someone who is good at shooting меткий стрелок: Sergeant Cooper is an excellent shot. | Ed Kelley was a good shot. | She's an accomplished horse rider and a crack shot.
a bad shot someone who is bad at shooting плохой стрелок, мазила
sniper [countable] someone who shoots at people from a hidden position снайпер; меткий стрелок: One of them killed the sniper and probably saved some of the command group. | The sound of machine guns was varied by the crack of snipers and the roar of the barrage ahead of them. | The sniper is believed to be shooting from a hillside just east of the freeway. | It is commonplace for snipers to open fire on aid convoys. | Sniper fire has claimed countless lives these past few weeks. | A Navy medic was wounded by sniper fire.
to advance [intransitive] to move towards someone or something, especially in a slow and determined way (used especially to talk about soldiers) наступать; продвигаться вперед
to advance: Villagers hid in the hills as the troops advanced. | Our army has advanced two miles. | A line of US tanks slowly advanced. | The enemy advanced with fixed bayonets.
to advance on sth / against sb наступать (на что-л. / кого-л.): Troops advanced on the rebel stronghold. | Our troops advanced on the next town. | The forces of the enemy advanced against us.
to advance across / through / towards / to a place передвигаться (в определенном направлении): The army advanced across the plain. | In early 1940 the army began to advance across France. | Gorbad advanced towards the city from the east, roughly following the line of the river Aver.
to attack [intransitive; transitive] to start using weapons to try to defeat an enemy атаковать, нападать, штурмовать
to attack | to go in: The enemy attacked at dawn. | The enemy attacked treacherously. | They attacked with cavalry but were repulsed. | All the soldiers were ordered to go in and seize the enemy position.
to attack sb / sth: Our troops attacked the enemy. | Guerrillas attacked an army patrol. | Army tanks attacked a village near the capital on Sunday. | US jets attacked five air defence sites in the north. | The village was attacked by the French air force.
to storm [transitive] to suddenly attack and enter a place using a lot of force брать приступом, штурмовать; атаковать: The men stormed the fort. | Several dozen rebels stormed the ambassador's residence. | The city was stormed by rebel forces. | Police stormed the building and arrested twelve men.
to fall on [intransitive] (literary) to attack someone or something eagerly нападать, атаковать: The soldiers fell on the enemy.
to charge [intransitive; transitive] to attack someone or something by running very fast towards them атаковать: The colonel gave the order to charge. | The violence began when the police charged (at) a crowd of demonstrators. | The security men panicked as angry fans charged towards them.
to press / push / thrust (one's advance) forward [transitive; intransitive] (especially military) to (cause to) advance, often with difficulty наступать; продвигаться вперед: As the army pushed forward, the death toll mounted. | Our army has pushed forward to new positions. | Our army succeeded in thrusting forward to new positions formerly held by the enemy. | The officer ordered the soldiers to push their advance forward in spite of heavy enemy gunfire.
to raid [transitive] to suddenly attack a place and cause a lot of damage совершать внезапное нападение / рейд / налет / набег / вылазку: Vikings raided settlements on the east coast. | The tribe raided a neighbouring village, inflicting many casualties. | In 1943, allied bombers repeatedly raided Hamburg. | The rebels raided the tiny mountain town early on Tuesday.
to send in [transitive] to send soldiers, police etc somewhere to deal with a difficult or dangerous situation; to cause soldiers to move into battle посылать в бой: The attack is not succeeding well; we shall have to send in more men. | British troops were sent in as part of the peacekeeping force. | UN troops were sent in as the situation got worse. | Government forces were sent in to fight the rebellion. | He has asked the government to send in troops to end the fighting.
to strike [intransitive; transitive] to attack someone or something, especially suddenly атаковать, наносить удар
to strike (at / against sth): Fighter bombers struck at the presidential palace. | We will use these air bases to strike against the northern territories. | Terrorists were able to strike in one country then flee to another. | The killer says he will strike again.
to strike sth: Guerrillas struck a U.N. camp, killing 75. | Opponents of the war say that civilian villages have been struck several times.
to hit (1) [transitive] to attack something or wound someone with a bomb, bullet etc; if something such as a bullet or bomb hits something or someone, it lands on them попадать в цель: The bomb failed to hit its target. | None of the missiles hit their target. | Our ship was badly hit and sank within minutes. | Although of limited accuracy by modern standards, the Scuds were reasonably successful at hitting large targets such as urban settlements. | According to first reports, some bombs have hit schools and hospitals. | A second shot hit her in the back.
(2) [transitive; intransitive] to attack someone suddenly нападать, атаковать: The convoy was hit by Afghan government troops.
advance [countable] a forward movement towards someone or something (used especially to talk about soldiers) наступление: The defences are intended to obstruct any advance by tanks and other vehicles.
advance on sth / against sb наступление (на кого-л. / что-л.): The rebels continued their advance on the capital city. | In an exercise designed to be as real as possible, they simulated an advance on enemy positions.
advance across / through / towards / to a place передвижение (в определенном направлении): That there was some reorganization at this point, before the final advance towards enemy country, seems not unreasonable.
to make / press an advance проводить наступление: Our troops made an advance against the enemy.
attack [countable; uncountable] the act of using weapons against an enemy in a war; an organized attempt to defeat an enemy, using weapons атака, наступление; наступательный бой; нападение: a bitter / blistering / savage / scathing / sharp / violent / scurrilous / vicious / unprovoked / wanton attack | the threat of nuclear attack | Attack is said to be the best form of defence. | The attack began at dawn. | A security fence, with watchtowers, protects the base against attack by ground forces. | These bomb blasts suggest that the terrorists are going on the attack again.
attack on / against sb / sth: a campaign of air attacks on strategic targets | This was the possibility of a sneak enemy air attack on Tokyo, the capital of the Empire.
to launch / mount an attack | to go into attack начинать атаку, предпринимать атаку, идти в атаку: Rebel forces launched an attack late Sunday night. | No world leader would try to launch a surprise attack because the response would be terminal for his own nation. | Grant launched an all-out attack on these defences during the gusty, rainy, and misty dawn of May 12. | We mounted a surprise attack against their ammunition depot.
to make / carry out / press an attack наступать, идти в наступление: Enemy forces have made an attack on the city.
to withstand / hold out against / ride out an attack сдержать наступление, устоять: The clincher was Haig's assurance that he could withstand any German attack for at least eighteen days. | The aircraft base is protected with specially designed shelters which are built to withstand ground and air attacks. | It was also important to demonstrate the ability of nuclear forces to ride out a surprise attack.
to repel / repulse / drive back / drive off / counter / fight off an attack отражать атаку / нападение: Troops have been deployed in the area to counter a possible attack.
to resume / renew an attack возобновлять наступление / атаку: Burnside wanted to renew the attack in the morning. | Government forces renewed their attacks on a key communications tower. | They renew the attack from another side.
to be / come under attack подвергаться нападению: There were no trains and the roads were under constant air attack. | The enemy came under attack. | Once again we came under attack from enemy fighter planes. | Refugees came under attack from federal troops.
an attack occurs: The air attack occurred in August 1988 during a campaign against the Kurdish separatist movement.
surprise attack внезапная атака: By the mid-1960s fears had eased of a technological arms race that might encourage either side to unleash a surprise attack. | This would increase the warning time of any possible surprise attack.
all-out attack решительное наступление: Our forces launched an all-out attack against the enemy.
full-scale attack наступление по всем направлениям, всеобъемлющее наступление
air / nuclear / missile / bomb / mortar attack: It is becoming apparent that air attacks alone are not likely to win the war. | In any case the vast base was vulnerable to nuclear attack. | Nor will such a network of battle stations immediately end the threat of nuclear attack. | Consequently, they might remove the base, thereby removing the reason for a nuclear attack. | Gates warned that Hussein probably expects another cruise missile attack. | From June 1944 the flying bomb attacks were less concentrated spatially, but even more destructive.
offensive [countable] a planned military attack involving large forces over a long period наступление, наступательная операция: There has already been artillery fire, and many expect a new offensive in the coming weeks. | Exactly as had happened the year before, the major offensive was preceded by a significant upswing in fighting.
military / nuclear / air offensive: The great military offensive had failed, and it seemed victory was escaping them.
offensive on / against sb: The President announced an offensive on the rebels. | Its latest military offensive against rebel forces is aimed at re-opening important trade routes.
to be on the offensive to be ready to attack (быть в готовности) наступать: In the view of many analysts here, they did not have to create the impression that they are on the offensive.
to launch / mount an offensive предпринять / начать наступление: The army is about to launch a major offensive. | Government troops launched an offensive against UNITA positions in the north. | The government offensive was only part of a broader offensive launched against rebel forces in late 1991. | The armed forces have launched offensives to recapture lost ground.
to take / go on the offensive to begin to take strong action against people who have been attacking you перейти в наступление: The international coalition was ready to take the offensive. | The enemy open fire with even greater fury than before, and again take the offensive. | The West African forces went on the offensive in response to attacks on them.
to carry out an offensive проводить наступление
to break off an offensive прекращать наступление
to resume / renew an offensive возобновлять наступление
an offensive begins / starts / resumes наступление начинается / возобновляется: Before the offensive began he had tried in vain to impress this upon his superiors. | The rebel offensive resumed on Thursday, leaving 12 dead and many injured.
offence [uncountable] (formal) the act of attacking нападение; наступление: They say that the most effective defence is offence. | It depends on whether it was used as a weapon of offence or defence.
assault [countable; uncountable] a violent military attack to take control of a place controlled by the enemy нападение; атака, приступ, штурм: The enemy's positions were taken by assault. | Most US soldiers welcomed the ground assault when the order was finally given.
assault on sb / sth: Only a successful assault on the rebel's headquarters could have ended the civil war. | The Combined Fleet made plans for an assault on Midway Island. | The rebels are poised for a new assault on the government garrisons.
to launch / mount an assault начинать атаку / штурм, предпринимать атаку / штурм, идти в атаку / на штурм: They launched an assault on the capital yesterday. | Thirty policemen were massacred in Rukum last week when the rebels launched a direct assault on their heavily fortified headquarters. | The police mounted an early-morning assault on his office, and Mr Bucaram came running out with his hands up.
to make / carry out an assault (on sth.) атаковать, штурмовать: They made an assault on the enemy's positions.
to lead an assault возглавить атаку / штурм: On the final day when Anlec fell Mentheus was killed as he led the assault. | I should persuade the King to change his mind, and let Messer Niccolò lead an assault.
to be / come under assault подвергаться нападению: The refugee camp came under assault again last night.
onslaught [countable] a very powerful and violent attack атака, нападение: The city was in ruins after a prolonged onslaught by enemy warplanes.
onslaught on / against sb / sth: In 508 Theuderic continued his father's onslaught on the Gothic south, in tandem with the Burgundians. | The rebels responded to a military onslaught against them by launching a major assault on an army camp.
to launch an onslaught начинать атаку, предпринимать атаку, идти в атаку: In December they launched a full-scale onslaught on the capital. | In 471 Euric launched his first onslaught against Clermont.
to withstand / hold out against / ride out an onslaught сдержать атаку, устоять: He was confident his armies could withstand the Allied onslaught. | It is unlikely that his forces could withstand an allied onslaught for very long.
charge [countable] an attack in which soldiers move towards someone or something very quickly (стремительная) атака, наступление
to make / lead a charge (against sb / into sth) идти / вести в атаку: Captain Walker led a charge straight into an enemy stronghold.
to repel / repulse / fight off a charge отражать атаку / нападение, давать отпор
raid [countable] a short sudden attack on a place by soldiers, planes, or ships, intended to cause damage but not take control внезапное нападение; рейд; воздушный налет; вторжение; вылазка, набег: an air / bombing / border / cross-border / guerrilla / retaliatory raid | a raid into enemy territory
raid on / against sb / sth: The rebels attempted a surprise raid on a military camp. | They planned a surprise, early-morning raid on the naval base. | Its planes are carrying out heavy bombing raids against the guerrillas.
to launch / make / carry out / stage a raid совершить рейд: The commandos launched / made / carried out / staged a daring raid (on the enemy). | The army launched several cross-border raids last night. | Aircraft are carrying out raids on enemy ships. | Soldiers carried out raids on enemy targets in the area.
to lead a raid возглавлять рейд: The colonel led a successful raid against a rebel base. | He led a commando raid in the desert.
to repel a raid отражать внезапное нападение: The city was fortified and was able to repel raids by pirates and a siege by the Saracens in 866-7.
air / bombing raid: He was killed in an air raid. | The United States reacted to the air raids by ordering an aircraft carrier to the gulf. | The air raids were becoming heavier and more frequent.
foray [countable] a short sudden attack by a group of soldiers, especially in order to get food or supplies внезапное нападение; вылазка, набег
to make a foray (into a particular place): The soldiers made nightly forays into enemy territory. | King Godfred made extensive forays into Frisia, and subdued the Abotrites and Wiltzes.
strike [countable] a sudden brief military attack, especially by missiles or planes dropping bombs удар: a first / second / surgical strike
strike against / on sb / sth: There were further air strikes the next day against Hezbollah positions in the southern Bekaa valley. | The violence is unlikely to stop without military strikes against terrorist bases. | Cluster bombs were used in the strike on the airfield.
to launch / carry out a strike наносить удар: American aircraft carriers launched several strikes (against the enemy). | Bush warned that America would launch strikes against them if the war spread.
pre-emptive strike упреждающий удар (ядерное нападение, опережающее удар противника): We have no intention of launching a pre-emptive strike, but we will retaliate if provoked.
air / nuclear strike: Joyce was informing his listeners of a massive air strike by Luftwaffe bombers against the Kent coast. | The terrain was rough and offered ideal cover from air strikes and surveillance. | When we decided we had them pinned down, they called in an air strike. | The United Nations has authorized the use of air strikes. | Would you support a nuclear strike to bring an end to a war?
raiding party a group taking part in an attack: Then, he fears, in will come the helicopters with their raiding parties, hit men and explosives squads.
offensive (adjective) [only before noun] used for attacking наступательный, наступающий: Government troops took up offensive positions. | He appealed to Khrushchev to remove the offensive weapons under United Nations supervision.
offensive war / warfare наступательные военные действия; наступательная война
18.5. Victory and defeat
to capture [transitive] (1) to catch a person and keep them as a prisoner захватывать; брать в плен: Government troops have succeeded in capturing the rebel leader. | They've captured twenty enemy soldiers. | The guerrillas shot down one aeroplane and captured the pilot.
(2) to take | to seize to get control of a place or object that previously belonged to an enemy by fighting for it, during a war захватывать, завладевать; завоевывать: Rebel forces captured the city after a week-long battle. | The town was captured after a siege lasting ten days. | The Dutch fleet captured two English ships. | The Russians now appear ready to capture more territory from the Chechens. | Enemy forces have taken the airport. | A group of soldiers seized the airport. | Troops yesterday seized control of the broadcasting station.
to surround [transitive] if police or soldiers surround a place or someone they arrange themselves in positions all the way around it or them окружать: The troops were surrounded. | Armed police surrounded a house in the High Street. | Shooting broke out after the guards surrounded a villa in the city.
to encircle [transitive] to surround someone or something completely окружать: Troops encircled the city and began firing rockets at the government buildings. | They were encircled by enemy forces. | The city is nearly encircled by rebel troops.
to outflank [transitive] to go around the side of a group of enemies during a battle and attack them from the side or from behind обходить фланг, выходить во фланг / тыл (противника): To the west, the army was outflanked by a huge number of British forces. | There were plans designed by General Schwarzkopf to outflank them from the west.
to close in [intransitive] to move closer to someone or something, especially in order to attack or surround them приближаться, наступать; окружать
to close in (on / upon / around sb / sth): Enemy troops began closing in at dawn. | The advancing soldiers closed in on the town. | The enemy is closing in on the city. | Hitler himself committed suicide as Soviet forces were closing in on Berlin. | The police are closing in on the criminals.
to seal off | to block off [transitive] to stop people from entering an area or building, often because it is dangerous оцепить, блокировать, окружать: Following a bomb warning, police have sealed off the whole area. | Police have sealed off the street where the gunman is hiding. | A heavily armed guard of police have sealed off the city centre. | Police blocked off the city centre streets. | All the roads out of the town were blocked off by the police.
to surprise [transitive] to find, catch, or attack someone when they are not expecting it застать / застигнуть врасплох; нагрянуть неожиданно; нападать: Marlborough led his armies across the Rhine and surprised the French and Bavarian armies near the village of Blenheim. | A security guard surprised the burglars in the storeroom. | The robbers had just opened the safe when they were surprised by the police.
to defeat | to beat [transitive] to win a victory over someone in a war, competition, game etc нанести поражение, одержать победу: After a long campaign Wellington's army finally defeated Napoleon. | Napoleon was defeated by the Duke of Wellington at the battle of Waterloo. | They hoped to defeat the enemy at sea. | The Republicans were heavily defeated in the Spanish Civil War. | Empire armies were met and defeated. | His guerrillas defeated the colonial army in 1954. | Our army was beaten.
to rout [transitive] to defeat an enemy completely and force them to run away разбить наголову; обратить в бегство: The general was killed and his armies were routed in a magnificent cavalry charge. | He was captured, and his army was routed.
to rout sb completely / utterly одержать полную и безоговорочную победу
to mop up | to clean up | to wipe up [transitive] to deal with the remaining members of a defeated army by killing them or making them prisoners уничтожать; зачищать, очищать (захваченную территорию от противника), производить зачистку местности: The infantry divisions mopped up remaining centres / pockets of resistance. | After we have mopped up the last few groups of the enemy, we can advance to our next position. | The usual solution is to send in infantry to mop up any remaining opposition. | The government hoped to mop up rebel resistance. | It's a small enemy force; we should be able to wipe it up in no time.
to surrender | to yield (1) [intransitive; transitive] to give in [intransitive] | to give up [transitive] to say officially that you want to stop fighting or to stop avoiding the police, government etc because you realize that you cannot win сдаваться; капитулировать; прекращать сопротивление
to surrender / yield / give in (to sb): On April 16th, the enemy surrendered. | The terrorists were given ten minutes to surrender. | Rebel forces have surrendered after three years of fighting. | After 74 days of battle, the army surrendered to the British. | 19 rebels hiding in the Czech embassy surrendered to the authorities. | We shall never yield to a conqueror. | They weren't a particularly good army, but they refused to give in (to the enemy) and accept defeat. | The rebels were eventually forced to give in. | The government has said all along that it will never give in to terrorist threats / demands.
to surrender oneself / give oneself up (to sb): We advised the bandits to surrender themselves to the police. | The siege ended peacefully after the gunman gave himself up. | The hijacker gave himself up to police, who are now questioning him.
(2) to give up [transitive] to give your soldiers, land or weapons to an enemy after you have been defeated сдавать
to surrender / yield (up) sb / sth (to sb) | to give sb / sth up (to sb): The General had to surrender his troops. | Neither side is willing to surrender any territory. | They were given two hours to surrender their weapons. | They surrendered the fortress to the enemy. | They promised to abide by the peace agreement and surrender all their weapons to the occupying forces. | Are the citizens still refusing to yield (up) the town? | They were forced to yield (up) their land to the occupying forces. | They did not yield (up) ground to the enemy. | We had to give up the castle (to the enemy). | Despite renewed pressure to give up the occupied territory, they will not yield. | If you catch the escaped prisoner, will you give him up (to the police)?
to capitulate (formal) to accept military defeat капитулировать, сдаваться: Their forces capitulated five hours after the Allied bombardment of the city began. | When Wittikind and his warriors capitulated, the revolt began to collapse.
capture [uncountable] (1) the act of catching someone in order to make them a prisoner захват, задержание, поимка; взятие в плен: They are offering a reward for information leading to his capture. | Eighty-two of the rebels were killed or executed soon after capture. | He had to save the President from capture by Louis' men.
to avoid / evade / escape capture избежать пленения / захвата: The two soldiers somehow managed to avoid capture. | He tried to evade capture by leaving the country. | The shooting happened while the man was trying to evade capture by the security forces.
(2) the act of getting control of a place or object that previously belonged to an enemy by fighting for it, during a war захват: They witnessed the capture of the city by rebel troops. | The campaign culminated in the capture of Rome.
encirclement [uncountable] окружение
defeat [uncountable; countable] failure to win or succeed; victory over someone or something поражение; разгром; проигрыш: After their defeat in battle, the soldiers surrendered. | The defeat at Waterloo ended Napoleon's career.
to inflict (a) defeat on sb нанести поражение: You are going to inflict such a defeat on the enemy that he will never recover.
to face defeat (at sb's hands) стоять перед лицом поражения
to suffer (a) defeat (at sb's hands) потерпеть поражение: Maybe after suffering such a defeat, they would give up. | At the last General Election, they suffered a crushing / humiliating defeat. | The nationalists look ready to suffer a crushing defeat in the referendum.
to accept / admit / concede defeat признать поражение
a big / comprehensive / heavy / crushing / decisive / resounding / stunning / total / utter defeat сокрушительное поражение: The New York Times described the withdrawal of troops as a resounding defeat for the government. | There were similar warnings in the 1980s after a crushing defeat for the separatists in the1980 referendum.
humiliating / ignominious / shameful defeat постыдное / унизительное поражение: Politicians did not relish a repeat performance of the humiliating defeat they had suffered over the suspension and repeal of the acts.
rout [countable – usually singular; uncountable] a complete defeat in a battle поражение, разгром; беспорядочное бегство, стремительное отступление: General Lee had reached the scene and was in command during the rout of the Federals.
complete and utter rout полный разгром: The battle was a complete and utter rout.
to put sb to rout to defeat somebody completely in a battle разбить наголову; обратить в бегство: They instantly put them in disorder, and very soon to rout.
to turn into / become a rout: The battle turned into a rout. | One after another the Italian bases in the desert fell as the retreat turned into a rout. | The defeat became a rout.
surrender [singular; uncountable] (1) the act of saying officially that you want to stop fighting or to stop avoiding the police, government etc because you realize that you cannot win сдача; капитуляция: the surrender of the rebel gunmen | the Nazis' surrender to the Allied forces | The Milanese were starving, and forced into surrender. | The rebels are on the point of surrender.
to negotiate a surrender договариваться о сдаче / капитуляции: Colonel Casado was anxious to negotiate a surrender.
to accept surrender принимать капитуляцию: General Haig would accept nothing less than unconditional surrender. | It was nearly impossible to get them to accept a surrender.
unconditional surrender the act of accepting total defeat безоговорочная капитуляция: The allies demanded unconditional surrender. | Hopes of a compromise peace stood no chance in the face of Franco's determination to pursue the Republic's unconditional surrender. | Instead, they issued the Potsdam Declaration, calling again for unconditional surrender on pain of great destruction.
(2) the act of giving your soldiers, land or weapons to an enemy after you have been defeated сдача: the surrender of all illegal weapons | the surrender of territories to the enemy
victory [uncountable; countable] the success you achieve when you win a battle, election, game etc победа: We're very confident of victory.
victory (over / against sb) / (in a struggle): He wanted forces capable of quick, decisive victories against diplomatically isolated opponents. | His assignment seems to have been the result of a military victory in a top-level power struggle with the civilians.
to win / achieve / gain (a) victory одержать победу: Nixon, meanwhile, spoke and acted as if the United States had won a decisive victory under his command. | Taylor rejected Sawyer's proposals, apparently convinced that he could win military victory and install himself as president. | A military commander should order his troops in the way best calculated to achieve victory at a minimal cost. | The United States gained a decisive victory under his command.
to lead (troops) to victory привести к победе: He was killed in the assault soon after, but the information he had gained as a scout led to victory. | It can lead to victory or to defeat; or to an uneasy truce.
to cruise to victory to win easily
to ensure / secure / assure victory обеспечить победу: Military hardware alone is not sufficient to ensure military victory. | By placing Franco in overall command, the Nationalists made a quantum leap forward in their efforts to secure victory. | Once this had been achieved and the victory in the north assured, nothing mattered to Franco so much as the final victory.
to snatch victory from the jaws of defeat вырвать победу
clear / clear-cut / decisive / outright / resounding / stunning / sweeping victory безоговорочная победа, ошеломляющий успех
great / glorious victory великая / славная / блистательная победа
bloodless victory бескровная победа (без жертв)
hard-won victory победа, давшаяся с трудом
Pyrrhic / pyrrhic victory a victory that is not worth winning because the winner has lost a lot in order to achieve it пиррова победа (сомнительная победа, не оправдывающая принесенных ради нее жертв): It may prove to be a Pyrrhic victory. | It was a pyrrhic victory for both sides.
Victory Day День Победы
victorious (adjective) having won a victory, or ending in a victory победоносный; победный, победивший: a victorious army
to be / emerge victorious побеждать: The Orc army was destroyed and Sigmar was ultimately victorious. | We were confident that the Allies would emerge victorious.
invincible (adjective) too strong to be destroyed or defeated непобедимый, неодолимый: an invincible army
invincibility [uncountable] непобедимость, несокрушимость: symbols of the invincibility of the Roman army
victor [countable] (formal) the winner of a war, battle, game, competition etc победитель; триумфатор: So Agamemnon spoke to both armies, declaring that Menelaus was victor and bidding the Trojans give Helen back. | The victims can become victors by taking power forcibly in their own hands. | True to military tradition, the victors are now treating themselves to the spoils of war.
to defend [transitive; intransitive] to protect someone or something from attack защищать(ся) стоять на страже
to defend something (against / from something): Thousands of young men came forward, willing to defend their country. | They needed more troops to defend the border against / from possible attack. | They defended their country against their enemies. | The castle was built in 1549 to defend the island against invaders. | The arsenal ship would have relied on other warships to defend it against missile attacks.
to defend against: We need to defend against military aggression.
to be on the defensive to be in a state or position of defence обороняться, защищаться
to resist [transitive; intransitive] to oppose or fight against someone or something сопротивляться, оказывать сопротивление; противостоять; отбивать, отбрасывать: The soldiers resisted (the enemy attacks) for two days. | The city resisted the enemy onslaught for two weeks. | When security guards came to stop him, he did not resist.
to withstand [transitive] (1) to be strong enough not to be harmed or destroyed by something устоять, выдержать: The city's defences were not strong enough to withstand the attack. | Armoured vehicles are designed to withstand chemical attack. | The bunker is designed to withstand a nuclear blast. | The aircraft base is protected with specially designed shelters which are built to withstand ground and air attacks.
(2) to defend oneself successfully against people who attack you выдержать, противостоять: to withstand an attack / assault / siege
to repel | to repulse (formal) | to drive back / off | fight off [transitive] to force someone who is attacking you to move back or stop attacking отбрасывать (противника), отражать / отбивать (атаку, нападение): The army was ready to repel an attack. | The defenders repelled the attack without losing any men. | Using water cannons and tear gas, police repelled protesters outside the US embassy. | Government troops repulsed an attack by rebel forces. | The enemy have been driven back in all parts of the battle. | The army drove off the enemy with much effort and loss of life. | The government said it drove the guerrillas off with infantry and air strikes. | The two fighters were driven off by a barrage of anti-aircraft fire.
to hold out [intransitive] to continue to successfully defend a place that is being attacked держаться; не сдаваться: The rebels held out for another night but then fresh forces arrived. | They won't be able to hold out much longer under this sort of bombardment. | In those impregnable mountains, the guerrillas could hold out for years.
to shelter (1) [transitive; intransitive] to protect yourself, or another person or thing, from danger or attack защищать; укрываться, прятаться
to shelter sb / sth (from sb / sth): They dug trenches to shelter the men from gunfire.
to shelter (from sb / sth) (in a particular place): More than 12,000 people are now sheltering in army posts on the island as reinforcements are being sent to the area.
(2) [intransitive] to give someone a secret hiding place so that they will not be caught by the army, police, etc укрывать, прятать: Collins was arrested for sheltering enemy soldiers. | Local people risked their own lives to shelter resistance fighters from the army.
to retaliate [intransitive] to do something bad to someone because they have done something bad to you отвечать (на агрессию), наносить ответный удар; мстить, осуществлять меры возмездия
to retaliate (against sb / sth) (for sth): We have no intention of launching a pre-emptive strike, but we will retaliate if provoked. | They retaliated against the enemy for shelling civilian targets. | They have threatened to retaliate against the US for the bombing raid. | The militia responded by saying it would retaliate against any attacks. | The terrorists retaliated against the government with a bomb attack.
to retaliate with sth: Continuing deterrent credibility would, in future, depend upon Britain's known ability to retaliate with an invulnerable Second Strike weapon. | Loyalists retaliated with the gun attack on a bookmaker's office at Ormeau Road, Belfast.
to retaliate by doing sth: Sigibert retaliated by calling in his allies from across the Rhine. | When the police started to arrest people, some of the demonstrators retaliated by throwing stones. | The demonstrators threw rocks at the police, who retaliated by firing blanks into the crowd. | The British government retaliated by breaking off diplomatic relations.
to break through (sth) [transitive; intransitive] to manage to get past or through something that is in your way прорваться, пробиться: At dawn 300 tanks prepared to break through the enemy lines / the enemy's defences. | They finally broke through the German line. | The demonstrators broke through heavy police barriers. | The enemy's defences were strong but our soldiers broke through. | After hours of fierce fighting, rebels broke through and captured the capital. | About fifteen inmates broke through onto the roof.
to besiege [transitive] to surround a place, especially with an army, and try to gain control of it or force someone to come out of it блокировать, окружать; осаждать: A massive Roman army besieged Jerusalem, utterly destroying the Temple and razing the city to the ground. | The main part of the army moved to Sevastopol to besiege the town. | The town had been besieged for two months but still resisted the aggressors.
to blockade [transitive] to surround an area by soldiers or ships to stop people or supplies leaving or entering блокировать: The ships blockaded the port. | In June 1948 the Russians blockaded the western sectors of Berlin.
defence [uncountable] all the systems, people, materials etc that a country uses to protect itself from the system of weapons, equipment, and people that is used to protect a country оборона: The defence industry relies heavily on sales of weapons to foreign countries. | Huge amounts of government money are spent on defence.
to fight in defence of one's country
to do sth for defence purposes: But the fact remains that the safeguards themselves do not prevent the government using civil plutonium for defence purposes.
(to provide) defence against sb: The crown alone still had the power to compel military service, especially for defence against invasion. | Nor can they have been substantial enough to have provided defence against further attacks from the Huns or from the Alamans.
the defence of sth: Our resources in men and ammunition are inadequate for the defence of the town. | In Britain, the defence of the country has historically been left to the navy. | They are to take measures for the defence of the country.
defence policy политика в области обороны, оборонная политика: Bush's defence policy will not work, will cost too much and will destabilize the world. | Threats, not pillars, will decide whether the members devise joint foreign or defence policies.
national defence национальная оборона, оборона страны
line of defence линия обороны
missile defence (system) ракетная оборона, система ракетной обороны: Dole already has used legislative issues such as gun control and strategic missile defence to score political points. | There is already tension over the controversial national missile defence system. | It has dangerously upset the strategic balance by proposing a new national missile defence system. | The latest example concerns the controversial missile defence system proposed by the United States. | The missile defence issue is without question the most troublesome, time-consuming and potentially dangerous item on the current international agenda.
anti-missile defence (system) противоракетная оборона, система противоракетной обороны: In particular, the relationship is becoming increasingly bedevilled by the issue of anti-missile defence.
air / anti-aircraft defence (system) противовоздушная оборона, система противовоздушной обороны
defence budget расходы / затраты на оборону, оборонный бюджет: There was an attempt to reduce the defence budget. | Congress still has a big role to play in shaping the missile defence budget.
(to cut [back] / reduce // increase) defence spending / spending on defence (сокращать / увеличивать) расходы / затраты на оборону: Defence Minister Moshe Arens successfully argued that defence spending could not be reduced in the light of the ongoing Gulf crisis. | There are plans to increase defence spending by 6%. | The President has promised to increase defence spending. | The government revealed the exact levels of defence spending.
defence spending drops / falls / declines / goes down // rises / increases / goes up расходы / затраты на оборону сокращаются / увеличиваются: Defence spending has risen by 10% in the current budget. | The war has ended but government spending on defence is still increasing.
defence cuts / reductions / cutbacks | a cut / reduction / cutback // increase in defence spending сокращение / увеличение расходов / затрат на оборону: The government was committed to further major reductions in defence spending. | More defence cuts are expected next year. | The Ministry of Defence announced today that it will close in 20 months time as part of cutbacks in defence spending.
line of defence линия обороны: Strategically, the Marne is important for the last line of defence it presents before the Seine. | This line of defence is no better than the first.
civil defence the organization of ordinary rather than military people to help defend their country from military attack гражданская оборона: The country has made few preparations for civil defence. | These difficulties were greatly exacerbated by poor civil defence planning.
defence force(s): When a civil conflict eventually broke out in 1991, the national defence force was unable to provide a credible response. | An army spokesman said that the security vetting of personnel was a normal procedure in all defence forces. | After working in the prison service, he joined the defence forces before becoming an intelligence agent.
defence(s) [countable – usually plural] all the armed forces, weapons, structures etc that are available to defend a place оборонительные сооружения, укрепления; оборона страны; обороноспособность, оборонительный потенциал: The city's defences were not strong enough to withstand the attack. | We didn't let down our defences unilaterally. | The city walls were built as a defence against invaders.
to develop / build one's defences / defence capability создавать оборонительный потенциал
to strengthen one's defences / defence capability укреплять обороноспособность / оборонительный потенциал: He stressed the need to strengthen the nation's defences.
to maintain one's defences / defence capability поддерживать обороноспособность / оборонительный потенциал: He emphasized the need to maintain Britain's defences at a level sufficient to deal with the unexpected.
to overcome / breach / overwhelm sb's defences преодолевать / сокрушать оборонительные сооружения / укрепления: The invading army easily overcame the town's defences. | Government forces have breached the rebels' defences.
resistance | opposition [uncountable; singular] fighting against someone who is attacking you сопротивление; отпор, противодействие: They made it clear that they would only exercise passive resistance in the event of a military takeover.
to put up / offer / provide / oppose resistance / opposition (to sb) оказывать сопротивление: The defenders put up strong resistance. | Government troops offered no resistance (to the rebels). | And so, when the enemy charged, we immediately yielded and provided no resistance. | They opposed a vigorous resistance to the enemy.
to encounter / meet (with) resistance / opposition встречать сопротивление: A BBC correspondent in Colombo says the troops are encountering stiff resistance. | The army said the attackers met considerable resistance. | They met little resistance from outgunned government troops. | Our forces met with strong opposition all along the front.
to break down / crush / overcome / put down resistance / opposition сломить / преодолеть сопротивление: The government took elaborate precautions to crush any resistance.
resistance erupts возникает сопротивление: Almost immediately a fierce nationalist resistance erupted directed by a fiery prophet in the hills of Galilee.
pocket / centre of resistance очаг сопротивления: to mop up isolated pockets of resistance | The infantry divisions mopped up remaining centres of resistance.
armed resistance вооруженное сопротивление
considerable / determined / fierce / stiff / strong / stout / severe / stubborn resistance / opposition решительное / упорное / яростное сопротивление: Rebel gunmen have put up strong resistance. | The rebels have put up fierce resistance with small arms and rocket-propelled grenades. | The invasion was held up by unexpectedly stout resistance.
weak resistance / opposition слабое сопротивление
valiant resistance / opposition героическое сопротивление
the resistance | the Resistance [singular] an organization that secretly fights against an enemy that controls their country Сопротивление, движение Сопротивления: Mitterand was in the French Resistance during the war. | They managed to escape after being arrested by the resistance.
retaliation [uncountable] action against someone who has done something bad to you ответный удар, контрудар; меры возмездия
retaliation against sb / sth: the threat of massive retaliation against British troops | There is always the risk of possible retaliation against peacekeeping soldiers.
in retaliation (for sth): The President ordered the bombings in retaliation for the attack. | The bomb attack was in retaliation for the recent arrest of two well-known terrorists. | The car bombings were apparently in retaliation for the arrest of the terrorists.
massive retaliation массированный ответный удар / контрудар: Dulles called the policy massive retaliation. | Dulles used massive retaliation as the chief instrument of containment. | The alternative is massive retaliation by missiles aimed at the enemy's cities.
act of retaliation акт возмездия
breakthrough [countable] the act of getting past or through something that is in your way прорыв: to make a breakthrough
breakthrough charge атака с целью прорыва
siege [uncountable; countable] a military operation during which an army or the police surround a place and try to gain control of it or force someone to come out of it осада; блокада: The siege lasted almost four months. | The book is not an exhaustive account of all the sieges of the war. | They are hopeful of bringing the siege to a peaceful conclusion. | The siege is now in its eighteenth day.
at / during a siege во время осады: He was killed at / during the siege of Leningrad.
to lay siege to sb /sth to start a siege in a place начинать осаду: King Henry laid siege to the castle in 1275. | The soldiers laid siege to the city. | He laid siege to the fortress and gradually weakened it to the point of collapse.
(to be) under siege to be surrounded by an army in a siege (находиться) в осаде: Malta was under siege in World War II. | The castle was under siege for months.
to lift / raise / end the (state of) siege (of sth) снимать осаду / блокаду: The king lifted the siege two months later. | We must do everything possible to lift the siege. | Military sources stated that lifting the state of siege would not affect the fight against internal subversion. | Meanwhile Cambridge and March were ordered to raise the siege of Quimperlè and return home at once.
to withstand a siege выдерживать осаду: The troops prepared to withstand a long siege.
a siege begins / ends: The siege began on Sunday, when the prisoners seized three wardens. | Before the siege ended, the citizens were almost starving.
to break a siege to cause a siege to end прорывать блокаду: An attempt was made to break the 38-month siege of Sarajevo.
blockade [countable – usually singular] the surrounding of an area by soldiers or ships to stop people or supplies leaving or entering блокада: an air / sea / naval blockade | the economic blockade of Lithuania | Getting food supplies through the blockade is almost impossible. | The economic blockade is accompanied by terror tactics. | There's been talk of a retaliatory blockade to prevent supplies getting through.
to impose / mount a blockade (on sth) | to put a place under a blockade устанавливать блокаду: They've imposed an economic blockade on the country. | An economic blockade was imposed on the country six months ago. | Parisian taxi drivers are threatening to mount a blockade to turn the screw on the government.
to maintain a blockade поддерживать блокаду: Some left after only a fortnight and, as time went by, it became increasingly hard to maintain the blockade.
to lift the blockade (of sth) снимать блокаду: Moreover it began to free captured troops on July 5 and to lift blockades. | The blockade of the harbour will be lifted at midnight.
to enforce a blockade осуществлять блокаду: It's not yet clear who will actually enforce the blockade.
to break (through) / run a blockade to evade and get through the forces that are surrounding the place прорывать блокаду
to order a blockade (of sth) приказывать установить блокаду: Lincoln, in turn, ordered a blockade of Southern ports. | After demanding the weapons be removed, President John F. Kennedy ordered a naval blockade of the island.
shelter [uncountable] protection from danger or attack убежище, укрытие: All around me, people were running for shelter.
to seek shelter (from sth / in sth) искать убежище / укрытие
to take shelter (from sth / in sth) укрываться: The men took shelter in a bombed-out farmhouse.
to give / offer / provide / afford shelter (from sth) давать убежище / укрытие: They gave all the people shelter.
bomb / air-raid shelter [countable] a building under the ground intended to keep people safe from bomb attacks бомбоубежище: Bennett persuades his family to build a bomb shelter. | The city's bomb shelters were being prepared for possible air raids.
fallout shelter [countable] a building under the ground intended to keep people safe from the dust in the air after a nuclear explosion убежище от радиоактивных осадков: He was on his way to a shopping centre in Jeff Parish where a model fallout shelter was on display.
dugout [countable] a shelter dug in the ground, with a covering, used as a protection for soldiers against enemy attack and fire убежище; блиндаж; землянка; укрытие: They could feel the reverberation of the explosion in the dugout.
trench [countable – usually plural] a long narrow channel dug in the ground which is used by a large group of soldiers as a base for firing at the enemy or as a protection for soldiers against enemy attack and fire окоп, траншея: to dig a trench | When the shelling and mortaring ceased, Taff and I got out of the trenches. | We fought with them in the trenches.
trench warfare позиционная / "окопная" война
foxhole [countable] a small hole dug in the ground which is used by a small group of soldiers as a base for firing at the enemy and as a protection against enemy attack and fire окоп для индивидуальной защиты; стрелковая ячейка: At night, we would go on ambush patrol or sit in a foxhole or listening post. | Instead of spending money in town, soldiers now dig foxholes along lakes in parks. | On returning to my foxhole, I found it occupied by the 3d Platoon of B Company. | One incident that has always stuck in my mind was when I dove for my foxhole at the opening mortar round.
stronghold [countable] a building or position which is strongly defended опорный пункт; крепость, твердыня, цитадель: The fighters moved south to their mountain stronghold. | They captured the last stronghold of the presidential guard. | Henry then withdrew to the relative safety of Richard's stronghold at Aixe.
fortress [countable] a large strong building or group of buildings used for defending an important place крепость: Its origins are lost in antiquity but the Rock has probably been used as a fortress from the Iron Age. | This tunnel is the only entrance to the city itself, and it is protected by a fortress at each end. | Arthur's great fortress lies further north at Cadbury, a huge hill which still bears the remnants of a formidable fortress. | The French constructed a series of fortresses from Dunkirk on the Channel coast to Douai. | The fortress was proof against the techniques of attack then in use.
impregnable fortress неприступная крепость
defensive (adjective) [only before noun] used or intended to protect someone or something from attack оборонительный; оборонный; защитный: These are purely defensive weapons, not designed for attack. | According to the report, only defensive weapons had been supplied to Iran. | The rockets are a purely defensive measure against nuclear attack. | The prince drew up his forces in a strong defensive position. | Police officers claimed that their actions during the riots were purely defensive. | Some past and current government officials say the program was intended for defensive purposes only. | He would scrap the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and permit defensive systems to guard against accidental firings or small-scale attacks by outlaw nations. | But each also has the capability of being built into defensive weapons systems.
defensive war / warfare оборонительные военные действия
retaliatory (adjective) [usually before noun] (formal) done against someone because they have harmed you ответный: a retaliatory attack / raid | retaliatory measures | Within twelve hours a retaliatory raid began. | In fact, no retaliatory action was taken. | There's been talk of a retaliatory blockade to prevent supplies getting through.
to retreat [intransitive] to move away from the enemy after being defeated in battle or because of the danger of defeat отступать, отходить: to retreat on the capital
to retreat: The rebels retreated, pursued by government troops. | After the battle, Santa Anna retreated with his forces. | I ordered our troops to retreat and disappear like burning grass in the dry season. | Their soldiers had to retreat ignominiously after losing hundreds of lives. | The French, suddenly outnumbered, were forced to retreat.
to retreat from / to / into a particular place: Our troops retreated from the border to safer positions. | Attacks by enemy aircraft forced the tanks to retreat from the city. | At last we forced the enemy to retreat from the town. | The rebels retreated to the mountains. | Taylor was forced to retreat to the eastern outskirts of Monrovia on October 12 following aerial bombardment of his positions. | Announcing their victory the Dwarfs retreat to the mountains and refuse to fight any more.
to retreat in good order // in disarray: Even then these stubborn blue lines retreated in fairly good order. | Troops retreated in disarray under heavy gunfire.
to withdraw | to pull out | to pull back [intransitive; transitive] if an army withdraws / pulls out or is withdrawn / pulled out, it leaves a place отходить, отступать; отводить / выводить войска
to withdraw / pull back (from / to a particular place): He stated that all foreign forces would withdraw as soon as the crisis ended. | Our troops have withdrawn from the border area / to a safer area. | The troops began to withdraw from the northern region. | They were asked to pull back from their artillery positions around the city.
to pull out (of a particular place): Economic sanctions will be lifted once two-thirds of their forces have pulled out. | Troops began pulling out of the region as soon as the order was given. | British forces will pull out of the troubled area as quickly as possible.
to withdraw sb (from / to a particular place) | to pull sb back (from / to a particular place): Both countries agreed to withdraw their troops. | They withdrew their troops from an exposed position. | The UN has withdraw its troops from the country. | At nightfall Thomas withdrew his troops to Rossville, and the two-day battle was over. | Most of the troops have been pulled out. | We decided to pull back our forces and try to advance again tomorrow. | He pulled back forces from Mongolia, and he withdrew from Afghanistan.
to pull sb out (of a particular place): Most of the troops have been pulled out. | Troops are being pulled out of these troubled areas. | After many years of fighting, the soldiers were pulled out of the battle area. | British forces will be pulled out of the troubled area as quickly as possible.
retreat [countable – usually singular; uncountable] a movement away from the enemy after a defeat in battle or because of the danger of defeat отступление, отход; сигнал к отступлению: One after another the Italian bases in the desert fell as the retreat turned into a rout. | Russian resistance suddenly stiffened because there was no room for retreat. | Some three hundred men died during that awful retreat. | The Sandinistas were forced into a temporary retreat but returned later with reinforcements to do battle in the streets.
retreat from sb / sth: Napoleon's retreat from Moscow | News came in March that he had been captured and probably killed during the retreat from Teruel.
to make / carry out a retreat: The soldiers made a strategic retreat. | The regiment carried out its retreat in good order.
to sound the retreat to give an official signal to an army to move away давать сигнал к отступлению: General Hawkes sounded the retreat. | The bugler sounded the retreat.
to beat a retreat (informal) to leave a place quickly поспешно отступить: Cockburn decided it was time to beat a hasty retreat. | They were forced to beat a hasty retreat and arrived at their rendezvous with Morris's patrol on time.
(to be) in retreat: An army in retreat can be even more dangerous than one that is advancing. | Enemy soldiers are now in retreat.
to be in full retreat to be retreating very fast and continuously отступать по всему фронту: The army was in full retreat. | In June 1942, the British 8th Army was in full retreat. | The rebel forces are in full retreat. | Pope interpreted this movement to mean that the enemy were in full retreat.
to intercept the retreat отрезать путь к отступлению
hasty / precipitate retreat поспешное / неподготовленное отступление
withdrawal | pull-out | pullout | pullback [uncountable; countable] the act of moving an army, weapons etc away from the area where they were fighting вывод / отвод / отход / отступление войск: an orderly / precipitate / tactical / strategic / unilateral withdrawal
withdrawal / pull-out / pullback (of sb): a pullback of troops from the occupied territories | The commander-in-chief was given 36 hours to secure a withdrawal of his troops from the combat zone. | Both countries agree on the need for a phased withdrawal of American forces from the Philippines. | The pull-out was planned to spread over a month. | The pull-out of troops will begin after the treaty is signed. | The pull-out of the army paves the way for independence.
(troop) withdrawal (from / to a particular place): a withdrawal from an area / to an area | allied troop withdrawal from the north of the country | the Russian withdrawal from Afghanistan | Troop withdrawals will take place immediately. | Soviet troop withdrawals began on 15 May and were completed on schedule on 15 February 1989.
pull-out / pullback (from a particular place): a pull-out from the occupied territories | a pullback of troops from the occupied territories
partial // complete / full // full-scale withdrawal / pull-out / pullback частичный // полный // полномасштабный вывод / отвод войск: Partial troop withdrawals from Algiers began on July 4. | He is reported to be negotiating the complete withdrawal of the 1,500 Soviet military advisers. | But a complete withdrawal could trigger a new outbreak of fighting. | He replied that the UN had passed two major resolutions calling for a complete withdrawal. | Nearly half of those polled also said they would support a referendum on peace that required a full withdrawal from the Golan. | The loss of one vehicle and the leading tank's offensive capability was not enough to cause a full-scale withdrawal.
to make / carry out / implement a withdrawal / pull-out / pullback осуществлять вывод / отвод войск: The security forces made a tactical withdrawal from the area. | The government is planning to implement a second pullback from the area.
to complete a withdrawal / pull-out / pullback завершать вывод/ отвод войск
19. Reconnaissance and intelligence
reconnaissance [uncountable; countable] the use of small groups of soldiers, military aircraft or satellites to find out about the size and position of enemy forces разведка; поиск, рекогносцировка: The visit to Tempe was in any case not a military reconnaissance. | The aircraft will be used for reconnaissance rather than combat. | There was little doubt that tactical support and reconnaissance for the land battle would still need piloted machines. | This lone air reconnaissance effort would obviously not be enough.
reconnaissance of sth: Aerial reconnaissance of the enemy position showed they were ready to attack.
aerial / air reconnaissance воздушная разведка: At best the amphibious raiders might have panoramic shots from aerial reconnaissance, or be given a flight over the target beach. | So long as they remain expensive, conventional air photography will, however, continue to dominate aerial reconnaissance.
reconnaissance mission разведывательное боевое задание: Three days later President Nixon ordered that the reconnaissance missions be resumed and that they receive adequate protection. | The helicopter was returning from a reconnaissance mission.
reconnaissance in force разведка боем
to do / conduct / carry out / undertake reconnaissance проводить разведку: He often does aerial reconnaissance for Dave. | Infantry traditionally performed three roles: it held ground, took ground, and conducted precise reconnaissance when on patrol. | The Navy was undertaking only minimal reconnaissance, mainly because of a lack of airplanes.
espionage | intelligence | spying [uncountable] the activity of finding out the political, military, or industrial secrets of a country's enemies or a company's competitors by using secret methods разведка, шпионаж: He was charged with espionage. | Three months later, the Soviets convicted him of espionage. | The men, convicted on espionage charges, had been sentenced to 15-year prison terms in 1987. | The authorities have arrested several people suspected of espionage. | Espionage is a capital offence in this country. | It was a crime of espionage and carried the death penalty. | He was accused of spying and held without trial for ten years. | He was accused of spying for a foreign government.
to be involved / engaged in espionage | to conduct / engage in espionage заниматься шпионажем, шпионить; служить в разведке: The eleven men were allegedly involved in spying.
to counter / fight / combat espionage противодействовать шпионажу, бороться со шпионажем: He said the country needed a strong intelligence service to counter espionage, terrorism and foreign extremists.
military espionage военный шпионаж
industrial espionage the collecting of secrets about a competing company промышленный шпионаж: The banks take precautions to prevent any attempts at industrial espionage while confidential documents are on the premises. | The Computer Security Institute, which conducted the survey, said the losses were caused by industrial espionage, hacking and fraud.
political espionage политический шпионаж
intelligence [uncountable] (1) intelligence reports / data information about the secret activities of foreign governments, the military plans of an enemy etc разведывательные данные; военные сведения: According to our intelligence, further attacks were planned. | This nuclear refuse could provide intelligence on such things as bomb design and yield. | He was later surprised to learn, from reading intelligence reports, that the programme had been developed without his knowledge.
intelligence about / on sth / sb: Local rebels provided intelligence about the government's plans.
to gather / obtain / receive (a piece of) intelligence / intelligence data | to receive intelligence reports: Our mission was to gather intelligence from behind enemy lines. | They would gather intelligence on enemy strengths and fortifications. | The satellite could also be used to gather intelligence. | They received an important piece of intelligence from one of their agents. | We receive intelligence from many sources. | They received intelligence reports that the factory was a target for the bombing. | Both incidents raise serious questions about whether the benefits of gathering certain kinds of intelligence data are worth the risks.
to give / provide intelligence: The satellites provide intelligence about troop movements.
military intelligence военные сведения; разведывательные данные: He passed on military intelligence to the enemy.
intelligence operations / sources: After the Watts rebellion, Johnson asked Hoover to expand his intelligence operations to include riot prediction. | Intelligence operations have uncovered evidence of weapons stockpiling. | Intelligence sources say the missiles are being prepared for use. | Intelligence sources denied the reports.
(2) a government organization that gathers information about the secret activities of foreign governments, the military plans of an enemy etc разведка, разведывательная служба: In Britain there are three main intelligence organizations. | Why was military intelligence so lacking?
military intelligence военная разведка
chief / head of intelligence | intelligence chief руководитель разведки: Andreotti dismissed the chief of military intelligence. | They suggested Colonel Wong may have been detained because, as head of military intelligence, he failed to uncover the plot. | His successor was General Manuel Noriega, his intelligence chief.
counter-intelligence | counter-espionage [uncountable] the secret activities and methods used by a country to prevent another country from discovering its military, industrial or political secrets контрразведка, контршпионаж: the FBI's department of counter-intelligence | a counter-intelligence officer | Intelligence activities will now be limited to counter-espionage. | His novels deal with the world of spies, espionage and counterespionage.
secret service | intelligence service / agency / department / organization [countable] a secret government department whose job is to find out enemy secrets and to prevent its own government's secrets from being discovered секретная / разведывательная служба, разведывательный орган, разведка; спецслужба: He worked for the intelligence service. | In addition there were comprehensive links between the two intelligence services. | Three out of every four traitors were volunteers, it found; fewer than a quarter were recruited by hostile intelligence services. | But disasters like Blake and the Berlin tunnel do immense damage to the morale of intelligence agencies. | Security services and intelligence agencies should be accountable to a committee of senior Privy Councillors. | Since the cold war ended, many state intelligence agencies have struggled to justify their existence.
scout [countable] a person or vehicle sent out by an army to get information about the position and movements of the enemy разведчик; разведывательный самолет, самолет-разведчик: He sent three scouts ahead to take a look at the bridge. | But the scouts were very aware that the fear of war was never far from their minds. | He was killed in the assault soon after, but the information he had gained as a scout led to victory. | They set off, two men out in front as scouts, two behind in case of any attack from the rear. | He wore the garb of a scout, not a general.
secret / intelligence / undercover agent | spy | infiltrator [countable] someone who is employed by a government to find out and report on the military and political secrets of other countries секретный / тайный агент; разведчик; шпион; диверсант: Foley looked like anything in the world except a secret agent. | They say that the better the secret agent, the less one hears about him. | After working in the prison service, he joined the defence forces before becoming an intelligence agent. | I want to apply to become an undercover agent. | The Fedpol had undercover agents there, naturally, but no official presence. | He was jailed for five years as an alleged British spy. | He was suspected of having been a spy during the war. | There has always been a danger of enemy infiltrators in the organization. | The infiltrator was identified and killed.
spy ring / network an organized group of spies шпионская организация / сеть: The spy ring passed secrets to the enemy.
intelligence officer / official [countable] офицер / сотрудник разведки, разведчик; агент разведки: He spoke to intelligence officers at several airbases and made sure that certain records were amended. | They say senior clerics conspired with high-ranking intelligence officials to carry out the murders.
to reconnoitre | to scout (out) [intransitive; transitive] (of soldiers, military aircraft or satellites) to try to get information about the size and position of enemy forces вести разведку, разведывать; производить рекогносцировку
to reconnoitre: I left a sergeant in command and rode forward to reconnoitre.
to scout (for sth): A team of four was sent to scout for a nuclear test site.
to reconnoitre sth: He was sent to Eritrea to reconnoitre the enemy position. | Lampard would not raid without reconnoitring the target first. | I have people scouting the hills already. | Their mission is simply to scout out places where helicopters can land.
to spy [intransitive] to secretly collect information about an enemy country or an organization you are competing against заниматься шпионажем, шпионить; следить
to spy: A former US diplomat has confessed to spying. | He said Hanssen had begun spying in 1979 and stopped voluntarily in 1981.
to spy for sb / sth: The agent spied for East Germany for more than twenty years. | Philby had been spying for the Russians for several years. | He confessed to spying for North Korea.
to spy on / against sb / sth: East and West are still spying on one another. | He was charged with spying on British military bases. | For years the satellite spied on secret weapon bases. | He was arrested for spying on missile sites. | I never agreed to spy against the United States.
to be in the pay of sb / sth if someone is in the pay of a person, organization or country, they are being paid by that person, organization or country to work for them, often secretly or illegally (used to show disapproval): Before becoming President, the general was in the pay of the CIA. | There were persistent rumours that the former head of British Intelligence was in the pay of the Soviet Union. | It emerged that some ministers were in the pay of the drug companies. | Several cops were in the pay of Colombian drug lords.
to infiltrate (1) [transitive; intransitive] to secretly join an organization or enter a place in order to find out information about it or harm it просачиваться, внедряться; проникать (в тыл противника)
to infiltrate sth: Police attempts to infiltrate neo-Nazi groups were largely unsuccessful. | Federal undercover agents infiltrated a Miami drug ring. | He was alarmed to find the army was being infiltrated by those he regarded as religious extremists. | Government agents were infiltrating paramilitary groups. | CIA agents infiltrated the group, looking for alleged subversives.
to infiltrate into sth: The soldiers infiltrated into the enemy defences. | Rebel forces have been infiltrating into the country. | Intelligence reports confirm that terrorists have infiltrated into the region.
(2) [transitive] to secretly put people into an organization or place in order to find out information about it or harm it внедрять, вводить: He claimed that some countries have been trying to infiltrate their agents into the Republic. | They repeatedly tried to infiltrate assassins into the palace.
infiltration [uncountable; countable] инфильтрация, просачивание; проникновение (в тыл противника): Enemy infiltration into our lines. | The security zone was set up to prevent guerrilla infiltrations. | Finally, weakened by infiltration and sabotage, Black Aid Action folded in 1967.
20. Militancy and subversion
to rebel (against sb / sth) | to revolt (against sb / sth) | to rise (up) (against sb / sth) | to rise in (open) rebellion / revolt (against sb / sth) [intransitive] to take strong and often violent action against authority, usually with the aim of taking power away from them поднимать восстание / мятеж, бунтовать, восставать: The eastern provinces are likely to rebel if they are not given more freedom. | When senior army officers rebelled, the President was forced to flee the country. | The citizens at last rebelled against their cruel rulers, drove them from the country, and took power themselves. | If the army revolted or went over to the opposition, all was lost. | It was feared that the army would revolt against the government. | Two hundred years ago our forefathers revolted against oppression and formed a new nation. | They rose up and overthrew the government. | The people rose up against the oppressor / tyrant / dictator. | Eventually the people rose against the oppressive regime. | The Russian people rose in rebellion in 1917. | The Bretons rose in rebellion against the King.
to riot [intransitive] to behave in a violent and uncontrolled way, for example by fighting the police and damaging cars or buildings бунтовать, поднимать бунт; принимать участие в бунте
to riot: Students were rioting in the streets. | Gangs of youths rioted for two nights on the streets of the capital. | At the time of the shooting the students were not rioting or causing civil disruption. | Hundreds of prisoners rioted on April 1 in the overcrowded prison.
to riot in protest at / against sth: University students rioted in protest at tuition fees. | Whole districts were rioting in protest at mass unemployment. | Prisoners in several jails have rioted in protest at their appalling conditions. | They rioted in protest against the government.
to mutiny [intransitive] if a group of people, especially soldiers or sailors, mutinies, they refuse to accept someone's authority or attempt to take control from people in authority поднять мятеж, взбунтоваться
to mutiny: Units stationed around the capital mutinied because they had received no pay for nine months. | The crew mutinied and murdered the ship's captain.
to mutiny against sb / sth: The troops mutinied against their officers. | At last the sailors mutinied against the captain's unjust use of his power.
to mutiny over sth: The soldiers mutinied over the non-payment of wages.
to plot [intransitive; transitive] | to conspire [intransitive] to make a secret plan with other people to do something bad or illegal, especially in politics устраивать / организовывать / составлять заговор; тайно замышлять; сговариваться; плести интриги, строить козни
to plot against sb / sth | to conspire against sb / sth // with sb: He suspected that the military were secretly plotting against him. | They are awaiting trial on charges of plotting against the state. | He conspired against the existing government.| There was no doubt that they were conspiring with other African guerrilla movements.
to plot to do sth | to conspire (with sb // against sb) to do sth: The men were charged with plotting to overthrow the government / to plant the biggest bomb ever in Central London. | They conspired to overthrow the government. | Ten men were convicted of conspiring to bomb the UN and the FBI buildings in New York. | They are jointly accused of conspiring with others to cause an explosion likely to endanger life. | So there was nothing harmful in Kent police officers conspiring with criminals to boost clear-up statistics. | I believe he was conspiring against me to put me in prison.
to plot sth: The army is plotting the overthrow of the government. | The minister was found guilty of plotting the downfall of the government. | The military were plotting a coup. | He warned that they might be plotting a coup against the administration. | It was widely believed that the outlaws had been plotting an insurrection.
to subvert [transitive] (formal) to try to weaken or destroy the power and influence of a government or an established system, especially by attacking it indirectly in written or spoken material заниматься подрывной деятельностью; разрушать; свергать, ниспровергать, низлагать: Smith was sentenced to 14 years for plotting to subvert the government / democratic process. | The rebel army is attempting to subvert the state.
to sabotage [transitive] (1) to secretly damage or destroy equipment, weapons or buildings in order to prevent the success of an enemy or competitor организовывать диверсию, саботировать; заниматься вредительством; проводить / вести подрывную деятельность: The rebels had tried to sabotage the oil pipeline. | The railway line was sabotaged by enemy commandos. | The main pipeline supplying water was sabotaged by rebels. | Every single fighter plane was sabotaged.
(2) to deliberately spoil someone's plans because you do not want them to succeed саботировать: The attack is being seen as a deliberate attempt to sabotage the peace talks. | This was a deliberate attempt to sabotage the ceasefire. | He said that the opposition had done everything possible to sabotage the elections.
to crack / clamp down (on sb / sth) [intransitive] to make a determined attempt to stop people doing something bad or illegal применять суровые / жесткие меры; подавлять: The government is determined to crack down on terrorism / terrorists. | The government has promised to crack down on criminal activity. | The police are cracking down hard on violent crime. | If we don't clamp down on these troublemakers now, the situation could get out of control. | The government plans to clamp down on illegal militant groups. | We must clamp down now, before it's too late to stop the trouble.
rebellion | revolt | insurrection (formal) | insurgency (formal) [countable; uncountable] | uprising | rising (British English) [countable] an organized attempt by a group of people to take control of their country by force восстание; бунт, мятеж: In 1968, a student rebellion in Paris sparked off a nationwide general strike. | A couple of jet fighters were downed during the five-week rebellion. | Those found guilty of rebellion and insurrection will be sentenced to life imprisonment. | This was the best-known and recorded peasant revolt in Soviet history, yet its practical achievements were nil. | The day after that, the leaders of the insurrection surrendered. | This new party was briefly banned for arousing political turmoil that led to street insurrections in October 1993. | The government is reported to be concerned about the growing insurgency in the South. | The late President Ferdinand Marcos was overthrown by a popular uprising in 1986. | Peasant uprisings were the first signs of discontent among the people. | The short-lived uprising fizzled out in the face of strong opposition from government forces. | In December there followed the most extensive anarchist rising of the entire Republican period. | Peasant violence was generally localized and poorly organized, but there were serious risings in almost every decade of the seventeenth century.
rebellion / revolt / insurgency / insurrection / uprising / rising against sb: It was undeniably a revolt by ordinary people against their leaders. | The French Revolution began with a popular revolt against a new "salt tax." | A small but destructive minority has turned from religious zeal to crime, or to insurrection against its own governments. | So appalling were conditions that rumours spread of a possible uprising against the regime.
to incite / instigate / foment / stir up a rebellion / revolt / insurgency / insurrection / uprising / rising провоцировать восстание, подстрекать к восстанию: The revolt in the north is believed to have been instigated by a high-ranking general. | The day he shook off their protection they instigated a guerrilla uprising backed by their own troops. | They were accused of fomenting rebellion.
to mount / stage a rebellion / revolt / insurgency / insurrection / uprising / rising поднимать восстание: A rebel army of political dissidents staged a rebellion in December 1989. | At least 20 of the rebel junior officers who staged the uprising surrendered by late afternoon. | They were plotting to stage an armed insurrection if negotiations with the government should fail.
to be in revolt (against sb) бунтовать, восставать: The army is in revolt (against its commanders).
to lead / head a rebellion / revolt / insurgency / insurrection / uprising / rising возглавлять восстание, руководить / управлять / командовать восстанием: The Duke of Ormond led a military rebellion against the new king. | He then led a revolt against Constantine in Gaul, which was defeated, and committed suicide at Marseilles in 310. | Louverture headed the revolt of the slaves in the French colony of San Domingo.
to mastermind / orchestrate a rebellion / revolt / insurgency / insurrection / uprising / rising тайно руководить восстанием: The colonel was able to orchestrate a rebellion from inside an army jail.
to put down / crush / quell / quash / suppress / repress / defeat / fight (a) rebellion / revolt / insurgency / insurrection / uprising / rising подавлять восстание: Troops were used to put down a rebellion and arrest hundreds of protestors. | Herrera knew that if his government failed to put down the revolt, it would spread to outlying areas. | The new leader put down the uprising by dispatching government troops to the area. | The army was brought in to crush the rebellion. | Troops loyal to the President crushed the revolt. | The military operation was the first step in a plan to crush the uprising. | Troops were sent in to crush the uprising at Carandiru prison in Sao Paulo. | The President took immediate steps to quell the uprising. | He was prepared to suppress rebellion by shooting down protesters. | The Confederate government provided troops to suppress slave revolts. | Force is conveniently used to suppress political uprising. | This runs parallel with the use of force to suppress uprisings in poor nations against policies of these same institutions. | Rebellions in the area were bloodily repressed by pro-government forces. | I would have thought it a proper job for the Army to fight rebellion.
a rebellion / revolt / insurgency / insurrection / uprising / rising starts / breaks out / erupts вспыхивает восстание: The rebellion started in Kilalla and spread quickly through the Western provinces.
a rebellion / revolt / insurgency / insurrection / uprising / rising occurs / materializes восстание происходит: A rebellion by radicals failed to materialize.
the rebellion / revolt / insurgency / insurrection / uprising / rising spreads to / through / across a particular place восстание распространяется на какой-то территории: The rebellion spread quickly through the Western Provinces.
a rebellion / revolt / insurgency / insurrection / uprising / rising sweeps a country охватывает / захлестывает страну: In 1880, a peasant revolt swept the country in protest at the tax on salt.
armed rebellion / revolt / insurgency / insurrection / uprising / rising вооруженный мятеж: Threats of an armed rebellion caused tightened security measures across the country. | The peasants rose in armed revolt. | The immediate sequel was an armed uprising in several cities, headed by Moscow. | The reign of civil disorder and terrorism culminated in armed insurrection.
open rebellion / revolt открытый бунт
popular rebellion / revolt / insurgency / insurrection / uprising / rising народное восстание: The regime was overthrown by a popular uprising on December 22, 1989. | Marcos was overthrown in 1986 after a popular uprising.
abortive / failed rebellion / revolt / insurgency / insurrection / uprising / rising неудавшаяся попытка мятежа: a failed uprising against French colonial rule | Recruits to the rebel cause were also thought to include students and survivors of the failed 1985 uprising led by Brig.
revolution [countable; uncountable] a successful attempt by a large group of people to change their government or the political system of their country, usually by force революция; восстание; переворот: The country seems to be heading towards revolution. | The colonial revolution could not by its own forces bring about the downfall of imperialism. | The period since the revolution has been one of political turmoil.
to bring about / carry out / conduct a revolution совершать революцию: It needed and wanted to bring about a revolution.
to incite / instigate / foment / stir up a revolution провоцировать восстание, подстрекать к восстанию
a revolution happens / occurs совершается / происходит революция: Abandoned by her family and deserted by her servants, Elena Petrescu was incapable of grasping that a revolution had happened.
a revolution breaks out / erupts вспыхивает восстание
a country erupts into revolution в стране совершается / происходит революция: Just 12 days after the emperor's death, the country erupted into revolution.
the revolution spreads to / through a particular place восстание распространяется на какой-то территории
to lead / head a revolution возглавлять восстание, руководить / управлять / командовать восстанием: No one can be certain what would have happened if the Communist Party had tried to lead a revolution in May 1968.
to mastermind / orchestrate a revolution тайно руководить восстанием
to put down / crush / quell / quash / suppress / repress / defeat a revolution подавлять восстание: The revolution was crushed within days.
riot [countable; uncountable] a noisy, violent and uncontrolled protest by a crowd of people бунт; беспорядки: Ethnic tensions led to a massive race riot. | Riots during the election were dealt with by the police. | A peaceful rally turned into a riot after police fired into the crowd.
riot against sb / sth: Last autumn's riots against President Mobutu saw a repetition of this panic. | We met on the streets of Whitehall, central London, during the now infamous riots against capitalism earlier this year.
to incite / instigate / foment / stir up a riot подстрекать к бунту: He has blamed the police for causing the May Day riot, siding with the Front. | There were not enough of them to start a riot.
to cause / provoke / spark (off) / trigger (off) / touch off a riot вызывать / провоцировать бунт: The new laws sparked prison riots across the country. | His murder triggered vicious race riots.
to put down / crush / quell / quash / suppress / repress / end a riot подавлять бунт: The army was called in to put down the riots. | The riot was put down by force. | Seven people were hurt as police tried to quell the riot. | It was said that armed mounted troopers were grouped outside the oval to quell a possible riot. | More than 150 officers battled to end the riots outside the embassy.
a riot breaks out / erupts вспыхивает бунт: A riot broke out after a police shooting of a local man. | Riots erupted in the capital after police banned two anti-government demonstrations. | Inner-city riots erupted when a local man was shot by police.
race riot расовые беспорядки: In 1943 there were violent race riots in Detroit in which 25 black people died. | These groups have also been accused of plotting to trigger more race riots in Oldham and Bradford.
riots spread to / through / across a particular place бунты распространяются на какой-то территории: Racial tension boiled over in the inner city riots which spread across the nation last week.
riot gear protective clothes and equipment: Police in riot gear lined up at the end of the street.
unrest | rioting [uncountable] | disturbance [countable; uncountable] (formal) angry or violent behaviour by people who are protesting against something (массовые) беспорядки, волнения, бесчинства, неповиновение, акция неповиновения: The government blamed the unrest on the activities of several small left-wing groups intent on creating general instability. | The government is afraid of further serious rioting today. | They needed more troops to quell the ever-rising tide of rioting. | The election passed without any disturbance. | Israel was reported to be offering guidance to the army on controlling civil disturbances. | A home-made bomb exploded during the disturbances. | Violent disturbances have left at least ten people dead. | Some say that the rising number of people in an area is bound to create occasional disturbances.
growing / mounting unrest усиливающиеся беспорядки / волнения: There is growing unrest throughout the country. | There is growing unrest among students in several major cities. | There was a growing unrest among the younger residents. | In the face of mounting political and industrial unrest, Asquith may have been anxious to head off further confrontation with feminists.
to be in a state of unrest: For several weeks students at the university have been in a state of unrest.
to incite / instigate / foment / stir up unrest / disturbance(s) подстрекать к беспорядкам / волнениям: Along with hate crimes, police violence and abuse continued to incite racial disturbances in the early 1980s. | There is a certain amount of evidence to suggest that local Tory leaders played a part in inciting the unrest.
to cause / provoke / spark (off) / trigger (off) / touch off / lead to / fan / create unrest / disturbances вызывать беспорядки / волнения: A defector was quoted in January as saying that hunger had even caused unrest in the army. | The tensions generated by the Gulf war have not caused as much unrest as December's strikes and riots. | The raising of fuel prices by 36 percent in June led to widespread unrest. | In their existing forms, reforms looked likely to lead to social unrest and further disturbances. | He said students were fanning social unrest with their violent protests.
unrest / disturbance(s) break(s) / erupt(s) вспыхивают беспорядки / волнения: Social unrest, never far below the surface in Brazil, has erupted over the last few days.
unrest / disturbance(s) spread(s) to / through / across a particular place беспорядки / волнения распространяются на какой-то территории: The unrest then spread to secondary schools in Conakry.
to put down / crush / quell / quash / suppress / repress unrest / disturbance(s) подавлять беспорядки / волнения: Troops eventually quelled the unrest. | The security forces counter-attacked the following day and quelled the unrest. | In New Orleans in May 1861, disturbances among the slave population were suppressed by the militia.
civil unrest / disturbance(s) гражданское неповиновение: The Foreign Office is advising people not to travel to the area, because of civil unrest. | It is feared that the civil unrest we are now witnessing in this country could lead to full-scale civil war. | He chose November 5 as a traditional day of civil disturbance.
political unrest / disturbance(s) политические беспорядки: In times of political unrest, the danger that extreme measures will be taken increases. | The capital city is facing growing political unrest.
social / popular unrest / disturbance(s) социальные волнения, общественное недовольство: He is acutely conscious that this transition will bring with it the risk of social unrest. | There are growing signs of more broadly-based popular unrest.
labour / industrial // peasant unrest / disturbance(s) волнения среди / в среде рабочих // крестьян: A faltering economy and a recent wave of labour unrest have affected the new party's popularity. | In addition, peasant unrest in areas where there was significant private landholding had reached serious proportions by May. | But the sharp decline in peasant disturbances in the pre-war years pointed to peaceful development. | The Tambov revolt and other peasant disturbances were soon contained and squashed.
student / campus unrest / disturbance(s) студенческие волнения: The student unrest of 1988 needs to be addressed next. | Such isolated incidents of student unrest rapidly became a mass movement.
racial unrest / disturbance(s) расовые волнения / беспорядки: Along with hate crimes, police violence and abuse continued to incite racial disturbances in the early 1980s.
mutiny [countable; uncountable] a refusal by a group to accept someone's authority and / or an attempt to take control from people in authority, especially a group of soldiers or sailors мятеж, восстание, бунт: There were rumours of mutiny among the troops. | There was already talk of mutiny among the crew. | Thirteen soldiers were sentenced to life imprisonment for mutiny. | The mutiny will not take place. | A series of coup attempts and mutinies within the armed forces destabilized the regime. | They were shot yesterday after being convicted of mutiny and high treason.
to incite / instigate / foment / stir up a mutiny | to stir sb to mutiny поднять мятеж, подстрекать к мятежу: Discontented men stirred the crew to mutiny.
to provoke / spark (off) / trigger (off) / touch off / lead to a mutiny вызывать мятеж, приводить к мятежу: Dissatisfaction, exacerbated by the non-payment of the usual bonuses, led to a mass exodus and mutiny.
to put down / crush / quell / quash / suppress / repress a riot подавлять мятеж: Soldiers and police killed 250-300 prisoners while crushing mutinies in three jails.
a mutiny breaks out / erupts вспыхивает мятеж
to lead / head a mutiny возглавлять мятеж, руководить / командовать мятежом: He led a mutiny against the captain.
coup (d'état) | takeover [countable] an occasion when a group of people takes control of a country, usually by means of military force (государственный) переворот; захват власти: Haiti's first elected president was deposed in a violent military coup.
to plot a coup готовить (государственный) переворот
to stage / launch / mount / wage a coup (against sb) организовывать / осуществлять (государственный) переворот: A band of young disillusioned officers staged a coup. | Seif says he spent most of last year coaxing his father into transforming his 35-year-old revolution, which Gaddafi has led since he waged a military coup in 1969.
to lead a coup возглавлять (государственный) переворот: He led a successful coup against the government of Iraq.
to attempt a coup совершить попытку (государственного) переворота
coup attempt | attempted coup попытка (государственного) переворота: The coup attempt was followed by police brutality, executions, and torture. | He was jailed for his part in the attempted coup.
failed / abortive coup (attempt) неудавшийся (государственный) переворот: He evaded capture after the failed coup. | It was the worst violence Moscow had seen since the failed coup of August 1991.
plot [countable] | conspiracy [countable; uncountable] a secret plan by a group of people to do something bad or illegal, especially in politics заговор; интриги; козни; тайный сговор: The three men are accused of conspiracy. | The bombs are almost certainly part of a much bigger conspiracy. | They were brought to trial for treasonable conspiracy.
a plot / conspiracy against sb / sth: Taken together, the taped conversations reveal a president seemingly consumed with the details of illegal plots against his enemies. | Reynolds was charged with conspiracy against the government. | The conspiracy against Castro was led by several top military men.
a plot / conspiracy to do sth: The two men are accused of a plot to bomb an American plane. | A man and a woman were charged on April 15 with conspiracy to cause explosions and with possession of explosives and arms. | He believes there probably was a conspiracy to kill President Kennedy in 1963.
assassination plot: He was responding to reports of an assassination plot against him. | Daley, as it turned out, seemed to be the only person who knew about an assassination plot.
coup plot: The government announced that it had discovered a coup plot.
conspiracy theory a belief that an unpleasant event or situation is the result of a secret plan made by powerful people: The air is thick with conspiracy theories whenever the regime feels threatened. | Did you ever swallow the conspiracy theory about Kennedy? | There were many conspiracy theories surrounding Princess Diana's death.
to hatch / devise / lay a plot / conspiracy вынашивать / подготавливать заговор: The court heard that a desperate financial crisis and debts of more than £40,000 drove Shooter to hatch his unsuccessful plot. | He has accused opposition parties of hatching a plot to assassinate the Pope.
to carry out a plot / conspiracy осуществлять заговор: The plot was discovered before it was carried out.
to mastermind / orchestrate a plot / conspiracy тайно управлять / руководить заговором: Janis was suspected of masterminding a plot against US airlines in East Asia.
to be involved / engaged in a plot / conspiracy быть вовлеченным в заговор, участвовать в заговоре: Klein next turned up in Rome, where he was involved in a plot to kidnap the pope. | Many people were involved in this conspiracy, but three stand out.
to foil / thwart a plot / conspiracy расстроить заговор, помешать выполнению заговора: The police have foiled a plot to assassinate the president. | The plot to overthrow the military government was foiled.
to uncover / discover / expose a plot / conspiracy раскрывать заговор: Security forces have uncovered a plot to overthrow the government. | The plot was quickly discovered, and five men were arrested.
subversion [uncountable] | subversive activities [plural] the action of trying to weaken or destroy the power or influence of a government or an established system, especially by attacking it indirectly in written or spoken material подрывная деятельность; диверсия: Seventeen people were convicted of subversion following a coup attempt. | Many defectors provided the McCarthy committees with evidence of political subversion. | And the relevance of Northern Ireland to the subversion of democracy in Britain remains mystified. | They were expelled from the country for subversive activities.
to be engaged / involved in subversion / subversive activities | to engage in subversion / subversive activities заниматься подрывной деятельностью: He was engaged / involved in subversive activities.
sedition [uncountable] (formal) speech, writing, or actions intended to encourage people to disobey or fight against a government подстрекательство / призыв к мятежу / бунту: He was arrested on charges of sedition. | Government officials charged him with sedition. | The charges were preaching sedition in three published articles.
to incite / instigate / foment / stir up sedition подстрекать к мятежу
sabotage [uncountable] (1) deliberate damage that is done to equipment, weapons or buildings in order to prevent the success of an enemy or competitor диверсия, саботаж, вредительство; подрывная деятельность: Armed soldiers patrol the airbase to guard against sabotage. | The rebels stopped their sabotage of the power distribution network. | Experts believed the crash to be due to pilot error, and sabotage was virtually ruled out of the investigation. | One of the journalists queried whether sabotage could have been involved.
industrial / economic sabotage: They began a campaign of industrial and economic sabotage. | The amnesty did not include those accused of offences relating to drugs, murder, economic sabotage or armed robbery.
backstage sabotage скрытый саботаж
act of sabotage диверсионный акт; акт саботажа: The bombing was a spectacular act of sabotage. | My insurance excludes acts of sabotage and damage done by weapons of war. | The terrorists were planning acts of sabotage to destabilize the country. | Was the explosion an act of sabotage?
to commit / carry out an act of sabotage организовывать диверсию; саботировать: Now that the partisans were well organized in the Province of Parma they committed many acts of sabotage. | It accused Mr Mandela of carrying out acts of sabotage on dates when he was in prison.
(2) things that are done to deliberately spoil someone's plans because you do not want them to succeed саботаж
crackdown / clampdown (on / against sb / sth) [countable – usually singular] a determined attempt by someone in authority to stop people doing something bad or illegal применение суровых / жестких мер; ужесточение мер; жестокое преследование / подавление: They claimed to be victims of political persecution following the military crackdown on student protesters. | They promised a crackdown on crime, but crime has doubled. | The new administration has promised a clampdown on corruption. | A massive security clampdown aimed at restoring order resulted in major bloodshed, particularly in the capital. | The governor has ordered a clampdown on illegal immigration.
to launch a crackdown / clampdown: They launched a crackdown on drug dealers.
rebel [countable] someone who tries to remove a government or leader by force мятежник, участник мятежа; повстанец, участник восстания; боевик: Anti-government rebels have seized the radio station. | The rebels took over the capital and set up a new government. | The town fell into rebel hands.
rebel forces / troops / army: A problem deserving consideration is how strong the rebel forces actually were. | Fighting between the rebels and government troops continues in the north. | Two neighbouring countries and three rebel armies have been fighting since 1998 to depose him.
rebel soldier / leader / general: Three of the rebel soldiers and one government soldier were killed. | This led rebel leaders to agree to combine their forces in one division under a unified command structure.
rebel group / movement: The interim government was not recognized by the major rebel movements.
rebel attack: The government said that a rebel attack on the town of Tchoukou-Hadje had left several dead.
revolutionary [countable] someone who supports or takes part in a political or social revolution революционер: The revolutionaries laid down their arms and its leaders went into voluntary exile. | All the best revolutionaries have been middle class. | Having taken control of the capital city, the revolutionaries proceeded to form a new government. | He became a professional revolutionary.
rioter [countable] бунтовщик, участник беспорядков: The militia dispersed the rioters. | Police and rioters clashed violently.
mutineer [countable] someone who is involved in a mutiny мятежник, участник мятежа, бунтовщик
militant [countable] someone who uses militant methods to achieve something боевик; активист, борец: According to the authorities, the militants were planning a series of terrorist acts. | The militants see no contradiction in using violence to bring about a religious state. | He ruled out any exchange of prisoners with the militants. | A crowd of militants took to the streets to protest the government's policies.
subversive [countable] someone who secretly tries to weaken or destroy the power and influence of a government or an established system, especially by attacking it indirectly in written or spoken material ниспровергатель; человек, ведущий подрывную политическую деятельность: Agents regularly rounded up suspected subversives. | CIA agents infiltrated the group, looking for alleged subversives. | Pablo Picasso was for a long time regarded as a dangerous subversive.
saboteur [countable] someone who secretly damages or destroys equipment, weapons or buildings in order to prevent the success of an enemy or competitor диверсант; вредитель; саботажник: The lorries were wrecked by saboteurs. | The second possibility was that some fiendishly cunning saboteur was at work. | The saboteurs demanded money in return for revealing how they had hacked into the systems.
rebellious (adjective) fighting to remove a government or leader by force мятежный, восставший; бунтующий: Aristide, the elected president, was ousted by rebellious soldiers. | The rebellious officers, having seized the radio station, broadcast the news of the overthrow of the monarchy.
revolutionary (adjective) [only before noun] relating to a political or social revolution революционный: a revolutionary leader / movement / party / war / society | revolutionary ideas / principles | When revolutionary forces marched into Havana, Castro and Che Guevara took control of the army. | Several rival revolutionary armies were challenging the central government and each other. | Do you know anything about the revolutionary movement? | The violence of the revolutionary years was justifiable on the grounds of political necessity.
militant (adjective) using extreme and sometimes violent methods in order to achieve political or social change воинственный, воинствующий; активный, боевой; агрессивный: After the assassination of Martin Luther King, black leaders became more militant. | Although the court found that she was not a militant member of the guerrilla group, she received a maximum sentence. | The militant group claimed to have killed two soldiers. | The town has been the target of militant attacks. | Militant nationalism and militant revolutionism seem to be contemporaneous. | They have already been accused of appeasement by more militant organizations. | The fiery right-wing leader toned down his militant statements after the meeting.
subversive (adjective) subversive ideas, activities etc are secret and intended to weaken or destroy a government or an established system, especially by attacking it indirectly in written or spoken material подрывной, антиправительственный: subversive political activities | subversive propaganda / literature | subversive organizations | subversive elements / groups in society | subversive ideas / influences | He remained faithful to the Party in its outlaw years, and went to prison for distributing subversive literature. | It's a challenging novel with a subversive message. | The play was promptly banned as subversive and possibly treasonous.
seditious (adjective) (formal) intended to illegally encourage people to oppose the government or not obey the law бунтарский, мятежный: seditious speeches / writings | She was arrested after making a speech that the government considered to be seditious. | He fell under suspicion for distributing seditious pamphlets.
seditious activities бунтарская деятельность
insurgent [countable – usually plural] (formal) someone who belongs to a group of people fighting to take control of their country by force повстанец; бунтовщик, мятежник: All approaches to the capital are now under the control of the insurgents. | By early yesterday, the insurgents had taken control of the country's main military air base.
guerrilla (fighter) [countable] a member of an unofficial military group that is trying to change the government by making sudden, unexpected attacks on the official armed forces партизан: The guerrillas began their assault on March 8th. | The guerrillas would fight to the bitter end in order to achieve their main goal. | The guerrillas threatened to kill their hostages. | Most of the people living there sympathized with the guerrillas. | Guerrillas avoid fighting set-piece battles. | At midday six guerrilla fighters arrive to help them from a military base near to their village. | Television stations would be expected to broadcast photographs of guerrilla leaders with offers of rewards for information.
armed guerrilla: Four Western tourists held by armed guerrillas in Kashmir began their seventh month in captivity today.
guerrilla group / band / unit отряд партизан: Guerrilla groups are active in the province. | A small band of guerrillas has blown up a train in the mountains. | Elite Republican Guard troops deployed tanks and heavy artillery against lightly armed guerrilla units.
guerrilla force(s) партизанские войска: The rest of the family decided to join the guerrilla forces. | Delegates also discussed transforming them from a guerrilla force into a regular army.
guerrilla movement партизанское движение: The democratic approach inherent in the guerrilla movement would triumph ultimately. | He was later released through Romero's efforts, at which point he joined a guerrilla movement and was killed in combat.
guerrilla warfare / war / tactics партизанская война / тактика: The enemy cunningly avoided direct confrontation and concentrated on guerrilla warfare. | American troops found themselves fighting a guerrilla war. | In early 1990 the guerrilla war intensified, with rising casualties among both the local population and the security forces. | The terrorists continue to express confidence that their guerrilla tactics can defeat a conventional force.
guerrilla activity / activities / action / operations партизанские действия: Over 100 of those killed were paramilitary gendarmes who were stationed in the area to counter Kurdish guerrilla activity. | In real life the distinction between sheer brigandage and patriotic guerrilla activities was often blurred. | In reality guerrilla action was largely indiscriminate with sporadic attacks on the occasional landlord, local official, or police post.
guerrilla attack: He said that guerrilla attacks would henceforth be directed at military targets, state companies and economic installations among others. | The rebels appear to be making hit-and-run guerrilla style attacks on military targets. | It could be a prime target for guerrilla attack.
guerrilla raid / foray / infiltration партизанский рейд, партизанская вылазка: Cumings concludes that Kim was probably based at Kharborovsk from 1941 to 1945 and conducted his guerrilla forays from there. | These base camps were used by the PKK guerrillas to make forays into Turkey. | The security zone was set up to prevent guerrilla infiltrations.
freedom fighter [countable] someone who fights in a war against an unfair or dishonest government, army etc (used to show approval) борец за свободу: This would give great encouragement to the freedom fighters. | Young enthusiasts drove across the border to join the freedom fighters who had appealed to the world for help. | It's often said that one person's freedom fighter is another person's terrorist.
paramilitary (adjective) [usually before noun] (1) a paramilitary organization is an illegal group that is organized like an army военизированный, полувоенный: Suspicions will now be increased that the regiment has been penetrated by a network of loyalist paramilitary supporters and sympathizers. | They had cropped heads and wore paramilitary uniforms. | There are signs of paramilitary activity supported from abroad.
paramilitary group / organization / force(s): According to sources, the report urges paramilitary groups to commit themselves to exclusively democratic means and to total disarmament. | The law said that all paramilitary groups must be disarmed. | It turns neighbour against neighbour, breaking down trust in a way that the paramilitary organizations are finding easy to exploit.| The region has been fiercely contested by guerrillas and the paramilitary forces for the past few years.
(2) connected with and helping the official armed forces or police военизированный, полувоенный: In some countries, police and fire officers have paramilitary training.
paramilitary police (force): The soldiers were deployed to help paramilitary police seal the border. | The protestors eventually surrendered to paramilitary police. | Paramilitary police units are taking part in rescue efforts. | I had not previously read anything about a paramilitary police force.
paramilitary force(s): Searches by the army and paramilitary forces have continued today. | In the southern district of Faridabad there were visible pockets of tension, in spite of a strong presence of police and paramilitary forces.
paramilitary [countable] (1) a member of an illegal paramilitary organization член военизированного формирования: Loyalist paramilitaries were blamed for the shooting.
(2) a member of a legal paramilitary organization член военизированного формирования: Paramilitaries and army recruits patrolled the village.
patrol (1) [uncountable; countable] the act of going around different parts of an area at regular times to check that there is no trouble or danger патрулирование; обход: The picket line was supplemented by daily long-range air patrols by naval aircraft.
on patrol (duties): Security forces remained on patrol until late into the night. | Three reconnaissance aircraft are permanently on patrol. | Warships on patrol in the Red Sea spotted two enemy jets. | There were eight extra police officers this year, seven of them on patrol duties.
(2) [countable] a group of police, soldiers, vehicles, planes etc sent out to search a particular area патруль; дозор; разъезд: Our forward patrol has / have spotted the enemy. | Our full combat air patrol was on the alert. | Guerrillas attacked a patrol with hand grenades. | The men apparently opened fire after they were challenged by a patrol. | The security forces increased their patrols in the area. | It was a strange feeling to see the military patrols in the empty streets on election day. | The mood is relaxed, and two border patrol officers chat across the fence.
military patrol военный патруль
police patrol полицейский патруль
reconnaissance patrol разведывательный патруль
foot patrol пеший патруль: Every police car and foot patrol was watching out for him.
mounted patrol конный патруль: I ask the mounted patrol to keep their eyes open.
patrol boat / car / vehicle a boat / car / vehicle used by the armed forces or police: There is a chronic shortage of patrol cars in this police district. | There were patrol cars on the streets and riot police standing by in reserve.
to patrol [transitive; intransitive] (especially of soldiers or the police) to go around the different parts of an area or building at regular times to check that there is no trouble or danger патрулировать; охранять
to patrol sth: Air raid wardens patrolled the streets to make sure no lights were showing in houses. | Troops patrolled the streets. | Why were the Marines patrolling the border?
to patrol along / on / around sth: Coastguards found a deserted boat while patrolling along the coast. | Brook was wounded while patrolling on the border.
22. Terrorist activities
terrorism [uncountable] the use of violence to achieve political aims терроризм: The establishment of the regional government in 1980 did not end terrorism. | The spiral of terrorism becomes never-ending. | What separates terrorism from other acts of violence? | The 20th century witnessed great changes in the use and practice of terrorism.
to be involved / engaged in terrorism | to engage in terrorism | to practise terrorism | to resort to terrorism | to use terrorism заниматься террористической деятельностью: Terrorism has been practised throughout history and throughout the world. | Terrorism has been used by one or both sides in anti-colonial conflicts.
to sponsor terrorism финансировать / спонсировать терроризм: We have to make the states that sponsor terrorism pay a price.
to fight / combat / counter / confront terrorism бороться с терроризмом, противодействовать терроризму: Governments must cooperate if they are to fight international terrorism. | The government is doing everything possible to combat terrorism. | He said the country needed a strong intelligence service to counter espionage, terrorism and foreign extremists. | Democracies, in general, are no great shakes at confronting terrorism.
to smash terrorism победить / сокрушить терроризм: The President said he would smash the terrorism.
to eliminate / eradicate / root out terrorism искоренить / вырвать с корнем / ликвидировать / уничтожить терроризм
to take a hard / firm / tough line on terrorism / with terrorists | to adopt / take a resolute / tough position / stance / stand on terrorism проводить жесткую политику в области борьбы с терроризмом: Even countries, such as Israel, which normally take a hard line on terrorism have given in to demands on occasion. | The President adopted / took a tough stance on terrorism.
to renounce terrorism отказываться от терроризма / террористической деятельности: The party has renounced terrorism as a political tool. | Although the PLO renounced terrorism in 1988, radical Palestinian groups such as Hamas, Hezbollah, and Islamic Jihad have continued to wage a campaign of terror against Israel and its allies.
to be opposed to terrorism: I am utterly opposed to any form of terrorism.
political terrorism политический терроризм
criminal terrorism уголовный терроризм
military terrorism военный терроризм
state terrorism государственный терроризм
international terrorism международный терроризм: Crises and conflicts are a seedbed for international terrorism.
terrorist attack | act of terrorism | terrorist act | act of terror | terrorist incident [countable] террористический акт: There has been an increase in terrorist attacks. | Twenty people were killed in the latest terrorist attack. | The bomb explosion was one of the worst acts of terrorism that Italy has experienced in recent years. | Terrorist acts date back to at least the 1st century, when the Zealots, a Jewish religious sect, fought against Roman occupation of what is now Israel. | Organizations that engage in acts of terror are almost always small in size and limited in resources compared to the populations and institutions they oppose. | The numbers can decline as the Iraqis prove a new competence, but not until the borders are secure, the militias are disarmed and terrorist incidents are the exception.
to make / carry out / conduct a terrorist attack (on / against sb / sth) | to commit / conduct an act of terrorism / a terrorist act (against sb / sth) | to bomb sth | to launch a terrorist operation (on sb) совершать террористический акт: In the late 1980s and early 1990s the Sicilian Mafia conducted a series of terrorist attacks in reaction to the Italian government's prosecution of leading Mafia figures. | They were charged with conspiring to commit acts of terrorism. | In the 12th century in Iran, the Assassins, a group of Ismailis (Shiite Muslims), conducted terrorist acts against religious and political leaders of Sunni Islam. | Left-wing groups such as the Weather Underground bombed buildings on university campuses throughout the country and at corporation headquarters and government buildings in New York City. | The railway station was bombed by terrorists.| A largely successful terrorist operation was launched on America with a loss of life that was once inconceivable and remains, even after the event, unimaginable.
a terrorist attack / act of terrorism / terrorist act / (terrorist) bombing / act of terror / terrorist incident occurs совершается террористический акт: Two planes had hit the buildings, and maybe other acts of terrorism were about to occur.
bomb attack | (terrorist) bombing | bombing raid [countable] террористический акт (с использованием взрывного устройства): Cars were set on fire and a bomb attack was made against the mayor's car with his family inside. | It withdrew shortly after 241 marines were killed in a single truck bomb attack on their barracks. | Two men are being held for questioning in connection with the Paris bombing. | There was a wave of bombings in London. | They were planning bombing raids in some of America's major cities.
suicide (bomb) / kamikaze attack | suicide / kamikaze mission | suicide / kamikaze bombing an attack in which the person who carries out the attack deliberately kills himself or herself in the process of killing other people террористический акт террориста-смертника: This development follows the first suicide bomb attack for two years. | In 1996 a series of suicide bomb attacks in Israel by supporters of Hamas killed more than 60 Israelis and imperilled the fragile peace between Israel and the PLO. | His suicide mission came as a surprise to more people than just his family. | As Delbert saw it, they went on suicide missions, which was just the kind of action he wanted. | The powers-that-be decide to send you on a suicide mission.
terrorist [countable] someone who uses violence in order to achieve political aims террорист: Two of the terrorists were shot dead. | Several terrorists have been killed by their own bombs. | The government has said that it will not be intimidated by terrorist threats. | The terrorist bomb left 168 people dead.
to harbour terrorists укрывать террористов: They accused several countries of harbouring terrorists. | Accusations of harbouring terrorist suspects were raised against the former Hungarian leadership.
to turn a terrorist over to sb выдавать / передавать террориста кому-л.: Suspected terrorists are immediately turned over to the law.
to extradite a terrorist выдавать / передавать террориста (другому государству)
terrorist activity / activities террористическая деятельность: the vulnerability of airports to terrorist activities
terrorist group / organization террористическая группа / организация: Terrorist groups are believed to be stockpiling weapons. | Terrorist groups are unlikely to disarm.
terrorist / bomb threat террористическая угроза: The government has said that it will not be intimidated by terrorist threats. | A bomb threat forced them to make an emergency landing.
terrorist plot заговор с целью совершения террористического акта
bomber [countable] someone who puts and explodes a bomb in a public place террорист (со взрывным устройством): The bomber breached security by hurling his dynamite from a roof overlooking the building. | The police underlined the importance of the public's co-operation in the hunt for the bombers. | The government is convinced that the bombers want to frighten away foreign investors. | The political turmoil is being played out against a backdrop of terror attacks by far-right bombers.
suicide bomber | kamikaze [countable] someone who hides a bomb on their body and explodes it in a public place, killing himself or herself and other people, usually for political reasons террорист-смертник: A suicide car bomber killed seven Israeli soldiers. | Can suicide bombers really be considered cowards? | FBI agents found the passport of one of the suicide bombers among the wreckage. | Rajiv Gandhi is believed to have been killed by a suicide bomber.
to threaten [transitive] to say that you will cause someone harm or trouble if they do not do what you want грозить, угрожать
to threaten sth: NATO has threatened air strikes against the capital. | Postal workers are threatening a strike if they don't receive a pay increase.
to threaten to do sth: The terrorists are threatening to kill the hostages. | When they found out he was an American, the soldiers threatened to kill him.
to threaten sb with sth: They threatened the shopkeeper with a gun. | One man has been threatened with legal action.
to threaten (that)…: Then he became angry and threatened that he would go to the police.
to kidnap | to abduct [transitive] to take a person away illegally by force, especially in order to make their family or government give you money or allow you to do what you want похищать (человека, например, с целью выкупа), насильно увозить: Terrorists have kidnapped a French officer and are demanding $400,000 from the French government. | A number of foreign businessmen have been kidnapped and held for ransom in Manila. | The aim of the terrorists is to kidnap rather than kill. | Kurdish separatists have abducted a Japanese tourist and are demanding money for his safe return. | The two high school girls were abducted at gunpoint on Tuesday. | The company director was abducted from his car by terrorists.
to hijack [transitive] to illegally take control of a plane, ship, or vehicle using violence or threats угонять (самолет, судно, автобус), совершать угон; похищать; нападать с целью грабежа; заниматься воздушным пиратством: Terrorists hijacked the plane, ordering the pilot to fly to Tripoli. | The airliner was hijacked by a group of terrorists. | The ship was hijacked by four young terrorists. | Bands of gunmen have hijacked food shipments and terrorized relief workers.
to skyjack [transitive] to illegally take control of a plane using violence or threats угонять самолет, совершать угон; похищать; нападать с целью грабежа; заниматься воздушным пиратством
to assassinate [transitive] to murder a famous or important person, especially for political reasons or for payment убивать по политическим мотивам, совершать политическое убийство; совершать террористический акт: The CIA may have tried to assassinate Castro. | President Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. | Many people today, worldwide, remember exactly what they were doing when John Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.
threat [countable; uncountable] a statement in which you tell someone that you will cause them harm or trouble if they do not do what you want угроза: I'm prepared to listen to him, but I'm not going to respond to threats.
threat of: the threat of military invasion | After threats of legal action they stopped the building work.
to make / issue a threat (against sb / sth) угрожать: He denied making threats to kill her. | The Mugabe government repeatedly issues public death threats against its foes.
to carry out a threat выполнить угрозу: He would not make threats he wasn't prepared to carry out. | Accordingly, on October 22, Bush carried out his threat to veto the bill.
to receive / get a threat (from sb) получать угрозу: Last Thursday, campus officials received a bomb threat that was sent over the university e-mail system. | He says his family received phone threats from the group. | Immigrant families in the area have received threats from right-wing extremist groups. | The judges have received death threats.
to give in / yield to a threat поддаваться на угрозу, сдаваться: The government will not give in to terrorist threats.
terrorist / bomb threat (against sb / sth) террористическая угроза: Officials at the school say they received a bomb threat at approximately 11:30 a.m. today. | It belongs to the man who called in the bomb threat 18 minutes before it detonated. | Schools cancelled extracurricular activities, and many parents took their children out of classes after word of the bomb threat spread. | Pervez Musharraf, delayed his flight home because of a bomb threat.
empty / idle threat a threat that is not serious пустая угроза: She dismissed the statement as an empty threat. | This isn't some idle threat.
veiled threat скрытая / завуалированная угроза: They backed up these demands with scarcely veiled threats. | They warned him with veiled threats against mentioning anything that he had witnessed the previous night.
death threat: The terrorist made a death threat. | He has received death threats. | The police are investigating death threats made against the two men.
kidnapping | kidnap | abduction [countable; uncountable] the act of kidnapping someone похищение (человека, например, с целью выкупа): Two youngsters have been arrested and charged with kidnapping. | He was charged with the kidnap of a 25 year-old woman. | Stewart denies attempted murder and kidnap.
faked kidnapping / abduction инсценировка похищения
hijack | hijacking [countable; uncountable] an occasion when someone illegally takes control of a plane, ship, or vehicle using violence or threats угон (самолета, судна, автобуса); похищение; нападение с целью грабежа; воздушное пиратство: Every minute during the hijack seemed like a week. | The hijack ended with the release of all the plane's passengers unharmed. | Members of this West German gang also cooperated with Palestinian terrorists, notably in the murder of the Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics and the hijacking of an El Al plane in 1976. | Car hijackings are running at a rate of nearly 50 a day.
skyjacking [countable; uncountable] an occasion when someone illegally takes control of a plane using violence or threats угон самолета; похищение; нападение с целью грабежа; воздушное пиратство: Such acts include kidnappings, assassinations, skyjackings, bombings, and hijackings.
kidnapper | abductor [countable] похититель (людей): His kidnappers have threatened that they will kill him unless three militants are released from prison. | She co-operated with her abductor for fear that something might happen to the child.
hijacker [countable] someone who illegally takes control of a plane, ship, or vehicle using violence or threats угонщик (самолета, судна, автобуса); воздушный пират; бандит, налетчик: The hijackers have put the lives of about 10,000 air passengers at risk. | In each case the hijackers bluffed the crew using fake grenades. | The hijacker gave himself up to police, who are now questioning him. | The hijackers refuse to yield to demands to release the passengers.
skyjacker [countable] someone who illegally takes control of a plane using violence or threats угонщик самолета; воздушный пират; бандит, налетчик
assassination [countable; uncountable] the murder of a famous or important person, especially for political reasons or for payment убийство; террористический акт: The assassination of Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo led to the First World War. | Three foreign diplomats have been killed in a series of assassinations. | He narrowly escaped an assassination attempt. | He lives in constant fear of assassination.
ransom [countable] an amount of money that is paid to free someone who is held as a prisoner выкуп: After the families of the two men were contacted, the ransom was upped to $ 1 million.
to demand a ransom (from sb) требовать выкуп: The kidnappers were demanding a ransom of $250,000. | They demanded a huge ransom for the return of the little girl whom they had kidnapped.
to extort / exact a ransom (from sb) to demand and get an amount of money from someone by using threats, force etc получить выкуп: Her kidnapper successfully extorted a £175,000 ransom for her release.
to pay (a) ransom (demand) (for sb) заплатить выкуп: The government refused to pay the ransom. | The president has said the United States will never pay ransom for the hostages. | Reagan clung to the belief that he was not paying ransom but merely rewarding an intermediary for services rendered. | His wife spent all their savings on paying ransom demands.
ransom demand требование выкупа: There has been no ransom demand. | The ransom demand was made by telephone. | They are all about kidnapping and about ransom demands.
ransom note письмо с требованием выкупа: Her parents received a ransom note. | Police sources revealed earlier that the three-page ransom note had been handwritten on paper from a legal pad found in the home.
a king's ransom (informal) an extremely large amount of money огромная сумма, большой куш
to hold sb for / to ransom to keep someone prisoner until money is paid требовать выкуп за кого-л.: His daughter was kidnapped and held for ransom. | A bus-load of schoolchildren were held for ransom until the gang were given a plane. | In Rio, nearly forty people have been held to ransom this year alone.
to hold sb to ransom to try to make someone do what you want, especially by using threats шантажировать: He said terrorists would not be allowed to hold Britain to ransom. | The government says it is being held to ransom by the actions of terrorist groups. | The idea of one global power holding the other to ransom seems less credible now than it has done previously. | Without some such law the rich could hold the poor to ransom.
to ransom [transitive] to pay an amount of money to someone in order to make them let someone they are keeping as a prisoner go free выкупать, освобождать за выкуп: Her father ransomed her for a million dollars. | They were all ransomed and returned unharmed. | The same system was used for ransoming or exchanging captives.
security [uncountable] things that are done to keep a person, building, or country safe from threats such as crime or attacks by foreign countries безопасность: For the security of passengers, all hand baggage is carefully checked. | We have been asked not to say anything for security reasons. | Iraqis know that they cannot yet manage their own security and, within a certain level of tolerance, they do not want foreign forces to leave until they can.
to ensure / provide / maintain security обеспечивать безопасность; поддерживать безопасность на должном уровне: Every precaution has been taken to ensure the personal security of the delegates. | In theory, we were providing security. | They maintain very tight security along the border.
to tighten / increase / enhance / strengthen / step up security (measures) усиливать безопасность / меры безопасности; укреплять безопасность: They are now under a great deal of pressure to tighten their airport security. | The prison was ordered to tighten security after a prisoner escaped yesterday. | Security has been increased at all airports in the wake of the attacks. | Investment in the military by a state enhances its security only at the expense of its neighbours. | Does it enhance or threaten our security or is it of no consequence to us? | And the Security Council should work closely with the World Health Organization to strengthen biological security through prompt, effective responses to such outbreaks. | The bombing has forced Olympic officials to step up security measures throughout Olympic venues and surrounding facilities.
to undermine security подрывать безопасность: Did an accumulation of arms contribute to national security or undermine it by encouraging opponents to follow suit?
national / state security государственная / национальная безопасность: Terrorist activity is a threat to national security. | The information received is highly confidential and relates to national security. | The students were deported because they posed a threat to national security. | The national security council heard calls for resources to be redirected from the elite nuclear forces to beef up conventional arms spending. | On July 29 a general amnesty was reported for detainees accused of harming state security.
internal security внутренняя безопасность
tight / strict / heavy // lax security (measures) good // bad security строгие // недостаточные меры безопасности: There is tight security at the airport and all baggage is being searched. | The meeting took place amid extremely tight security. | The trial was held under tight security.| Strict security measures were in force during the President's visit. | Heavy security measures and heightened sensitivities to protecting Dole and Kemp were symbols of the convention. | Parents have protested against lax security at the school.
sense / feeling of security чувство безопасности: A predictable routine gives children a sense of security.
a false sense of security: We were lulled into a false sense of security and failed to see what was coming.
security measures / precautions меры безопасности: The tighter security measures / precautions include video cameras in the city centre. | New security measures, including video surveillance cameras, come into force on the city's bus fleet this week. | A large number of homes lack adequate security measures.
security situation ситуация с безопасностью, обстановка с точки зрения безопасности: Alongside this swirling evolution of political developments, not so unnatural in itself, came changes in the security situation.
(to be on / to be put on) security alert тревога в связи с угрозой безопасности: The station was closed for two hours because of a security alert. | His arrest followed a major security alert before a visit by the Prime Minister. | Postal facilities and other government offices around the country were warned of the attempted bombings, and were put on security alert. | The security alert, involving five hundred people, cost ten thousand pounds.
security check проверка безопасности: Police plan security checks from 8 am on the road between Balmoral Castle and the church. | The fifty-odd courtrooms are open to the public, though you have to go through stringent security checks first. | There are strict security checks on everyone entering the Opera House.
security / video surveillance camera камера видеонаблюдения: The pictures were captured by the city centre security cameras installed in Gloucester earlier this year. | This series of photographs was taken by a security camera at the Leeds Building Society. | The thief was caught on a security camera.
breach of security нарушение правил безопасности: The Security Commission investigates breaches of security. | An amnesty was also granted to a number of unidentified people being held for breach of national security.
security service [countable] a government organization that protects a country's secrets against enemy countries, or protects the government against attempts to take away its power служба безопасности; органы безопасности: His death was particularly shocking since there was considerable evidence that elements of the military security service were implicated in it. | So concerned are the security services that MI5 has set up a unit to monitor the activities of young British Muslims targeted by extremists.
security force(s) [countable] силы безопасности, войска по поддержанию безопасности: Thirty demonstrators were killed in clashes with the security forces over the weekend. | Part of the reason is the government's effort to strengthen the security forces. | Up to 500 black people are killed by the security forces. | The security forces opened fire, killing two people.
security officer [countable] офицер контрразведки: Such a nightmare was enough to make even the most fearless security officer break out in a cold sweat. | Suddenly, cars swerved to block the road, and dozens of security officers fanned out through the crowd.
security agent [countable] агент безопасности
security man / official [countable] сотрудник службы безопасности: They surged forward but were held back by two very large and determined security men. | A uniformed security man met them at the gate. | Co-ordinated attacks on security officials and politicians over the past few weeks indicate that the once-bumbling extremists are growing more sophisticated.
security guard [countable] someone whose job is to protect a building or to collect and deliver large amounts of money охранник; телохранитель; конвоир: There were two security guards on duty outside the building. | One of those hostages was James Lopez, a Marine security guard from Globe. | He missed, killing a security guard.
rogue / outlaw state / regime | outlaw nation [countable] a country that does not behave in the usual or accepted way and often causes trouble страна-изгой, режим-изгой: Some are rogue states with which we may some day clash. | For one thing, intelligence does have some impact on foreign policy, for example, towards rogue states. | He would scrap the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and permit defensive systems to guard against accidental firings or small-scale attacks by outlaw nations.
I. Sections: Confrontation, Armed conflict, Bloodshed, Plunder, Destruction, Exploding things
1. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. усилить противоречия / трения
b. вызывать противоречия / трения
c. начать / развязать войну
d. вспыхивает война
e. подвергать опасности
f. объявлять войну
g. разрешение конфликта
h. ввергать (страну) в войну
i. подвергаться опасности
j. находиться на грани войны
k. вызвать / спровоцировать войну
l. уменьшать угрозу
m. вести к противостоянию
n. напряженность нарастает
o. урегулировать конфликт
p. вооруженный конфликт
q. ослаблять напряженность
r. заклятый / непримиримый враг
s. предотвращать столкновение
t. осуществить агрессию
u. силой (оружия)
v. напряженность спадает
w. стремиться к конфронтации
x. быть вовлеченным в противостояние
y. отказываться от применения силы
z. представлять угрозу
2. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. район боевых действий
b. горячая точка
c. война с применением обычных видов оружия
d. калечить, изувечить
e. гибнуть, погибать
f. двигаться к катастрофе
g. очаг / рассадник терроризма
h. объявлять о прекращении огня
i. получить смертельную рану
j. устранять возможность возникновения войны
k. выполнять соглашение о прекращении огня
l. проливать чью-л. кровь
m. вести войну
n. внезапное начало войны
o. получить ранение в голову
p. отдавать свою жизнь
q. наращивать военные действия
r. нарушать соглашение о прекращении огня
s. начинать / прекращать / приостанавливать военные действия
t. очаг напряженности
u. добиться прекращения огня
v. пережить бедствие
w. партизанская война
x. суматоха, суета; беспорядок
y. атомная / ядерная война
z. быть в состоянии войны
3. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. разрушать до основания
b. разграблять; разорять
c. превращать в груду развалин
d. большие разрушения
e. произвести взрыв
f. устраивать резню
g. радиоактивное заражение / загрязнение
h. массовое убийство, резня, бойня
i. приводить в действие взрывное устройство
j. лежать в руинах
k. перевязать / забинтовать рану
l. взрывать, подрывать
m. радиоактивные осадки
n. обезвредить бомбу
o. проявлять жестокость
p. пушечное мясо
q. полное уничтожение
r. совершить злодеяние
s. этническая чистка
t. получить ранение
4. Give synonyms for the following words and phrases.
to prevent (a conflict), to resolve (a conflict), (tension) builds up / mounts, to defuse (tension), (tension) eases, to cause / create (tension), to increase / heighten (tension), to be / pose (a threat), to be in (danger), to put sb / sth in jeopardy, armed (conflict), to be on the brink (of war), to launch (a war), to spark off / trigger off (a war), (war) breaks out, to be at war (with sb), to wage war, to escalate a war, war / battle zone, to call a ceasefire, disaster, ceasefire, to break a ceasefire, to lay down your life, to be mortally wounded, to fall (in battle), to suffer (a wound), massacre, to carry out (a massacre), atrocity, to commit (an atrocity), to demonstrate (brutality / cruelty), to plunder, to raze sth (to the ground), (to reduce / blast sth) to ruins, to explode, to disarm (a bomb), to carry out (an explosion)
5. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
a terrible and unexpected event that causes a lot of damage or suffering
a period of time when a country is not fighting a war
the feeling caused by a lack of trust between people, groups, or countries who do not agree about something and may attack each other
to kill a lot of people in a violent way, especially when they cannot defend themselves
the period of time when a country is fighting a war
a country, or the armed forces of a country, which is at war with another country
to put someone or something in danger of being hurt, damaged, or destroyed
an agreement to stop fighting for a period of time, especially in order to discuss permanent peace
a place where there is often a lot of violence or fighting
fighting in a war; acts of fighting
the possibility that something very bad will happen; someone or something that is regarded as a possible danger
the act of attacking a country, especially when that country has not attacked first
a disagreement or fight in which neither opponent can do anything to win or achieve their aim
people who have been injured, especially in a war
a state of confusion, noise, and excitement, often caused by a large crowd
6. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
a very powerful explosive that can damage a large area and is often used in bombs
the dangerous radioactive dust which is left in the air after a nuclear explosion and which slowly falls to earth
the use of violence to force people from a particular racial or national group to leave an area or country
to make a place or substance dirty or harmful by putting something such as chemicals or poison in it
ordinary soldiers whose lives are not considered to be very important, and who are sent to fight where they are likely to get killed
a loud sound and the energy produced by something such as a bomb bursting into small pieces
(of armies etc) to rob, plunder with violence
to destroy something completely so that nothing remains
the state of continuing to live or exist
the deliberate murder of a whole group of people, especially a whole nation, race or religious group
the violent killing of large numbers of people, especially in a war
7. Explain the meaning of the words and phrases listed below.
aggressor, to reduce a threat, to instigate / foment a war, war rages on, the outbreak of hostilities, troubled area, warfare, truce, bloodshed, the survival of the fittest, to lay sth waste, to neutralize sb, to take sb out, to detonate sth, to disarm a bomb, plastic explosive
8. Match the words in List A with those in List B to form phrases.
c. to ashes
e. an atrocity
h. a ceasefire
i. a wound
j. to the ground
k. of arms
l. threat of attack
n. at war with sb
p. a threat to sb
r. an enemy
t. a conflict
9. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
The country is involved in a direct confrontation ….. its powerful neighbour.
There is a protracted conflict between neighbouring countries ….. their common border.
Peace cannot be imposed ….. force of arms.
One of the superpowers committed an act of brutal aggression ….. its neighbour.
The country is ….. threat of attack.
The border dispute poses a direct threat ….. peace.
The excesses of the secret police put the peace process ….. jeopardy.
The peace talks are now ….. danger of collapse.
Britain and France declared war ….. Germany in 1939.
The USA launched a war ….. Iraq ….. the pretext that the latter possessed weapons of mass destruction.
National rivalries can easily set ….. a war.
He was blamed for stirring ….. war in the Balkans.
War broke ….. between the two countries after a border dispute.
The US government stepped ….. its war ….. terrorism.
They've been ….. war for the last five years.
The local war escalated ….. a major conflict.
The war rages ….. and the time has come to take sides.
Anti-war demonstrations continued after the outbreak ….. hostilities.
Even ….. wartime some people held concerts.
The country is ….. complete turmoil.
The world seems to be moving ….. nuclear catastrophe.
There was a remote chance that their efforts might help to ward ….. catastrophe.
10. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
They called ….. a ceasefire in the region.
During the war, many of his comrades fell ….. battle.
One of those bombings claimed ….. over 100 lives.
He suffered serious wounds ….. his back and stomach.
He was treated ….. hospital ….. head wounds.
They're ….. trial for committing atrocities ….. the civilian population.
Entire sections of the city were wiped ….. by the repeated bombing.
She tried hard to blot ….. the bitter memories of the war.
The town was razed ….. the ground in the bombing raid.
They levelled the building ….. the ground.
The bomb laid the city centre ….. waste.
The building was taken ….. by a bomb.
A huge bomb blast brought devastation ….. the centre of Belfast.
A bomb reduced the houses ….. rubble.
The economy was ….. ruins after the war.
Terrorists have been setting ….. bombs in Underground trains.
The bomb went ….. at 6.30 this morning.
The army carried ….. a controlled explosion on the car.
11. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
to instigate, conflict, to go to war, to erupt, to reduce, at the outbreak of, hazard, purchase, commotion, to heighten, friction, to confront, to pose, to threaten, stand-off, to avert, sale, to build up, to spark off, to endanger
The State Department was warning that this could lead to another diplomatic ….. .
A decree in February banned the ….. of weapons to countries involved in armed conflict.
The National Security Council has met to discuss ways of preventing a military ….. .
The tension ….. to a climax due to recent bombings.
The talks were due to include discussions of measures ….. tension between the two states and to promote bilateral exchanges.
And pumping more weapons into Bosnia is likely ….. tensions, rather than ease them.
The dispute ….. a direct threat to peace.
There must be protection from radiation ….. .
The dispute ….. to damage East-West relations.
Any raid or rescue operation would ….. the lives of the hostages.
If this country …. we will have to face the fact that many people will die.
Careless political action can easily ….. a war.
I volunteered for the Navy when war ….. .
This preparatory work was practically complete ….. war.
12. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
to prevent, to implement, to massacre, to cause, ethnic cleansing, to maim, to violate, to claim, to ravage to spill, to shed blood, to loot, to commit, to lay down, catastrophe, carnage, to wound, to suffer, to exterminate, to call
Sudan requires food immediately to avert a humanitarian ….. .
At Olympia, it was customary for cities at war ….. a truce.
Significant progress was nevertheless achieved in May, when the factions agreed to begin ….. a temporary ceasefire.
The army was brought in to try ….. further bloodshed.
If blood ….. the countries will be at war.
Today we remember those who ….. their lives for their country.
Ten soldiers were killed and thirty ….. .
Hundreds of civilians ….. in the raid.
There was an attempt ….. ethnic groups in the north of the country.
Its independence campaign ….. nearly 800 lives since 1968.
Many of the troops ….. severe injuries.
The Battle of the Somme was a scene of dreadful ….. .
The conflict was peculiarly bloody with both sides responsible for ….. atrocities.
During the riot shops ….. and cars damaged or set on fire.
13. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
to launch, to neutralize, large-scale war, to abate,to detonate, to threaten, war zone, hotbed, annihilation, guerrilla warfare, to devastate, blast, to contaminate, fallout, to intensify, tumultuous, to fight, to resume, to go off
Russia ….. two world wars in the 20th century.
In early 1990 the guerrilla war ….. , with rising casualties among both the local population and the security forces.
The rebels ….. hostilities against government troops.
If they stayed in the ….. they would face almost certain death.
The political party has become a ….. of nationalism and racial bigotry.
The soldiers were in the jungle now and developing a taste for ….. .
After the ….. events of 1990, Eastern Europe was completely transformed.
Three days later, a second bomb ….. the city of Nagasaki.
Government forces ….. the rebels.
They ….. to blow up the plane if their demands were not met.
A remote control device was used ….. the bomb.
More than 100,000 people could fall ill after drinking ….. water.
There can be little lasting protection against the effects of radioactive ….. .
14. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Встреча руководителей двух сверхдержав способствовала окончанию военного противостояния между востоком и западом.
Многие страны оказались втянутыми в вооруженный конфликт.
Политологи считают, что конфликт необходимо урегулировать в ближайшее время.
Напряженность в регионе нарастает вследствие агрессивной политики, которая проводится одной из двух сторон, вовлеченных в конфликт.
Эти переговоры призваны ослабить напряженность между двумя противоборствующими сторонами.
Предложенный план только усилит напряженность в стране.
Нельзя установить прочный мир путем использования силы, этого можно достичь только мирными средствами.
США осуществили агрессию против Ирака.
Такая политика представляет угрозу миру на планете.
Последние события поставили под угрозу мирные переговоры.
Политические разногласия угрожают стабильности и безопасности в регионе.
Любая операция по освобождению заложников создаст угрозу их жизни.
Великобритания объявила войну Германии в 1939 году.
Они развязали войну против маленькой латиноамериканской страны.
Этот инцидент спровоцировал полномасштабную войну.
Он был за границей, когда вспыхнула война.
Недальновидная политика руководства ввергла страну в очередную войну.
Страна находится в состоянии войны в течение последних пятидесяти лет.
Гражданская война свирепствует в стране в течение многих лет.
Начало военных действий сопровождалось массовыми демонстрациями протеста.
В этом регионе имеется несколько горячих точек.
В тридцатые годы Германия была очагом нацизма.
15. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Боевики используют методы партизанской войны.
Мир находится на грани ядерной катастрофы. | Мир идет к ядерной катастрофе.
Воюющие стороны договорились о прекращении огня.
Соглашение о прекращении огня вступает в силу завтра.
Подавляющее большинство вовлеченных в конфликт государств соблюдает соглашение о прекращении огня, и только одна страна нарушает его.
Министерство иностранных дел обвинило соседние государства в провоцировании кровопролития в стране.
Он был смертельно ранен в голову. | Он получил серьезное ранение в голову.
В этом бою сотни солдат были убиты и тысячи искалечены.
Солдаты агрессора устроили резню беззащитного мирного населения.
Война унесла жизни сотен тысяч людей.
Все эти возвышенные идеалы и принципы привели к беспрецедентной кровавой бойне в окопах.
Необходимо положить конец этническим чисткам в этом регионе.
Нацисты ответственны за совершение страшных злодеяний во время Отечественной войны.
Новобранцев использовали в качестве пушечного мяса на поле боя.
Захватчики грабили местное население.
Многие города и села были уничтожены / стерты с лица земли во время варварских бомбардировок.
После продолжительной войны страна лежит в руинах.
Отряд солдат получил задание взорвать мост.
Взрывное устройство было приведено в действие в полдень. | Взрывное устройство взорвалось / сработало в полдень.
Армейским специалистам удалось обезвредить все бомбы.
Во время обыска в машине были обнаружены взрывчатые вещества.
Весь район подвергся опасному заражению в результате выпадения радиоактивных осадков.
II. Sections: Conquest, Captivity, Troops, Military service, War attitudes, Morale
1. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. сухопутные войска
b. освободить из плена / неволи
c. формировать армию
d. военные, военнослужащие
f. развертывать / дислоцировать войска
g. распускать армию
h. армия, комплектуемая на основе призыва
i. вторгаться; оккупировать
j. отразить нашествие / агрессию
k. военно-морские силы
l. находить убежище
n. взять в плен
o. вооруженные силы
q. освободить заложника
r. держать в плену / неволе
s. концентрационный лагерь
t. держать в заложниках
u. перемещенное лицо
v. искать убежище
w. совершить вторжение / агрессию
x. завоевывать, покорять
y. выводить / отводить войска
z. профессиональная армия
2. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. выполнять (боевое) задание
b. проходить военную службу
c. тяжелые / серьезные потери
d. не подлежать призыву на военную службу
e. нести потери
f. военно-воздушные силы
g. освобождать от военной службы
h. предпринимать военные действия
i. уклоняться от призыва на военную службу
j. служить в вооруженных силах
l. отменять обязательную военную службу
m. бронетанковые войска
n. войска специального назначения
o. размещать (войска)
q. создать / построить базу
r. воздушно-десантные войска
s. боец отряда специального назначения
t. морская пехота
v. идти в армию
w. наносить потери
x. совершать боевой вылет
y. обязательная военная служба
3. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. совершать подвиг
b. бряцание оружием; угрозы
c. выказывать преданность
d. сторонник мира
e. совершать государственную измену
f. призывной пункт
g. лицо, уклоняющееся от призыва на военную службу
h. подрывать боевой дух
j. отсрочка (от военной службы)
k. поступать на военную службу
l. шовинистический, ура-патриотический
m. поднимать боевой дух
n. обязательная военная служба
o. давать воинскую присягу
p. вводить обязательную военную службу
q. продаться врагу
r. повестка о явке на призывной пункт
s. отменять обязательную военную службу
t. милитарист, сторонник жесткого курса (в политике)
u. поступать (добровольцем) на военную службу
v. призывать на военную службу
w. альтернативная военная служба
x. воюющие государства
y. поддерживать боевой дух
4. Give synonyms for the following words and phrases.
to launch (an invasion), to repel (an invasion), to release (a hostage), to withdraw (troops), the armed forces, to recruit (an army), ground (forces), to join (the army), to carry out (a mission), to fly (a sortie), heavy / serious (casualties), to cause (casualties), to suffer (casualties), military (service), to avoid (military service), to abolish (compulsory military service), to sign up (for the armed forces), to take (an oath of allegiance), hawk, jingoistic, belligerent (nations), to boost (morale), to maintain (morale), to destroy (morale), bullying, to conscript sb
5. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
to send someone to another place for duty in the armed forces
a short flight made by a plane over enemy land, in order to bomb a city, military defences etc
an occasion when the army of one country enters another country by force, in order to take control of it
a member of a small group of soldiers who are specially trained to make quick attacks into enemy areas which are particularly dangerous or difficult to attack
an important job, usually a military one, that someone is sent somewhere to do, especially an attack on the enemy
a place where people who have been forced to leave their country, especially during a war, can live, usually in bad conditions and only expecting to stay for a limited time
soldiers in an organized group
someone who is kept as a prisoner by an enemy so that the other side will do what the enemy demands
to put someone in prison without a trial, for political or military reasons, especially during a war
to force someone to leave heir own country and live somewhere else
to defeat an enemy completely
someone who is hurt or killed in an accident or military action
6. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
an attitude that shows you think you will fail
strong feelings of love, respect, pride and duty towards their country and the willingness to defend it (used to show approval)
to make someone join the armed forces
very unfriendly and wanting to argue or fight
the act of avoiding an order to join the armed forces
the crime of being disloyal to your country or its government, especially by helping its enemies or trying to remove the government using violence
someone who is completely untrained
someone who illegally avoids joining the armed forces even though they have been ordered to join
someone who has been made to join the armed forces
to join the armed forces
the system of making every adult, or every male adult, serve in the armed forces for a limited period of time
showing strong dislike or fear of people from other countries and cultures
7. Explain the meaning of the words and phrases listed below.
displaced person, internment, concentration camp, allied forces, to deploy troops, to commit troops, special forces, the marines, to exempt sb from national service, enlist sb in the army, recruitment, enlistment period, to switch allegiance (to sb), divided / mixed loyalties, warmonger, heroic / wartime exploit, to sell sb out, high treason, hazing
8. Match the words in List A with those in List B to form phrases.
d. a private
e. an invasion
f. your principles
i. military service
k. a prisoner
m. pull out of a region
n. a mission
p. on sb
t. from captivity
u. of war
w. into the army
9. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
The rebels launched their invasion ….. the Mutara region in the north.
Residents took refuge ….. the bombing ….. the local church.
They are prepared to hand back a hundred prisoners ….. war a day ….. a sign of good will.
He was held ….. captivity for over a year.
Wilson was released ….. captivity just before the end of the war.
The rebels blamed the massacre ….. the government troops.
Troops ….. the vicinity were put ….. alert.
Troops began pulling ….. ….. the region as soon as the order was given.
Her own son was also ….. the Navy.
They had some Lewes bombs, but no detonators, and thus could not carry ….. their mission.
He was sent ….. over 200 missions before being killed ….. action.
But Middleton received enormous damage ….. that last sortie which ultimately proved fatal.
A small group of rebels inflicted heavy casualties ….. the government forces.
They volunteered ….. military service prior ….. age 18.
If you join the army you have to sign ….. ….. at least three years.
He was accused ….. treason ….. the nation.
10. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
Many men sign ….. ….. the army because they can't find ordinary jobs.
He enlisted ….. a volunteer.
The Ministry of Defence served call-up papers ….. 390 army reservists.
He was commissioned ….. the Royal Engineers.
They swore allegiance ….. the government.
If Henry failed to abide ….. these terms his barons were to transfer their allegiance ….. Philip and Richard.
I do accept that occasionally it's necessary to promote a volunteer in order to keep ….. morale in the ranks.
They were awarded ….. medals ….. their bravery.
The young soldier was decorated ….. the Military Cross.
The country has sold ….. its principles in yielding ….. the demands of a small but powerful group.
After a furious argument during which he accused the prime minister ….. treachery, he announced that he would resign his Cabinet position.
When hostilities broke ..... he returned to England and joined ….. .
William Joyce was convicted ….. treason ….. the grand scale.
He didn’t turn ….. traitor ….. the King.
No military general would willingly send his army ….. battle untrained and ill-prepared, no matter how well-equipped.
11. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
patriotism, to join, prisoner of war, to deploy, military, to displace, to seek refuge, to fly, to enlist, to send, to overwhelm, militarism, to move, to complete, conquest, internment, to withdraw, imprisonment, to invade, hostage
They backed off that time, but a few days later they tried ….. the island.
Henry wanted nothing less than military ….. .
An estimated 500,000 refugees ….. by the civil war.
The region around Chimoio is swollen by 400,000 people who ….. from the civil war.
When war broke out he had to endure four months' ….. as an enemy alien.
The ceasefire resolution calls for the release of all ….. .
Two families were taken ….. to force the managers of a bank to hand over £96,000.
Following the incident the government of the Solomon Islands ….. additional troops in the Shortland Islands.
Both countries ….. their forces from the area.
The ….. took over when police were unable to stop the rioting.
Bruce ….. the navy straight out of high school.
It was argued on the Left that wars were caused by the search for profits, by imperialism, by ….. .
Your objective is ….. your mission and return to base in one piece.
The enemy generally ….. very few sorties at night.
12. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
to undermine, military service, troops,to rescue, to carry out, sell-out, peace settlement, attack, to fly, military action, to station, accusation, to raise, charge, to cause, to inflict, to overrun, to disband, to post, refugee
A group of rebels ….. the port area and most of the northern suburbs.
A navy warship was also on its way to the area to help evacuate ….. .
President Carter displayed considerable restraint in the crisis until an attempt was made in April 1980 ….. the hostages by force.
The next phase of the operation will involve the deployment of more than 35,000 ….. from a dozen countries.
He joined the British Army and ….. to Germany.
I ….. on over 280 combat missions in two wars, so I'm used to danger.
Our forces ….. heavy losses on the enemy.
The government has threatened to take ….. if the rebels do not withdraw from the area.
I was seventeen, and most of the other students in my year had done ….. and were a lot older.
All the armed groups ….. .
The regiment ….. in Singapore for several years.
Sensible and justifiable decisions, properly communicated would ….. morale rather than diminish it.
Several groups have decried the peace accord as a ….. .
He was tried on ….. of treason.
13. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
loss of life, bellicose, to recruit, to gather, to suffer, to cause, allegiance, military force, to perform, to conscript, military strength, to enlist, naval base, to join, air base, to dodge, to fly, captive, to raise, political loyalty
The terrorists were holding several British diplomats ….. .
The group ….. twenty missions.
But this time they ….. their heaviest casualties since the battle began.
Most private soldiers ….. from the working classes.
The death and destruction tore apart families whose ….. were also divided in what was essentially a civil war.
There was only minor damage to property and no ….. .
Few details were released of the precise circumstances of the friendly fire incidents which ….. the casualties.
The United States is prepared to use ….. to achieve its aims.
He boasts of ….. military service by feigning illness.
Young Frenchmen ….. into the army and forced to fight in Algeria.
After high school, he ….. in the Marines, where he remained for eight years.
In 1066 William the Conqueror ….. an army and invaded England.
The general made some ….. statements about his country's armed forces.
The harbour of the ….. seethed with tremendous activity.
14. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Американцы вторглись в Ирак в 2003 году и до сих пор оккупируют эту страну.
В то время советская армия была настолько сильной, что могла сокрушить любого противника.
Военное завоевание данной территории стало возможным из-за предательства местной политической элиты.
Вьетнам сумел отразить американское военное нашествие.
Многие беженцы нашли убежище в соседнем государстве.
Все перемещенные лица были обеспечены гуманитарной помощью.
После нападение на Пирл Харбор проживавшие в США японцы были интернированы.
Террористы захватили в заложники всех находившихся на борту самолета пассажиров.
Они захватили несколько сот заложников.
После отказа террористов отпустить заложников была подготовлена операцию по их освобождению.
Охранники грубо обращались с военнопленными.
Правительство возложило ответственность за резню на войска мятежников.
Правительственные войска сконцентрированы на южной границе.
Для захвата позиций противника в этом районе были использованы войска специального назначения.
Мировое сообщество требует, чтобы Израиль вывел свои войска со всех оккупированных территорий.
Необходимо принять меры для модернизации вооруженных сил государства.
Военные захватили власть в стране.
Монарх принимает решение о формировании или роспуске армии.
Вооруженные силы государства состоят из сухопутных войск, военно-морского флота и военно-воздушных сил.
Какая армия для нас предпочтительнее в настоящее время – профессиональная или комплектуемая на основе призыва?
Подразделение десантников было сброшено за линией фронта, чтобы овладеть дорогой, ведущей в город.
Морские пехотинцы были размещены на военно-морской базе.
Войска успешно выполнили боевое задание.
Во время войны он совершил сто боевых вылетов.
15. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
В том бою его батальон понес тяжелые потери.
Артиллерийский обстрел нанес его подразделению серьезные потери.
Они полагают, что недопустимо использовать военную силу в международных отношениях.
Правительственные войска готовятся к проведению военной операции.
Во время войны он служил / проходил военную службу в воздушно-десантных войсках.
Если молодой человек уклоняется от призыва на военную службу, он может быть привлечен к уголовной ответственности.
В настоящее время многие юноши освобождаются от прохождения военной службы по состоянию здоровья.
Когда разразилась война, он был призван на военную службу / (добровольно) пошел служить в морскую пехоту.
Многие в стране выступают за введение обязательной военной службы.
Уклонение от призыва на военную службу является уголовным преступлением.
Он истинный патриот, а не какой-нибудь шовинист.
Они вели себя агрессивно по отношению к тем, кто имел другое мнение.
Нельзя поддаваться пораженческим настроениям даже в самые критические моменты войны.
Солдаты присягнули на верность королю.
Ксенофобия стала широко распространенным явлением в мире.
Командир дивизии понимал, что надо как-то поднять боевой дух в войсках.
Такое решение может подорвать боевой дух среди солдат.
Он был награжден медалью за то, что совершил подвиг на поле боя.
В военное время человек, обвиненный в измене родине, может быть казнен.
Политическая элита страны продалась сверхдержаве.
Его судили по обвинению в государственной измене.
Он стал предателем, когда понял, что у него нет другой возможности спасти свою жизнь.
III. Sections: Alliance, Arms race, Arms control and disarmament, Weaponry, Ammunition
1. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. ядерное разоружение
b. наращивать запасы оружия
c. развертывать ядерные силы сдерживания
d. вступить в союз
e. сокращать запасы оружия
f. участвовать в гонке вооружений
g. контроль над вооружениями
h. сдерживать гонку вооружений
i. наращивание сил / войск
j. ликвидировать запасы ядерного оружия
k. расширять военные действия
l. распустить союз
m. политика неприсоединения
n. провоцировать гонку вооружений
o. распространяться; разрастаться
p. сдерживать агрессора
q. объединяться с кем-л.
r. распространение ядерного оружия
s. усиливать гонку вооружений
u. расстановка сил
v. предпринимать попытки присоединиться к союзу
w. усиливать войну против терроризма
x. ядерное сдерживание
y. ядерное средство сдерживания
z. накапливать ядерное оружие
2. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
b. договор о разоружении
c. запрещать оружие массового поражения
e. многостороннее / двустороннее разоружение
f. демилитаризировать регион
g. (артиллерийское) орудие, пушка
h. оружие массового поражения
i. разрабатывать оружие
k. договор о нераспространении (ядерного оружия)
l. производить оружие
m. средство доставки (боезарядов к цели)
n. налагать запрет на поставки оружия
o. ядерное оружие
p. проводить политику нейтралитета
q. одностороннее разоружение
r. обычные виды вооружения
s. на нейтральной территории
t. проводить политику нераспространения
u. всеобщее и полное разоружение
v. ликвидировать оружие массового уничтожения
w. сложить оружие, сдаться
x. отменять запрет на поставки оружия
y. взяться за оружие
z. огнестрельное оружие
3. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. сбрасывать бомбу
b. военный корабль
c. создавать оборонительный потенциал
d. сбить самолет
e. бомба замедленного действия
f. ракетная пусковая установка
h. система противоракетной обороны
i. ядерная бомба
j. стрелять из огнестрельного оружия
k. взрывное устройство, бомба
l. легкий / тяжелый бомбардировщик
o. артиллерийский огонь / обстрел
s. управлять самолетом
t. боевой самолет
u. система ракетной обороны
v. ядерная подводная лодка
4. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. обезвредить мину
b. бросать гранату
d. мина замедленного действия
e. . ядерная боеголовка
f. наткнуться на мину
g. приводить в действие взрывное устройство
h. самодельное взрывное устройство
i. обнаружить мину
j. ракета ближнего / среднего / дальнего радиуса действия
k. управляемая ракета
l. развертывать ракеты
m. крылатая ракета
n. устанавливать мину
o. запускать ракету
p. межконтинентальная баллистическая ракета
q. угроза взрыва
r. взрывное устройство взрывается
s. устанавливать взрывное устройство
t. минометный снаряд, (минометная) мина
u. выпустить / выстрелить снаряд
v. перехватывать ракету
5. Give synonyms for the following words and phrases.
to enter into (an alliance), to dissolve (an alliance), to align (oneself with sb), to trigger off (an arms race), to escalate (the arms race), to curb (the arms race), to proliferate, to stockpile (nuclear weapons), to build up (a stockpile of arms), to develop (weapons), to manufacture (weapons), to abolish (weapons of mass destruction), to impose (an arms embargo), assault rifle, to shoot down (an aircraft), to drop (a bomb), to set off (a bomb), (a bomb) goes off, to strike / hit (a mine)
6. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
a metal weapon which shoots shells
an automatic gun which can fire a lot of bullets one after the other very quickly
a long gun which you hold up to your shoulder to shoot, which is designed to be accurate at long distances
a country that has agreed officially to give help and support to another one, especially during a war
to remove military forces and weapons from an area so that there can be no fighting there
the threat of using a particular weapon as a way to stop an enemy from attacking
a small gun which is held in and fired from one hand
a gradual increase in the amount or level of something
a light machine gun that you hold against your hip or your shoulder when shooting
the growth or development of something, so that it covers, reaches or affects a larger area or a larger number of people
the nuclear weapons that a country has in order to prevent other countries from attacking it
the attempts by powerful countries to limit the number and types of weapons that exist
a process by which a country reduces or gets rid of its weapons or armed forces
a large collection of weapons and military equipment
to become, or make something become, much worse or more serious
to stop someone from doing something by making them realize it will be difficult or have bad results
competition between countries to have a larger number of powerful weapons
the limiting of the number of nuclear or chemical weapons in the world, especially by stopping countries that do not yet have them from developing them
the way in which countries or groups are arranged or allied
weapons that can kill a very large number of people
an object that is used in fighting or war, such as a gun, bomb, missile, sword, knife, etc
7. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
a small bomb that is thrown by hand or fired from a gun
a weapon made to explode at a particular time
a large gun with a short wide barrel which fires bombs or shells very high into the air over a short distance
a metal container, like a large bullet, which is full of an explosive substance and is fired from a large gun
a heavy military vehicle that has a large gun and runs on two metal belts, called tracks, fitted over its wheels
a small piece of metal that is fired from a gun
a small fast military aircraft used for chasing and destroying enemy aircraft
a very powerful bomb that uses nuclear energy to kill a lot of people and destroy large areas
a ground-based missile system designed to intercept and attack enemy aircraft or missiles
a large ship that carries military aircraft and has a long flat surface where they take off and land
a type of bomb that is hidden just below the ground or under water and that explodes when people, vehicles, or ships touch it
a weapon used for firing military missiles into the air
bullets, shells, bombs etc that can be fired from a weapon
the number of weapons, soldiers etc that a country has for fighting a war; the ability that a country has to take a particular kind of military action
a ship, especially a military one, that can travel under water
a military helicopter used to protect other helicopters and to destroy enemy guns
a large military aircraft that carries and drops bombs
a special vehicle covered with strong metal which is used for carrying soldiers
a weapon that can fly over long distances and that explodes when it hits the thing it has been aimed at
the front part of a bomb or missile that explodes
8. Explain the meaning of the words and phrases listed below.
to cement an alliance, the Allies, nuclear weapons proliferation, nuclear deterrent, nuclear deterrence, a build-up of troops, a stockpile of weapons, arms control, general and complete disarmament, multilateral disarmament, unilateral / one-sided disarmament, nuclear non-proliferation treaty, demilitarization, conventional weapons, weaponry, arms embargo, delivery system, revolver, anti-missile defence system, reconnaissance aircraft, cargo aircraft, neutron bomb, to deploy missiles
9. Match the words in List A with those in List B to form phrases.
d. a mine
f. a bloc
g. the arms race
i. as a deterrent
j. of violence
m. a gun
p. an arsenal of weapons
q. into war
s. of European powers
u. defence system
10. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
Britain, like most other countries, has been entering ….. treaties and alliances ….. other countries for hundreds of years.
In 524 he attacked Godomar, ….. alliance ….. the Ostrogoths.
The country was closely aligned ….. the West
A test ban that could not inspire confidence would undermine stability and might even touch ….. a new arms race.
The arms race must be put an end ….. .
We must arm ourselves ….. the enemy.
Some 628 officers were made compulsorily redundant – many had been deterred ….. volunteering because of the recession.
A deterrent must still be maintained ….. any small country that puts together a bomb and threatens to nuke an American city.
Increasingly he seemed fixated ….. the danger that it would escalate ….. a world war.
Relief agencies are stepping ….. efforts to provide food, shelter and agricultural equipment.
The tension built ….. ….. a climax.
We committed ourselves ….. arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation.
Does non-proliferation apply ….. every country?
All available forces are ….. arms.
11. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
In April they will have to lay ….. their arms.
The government has imposed an arms embargo ….. countries involved in international terrorism.
They looked at the passports and then started to walk down the aisle, pointing their guns ….. the passengers.
He fired his pistol ….. one of the attackers.
Either side could then deploy defences ….. missiles.
His plane was shot ….. over France in 1944.
Their military capability has gone ….. because their air force has proved not to be an effective force.
Can you imagine what would happen if they dropped a bomb ….. the country's capital?
One theory is that the bomb was set ….. by remote control.
A few minutes later the bomb went ….. , destroying the vehicle.
The door was riddled ….. bullet holes.
He was killed when his tank ran ….. a mine.
12. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
delivery, to step up, belligerent, to rise, to escalate, to build up, to abolish, deterrent, proliferation, stockpile, to ally, non-aligned, increase,to stockpile, containment, arms control, build-up, to form, to spread, bombardment
They ….. an alliance with their neighbours against the common enemy.
The prince then moved to Poitiers and ….. with his uncle Childebert against his father.
Moscow wished to cultivate this strand of the policy of the ….. states to strengthen their political dispute with the Western powers.
The Soviet Union tested its own hydrogen bomb within a year, and the nuclear arms race ….. further.
Anti-globalization protests ….. rapidly across the globe.
We will work for a global ban on chemical and biological weapons and stronger controls to prevent ….. of ballistic missiles.
The nuclear ….. has been very effective in ensuring the security of the west over the past 40 years.
In practice Eisenhower and Dulles continued the policy of ….. .
Security ….. to deal with the increase in violence.
Terrorist groups are believed ….. weapons.
Tension ….. between the two communities.
There has been a ….. of troops on both sides of the border.
They have a ….. of weapons and ammunition that will last several months.
They say that it could erode existing ….. agreements and lead to a new arms race.
13. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
to lie down, launcher, to place, warplane, to throw, neutral, artillery fire, ammunition, attack, chopper, to hover, to manufacture, to lay down, conventional, multilateral, firearm, assault, structure
Throughout the world they are the banner bearers of the struggle for ….. nuclear disarmament.
Russia promised to remain ….. unless Germany attacked France.
They proposed new disarmament initiatives covering all categories of ….. and nuclear weapons.
It is true that a country does not need a nuclear power programme to be able ….. a nuclear weapon.
The Confederates ….. their arms that afternoon.
The story starts in 1985, when Britain ….. an arms embargo on Saddam's military state.
He was charged with illegal possession of a ….. .
They thought they heard thunder in the distance, but it was, in fact, ….. .
The main problem was that the missile ….. were often mobile, moving from site to site.
It is indisputable that the ….. and helicopter gunships occasionally make mistakes.
They came under ….. from enemy aircraft.
Each night as they lay in bed, they could hear army helicopters ….. over the parish.
14. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
shell, ability, to lob, to shoot up, gunfire, to drop, to explode, to set off, to release, to operate, to down, to hit, to launch, to fly, to lay, warhead, to plant, capability
Only five pilots ….. the aircraft.
A couple of jet fighters ….. during the five-week rebellion.
The country has virtually no military ….. of its own.
That amount of plutonium was enough to build a couple of bombs like the ones we ….. on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Suspected rebels last week ….. a bomb outside the prime minister's home, although no one was injured in the blast.
He then turned away and ….. the explosive device strapped to his body.
Fortunately the house was empty when the bomb ….. .
In theory, the mechanism should also prevent anyone ….. the missiles accidentally.
The Western hemisphere would soon be in range of and vulnerable to Soviet intercontinental ballistic missiles that carry megaton ….. .
Our artillery ….. shells into enemy positions.
The aircraft were met by a hail of ….. .
None of the missiles ….. their target.
15. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Этот военный союз был создан для того, чтобы противодействовать распространению терроризма.
В этот политический союз может вступить любая страна, которая разделяет его основополагающие принципы.
В современном мире небольшое государство вынуждено объединяться с той или иной сверхдержавой.
В настоящее время возникла новая расстановка сил в Европе.
Он полагает, что неприсоединившиеся государства должны играть более заметную роль в мировой политике.
Нынешняя политика США способствует усилению гонки вооружений в мире.
Эта международная организация призвана сдерживать гонку вооружений в мире.
Необходимо положить конец распространению ядерного оружия в мире.
По мнению ряда политиков, ядерные силы сдерживания играли положительную роль в период после окончания второй мировой войны.
Локальный вооруженный конфликт может перерасти в мировую войну.
Президент считает, что необходимо наращивать усилия для повышения обороноспособности страны.
Обе стороны наращивают ядерные вооружения, что может привести к опасному противостоянию.
Напряжение в отношения между соседними государствами достигли высшей точки.
Наращивание войск на границе может подорвать мирный процесс в регионе.
Огромные запасы ядерного оружия в мире представляют угрозу делу мира на планете.
Несмотря на окончание холодной войны запасы оружия в мире увеличиваются.
Многие политические деятели требуют ликвидировать запасы ядерного оружия.
Все страны региона осознают необходимость установления контроля над вооружениями.
Одностороннее разоружение никогда не приведет к всеобщему и полному разоружению.
Попытка Горбачева и Ельцина разоружиться в одностороннем порядке привела только к снижению обороноспособности страны.
Договор о нераспространении ядерного оружия не смог предотвратить увеличение количества ядерных государств.
Эта страна традиционно проводит политику нейтралитета.
В области ядерных вооружений нет принципиальной разницы между наступательными и оборонительными видами оружия.
16. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Ни одна страна не имеет права развертывать какие-либо системы химического оружия.
Мы требуем запретить разработку, производство, испытание и использование оружия массового поражения.
Все население взялось за оружие, чтобы защитить город от захватчиков.
ООН ввела / отменила запрет на поставки оружия воюющим сторонам.
Несколько десятков террористов, вооруженных автоматами, пулеметами и гранатометами, захватили здание театра.
Артиллерийский обстрел продолжался всю ночь.
Ракетные пусковые установки были передислоцированы на новое место.
США активно занимаются созданием системы противоракетной обороны.
Боевые самолеты нанесли удар по ряду военных и гражданских целей.
В настоящее время несколько стран пытаются создать свой собственный ядерный потенциал.
У его роты осталось мало боеприпасов.
Ядерное оружие было применено только один раз, когда американцы в конце Второй мировой войны сбросили атомные бомбы большой мощности на японские города Хиросима и Нагасаки.
Взрывное устройство было установлено перед входом в здание и приведено в действие при помощи устройства дистанционного управления.
Взрывное устройство сработало в полночь.
Занятия в школе были отменены из-за угрозы взрыва.
Самодельное взрывное устройство было обезврежено специалистами министерства внутренних дел.
Система противоракетной обороны предполагает использование межконтинентальных баллистических ракет / ракет дальнего радиуса действия.
Они планируют развернуть на этом острове свои крылатые ракеты.
Эти управляемые ракеты могут быть запущены с авианосца.
Артиллерийский снаряд попал точно в цель / прошел мимо цели.
Наша батарея выпустила по позициям противника несколько минометных снарядов.
Во время выполнения боевого задания их бронетранспортер подорвался на противотанковой мине.
IV. Sections: The conduct of war (General concepts, Disposition of troops, Fighting a battle, Offence, Victory and defeat, Defence, Retreat)
1. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. засекать цель
b. занимать позицию
c. прорвать оборону
d. наступательная позиция
e. стрелять из винтовки
f. вступать в вооруженное столкновение
g. застрелить в упор
h. вести бой
i. нанести ядерный удар по городу
j. жестокое сражение
k. в тылу
l. рукопашный бой
m. числиться пропавшим без вести
n. воевать на два фронта
o. ввести военное положение
p. развертывать войска
q. оборонительная позиция
r. отменить комендантский час
s. сражаться до конца
t. воевать против кого-л.
u. числиться погибшим в бою
v. вступить в бой
w. занять / захватить позицию
x. ближний бой
y. поле боя
2. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. поразить цель
b. совершить рейд
c. штурмовать здание
d. захватывать, завладевать
e. начинать атаку
f. подвергаться нападению
g. отражать атаку / нападение
h. перейти в наступление
i. нацеливать ракеты
j. наступать, идти в наступление
m. наносить удар
n. подвергаться обстрелу
o. наступать на что-л. / кого-л.
p. артиллерийская подготовка
q. военная цель
r. артиллерийский обстрел
s. стрелять короткими очередями
t. открывать огонь
u. вооруженное столкновение
v. выбирать в качестве цели гражданское население
w. обстреливать из артиллерийских орудий
x. наносить удар
y. сдержать наступление, устоять
z. высокая точность
3. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. отступать, отходить
b. окоп, траншея
c. устанавливать блокаду
d. сломить сопротивление
e. встречать сопротивление
f. убежище от радиоактивных осадков
g. оцепить, блокировать
h. потерпеть поражение
i. отступать по всему фронту
j. уничтожать; производить зачистку местности
k. блиндаж; землянка; укрытие
l. одержать победу
m. отводить / выводить войска
n. обороняться, защищаться
o. блокировать / осаждать порт
p. укреплять обороноспособность
q. сокращать расходы на оборону
r. наносить ответный удар
s. безоговорочная победа
t. сдаваться; капитулировать
u. разбить наголову; обратить в бегство
v. нанести поражение
x. вооруженное сопротивление
y. снимать блокаду
z. оказывать сопротивление
4. Give synonyms for the following words and phrases.
fierce (fighting), to get into (combat), to be reported (missing in action), (to fight) to the end, to impose (martial law), to take up (a position), to capture (a position), on / in (a battlefield), to fire (a rifle), to shoot down (an aircraft), to target (missiles), to hit (a target), to launch (an attack), to carry out (an attack), to withstand (an attack), to repel (an attack), to take (the offensive), to make (a raid), to seal sb / sth off, to put sb to rout, to mop sb / sth up, to surrender, to win (a victory), outright / resounding (victory), to reduce (defence spending), to put up (resistance), to meet with (resistance), to break down / crush (resistance), to impose a blockade, to withdraw (troops), to carry out (a retreat), to attack
5. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
the activities and living conditions of the people who stay at home during a war
the back part of an army, fleet, etc
to find or discover the exact position of something
work that is done during a war, usually by people who are not fighting but are doing other things to help their country keep fighting
a position on the right or left side of an army, or the people in that position
someone who fights in a war
to attack a place by firing guns at it for a long time or dropping a lot of bombs on it
a law that does not allow people to go outside between a particular time in the evening and a particular time in the morning, especially during a war or a period of political trouble, or the period of time during which people must not go outside according to a curfew law
to intend or try to attack someone or something
the organization or movement of soldiers, military equipment etc so that they are in the right place and ready to be used
a place where a battle is being fought or has been fought
a temporary system of rules to deal with an extremely dangerous or difficult situation, especially when this involves limiting people's freedom
to attack an enemy with nuclear weapons
the area where two armies face each other and fight during a war
someone who is not in the army, navy etc during a war
a situation in which the army controls an area instead of the police, especially because of fighting against the government; direct military government, by which ordinary law is suspended, for example during a rebellion
a fight between opposing armies, groups of ships, groups of people etc, especially one that is part of a larger war
to shoot at people from a hidden position
6. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
an object, person, or place that is deliberately chosen to be attacked
to cause a weapon to shoot bullets or arrows
a sudden brief military attack, especially by missiles or planes dropping bombs
to send a missile or spacecraft into the air or into space
to get control of a place or object that previously belonged to an enemy by fighting for it, during a war
a short fight between two armies or groups
a violent military attack to take control of a place controlled by the enemy
a lot of shots from guns fired at the same time
to (cause to) advance, often with difficulty
a continuous attack on a place by big guns and bombs
someone who is good at shooting
the use of bombs to attack a place
a short fight between small groups of soldiers, ships etc, which is usually not planned, especially one that happens away from the main part of a battle
to fire quickly and continuously, making a lot of noise
to start using weapons to try to defeat an enemy
to make an enemy plane crash to the ground, by firing weapons at it
to cause a weapon to shoot bullets or missiles
to attack someone or something by running very fast towards them
7. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
the act of getting past or through something that is in your way
to go around the side of a group of enemies during a battle and attack them from the side or from behind
an organization that secretly fights against an enemy that controls their country
a small hole dug in the ground which is used by a small group of soldiers as a base for firing at the enemy and as a protection against enemy attack and fire
the act of moving an army, weapons etc away from the area where they were fighting
to defeat an enemy completely and force them to run away
a movement away from the enemy after a defeat in battle or because of the danger of defeat
the act of saying officially that you want to stop fighting or to stop avoiding the police, government etc because you realize that you cannot win
too strong to be destroyed or defeated
to do something bad to someone because they have done something bad to you
to surround an area by soldiers or ships to stop people or supplies leaving or entering
to oppose or fight against someone or something
the success you achieve when you win a battle, election, game etc
to deal with the remaining members of a defeated army by killing them or making them prisoners
to move closer to someone or something, especially in order to attack or surround them
all the armed forces, weapons, structures etc that are available to defend a place
to surround someone or something completely
a building or position which is strongly defended
8. Explain the meaning of the words and phrases listed below.
house-to-house fighting, hand-to-hand combat, missing in action, war effort, non-combatant, home front, the rear, to be bombed out, to be in the line of fire, precision bombing, carpet / saturation bombing, pinpoint accuracy, to press forward, pre-emptive strike, Pyrrhic victory
9. Match the words in List A with those in List B to form phrases.
c. the retreat
d. against an onslaught
h. missing in action
i. to rout
j. under curfew
k. the siege
l. under bombardment
m. the rear
n. a missile
o. fire on sb
p. a position
s. on the crowd
t. the lines
v. a battle
w. breaks out
x. a target
y. an advance
10. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
Napoleon was defeated by the Duke of Wellington ….. the battle of Waterloo.
Neither side was particularly willing to enter ….. serious combat.
The soldiers were engaged ….. hand-to-hand combat.
Since then, the rebels and the armed forces of Sierra Leone have been locked ….. combat.
The men were sent ….. action with little or no training.
He was never finally listed ….. killed or missing in action.
He was reported ….. missing in action.
Great Britain fought ….. Turkey ….. Russia.
The French had no desire to fight ….. the British.
As no man can serve two masters we had long been told no wise general tries to fight ….. two fronts.
The soldiers battled ….. the opposing army all day.
Enemy planes engaged ….. the troops as they advanced into the mountains.
The university has been ….. curfew for months.
Troops opened fire ….. the demonstrators.
We can only hold ….. for a few more hours.
Paratroopers were dropped ….. enemy lines to capture key points on the roads into the city.
The film is set ….. the home front in 1943.
She disguised herself as a man so she could fight ….. the battlefield.
The column was attacked ….. the rear.
We were attacked ….. our left flank.
More than 3000 demonstrators clashed ….. police on Sunday.
Jed lifted his rifle and fired ….. the target.
11. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
The man was shot ….. the head as he left the bar.
Armed officers had instructions to shoot the kidnapper ….. sight.
He was killed during the war when his plane was shot ….. .
Half the town was bombed ….. ….. their homes in the raid.
The complaint against them is that they supplied the troops around Sarajevo who shelled and sniped ….. civilians.
The missiles were targeted ….. the enemy capital.
There are hundreds of nuclear missiles aimed ….. the main cities.
She took aim ….. the sniper, but his roof collapsed under him, dropping him into the fire.
Local officials said a curfew had been imposed ….. the area.
The city came ….. fire from anti-government forces last night.
A couple of civilians were caught ….. the firing line.
Students cowered in classrooms as the gun shots rang ….. .
The capital is still ….. constant bombardment by the rebel forces.
The enemy advanced ….. Rome, and at last conquered it.
Our army succeeded in thrusting ….. ….. new positions formerly held by the enemy.
He is unlikely to send ….. the army to quell nationalist aspirations.
Fighter bombers struck ….. the presidential palace.
Grant launched an all-out attack ….. these defences during the gusty, rainy, and misty dawn of May 12.
They tried to create the impression that they were ….. the offensive.
The offensive ….. whites has not taken the heat off Mr Mugabe.
The West African forces went ….. the offensive in response to attacks ….. them.
The rebels attempted a surprise raid ….. a military camp.
12. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
The soldiers made nightly forays ….. enemy territory.
The violence is unlikely to stop without military strikes ….. terrorist bases.
Enemy soldiers were closing ….. ….. them from all sides.
Police and troops sealed ….. the area after the attack.
Leave a few men behind to clean ….. the last of the enemy positions.
The government has said all along that it will never give ….. ….. terrorist threats.
The gunman gave himself ….. ….. the police.
The army prepared to defend the nation ….. attack by the enemy.
The army drove ….. the enemy with much effort and loss of life.
The village was placed ….. curfew.
The army began to retaliate ….. the civilian population.
The enemy's defences were strong but our soldiers broke ….. .
Defence spending has risen ….. 10% in the current budget.
The government was committed ….. further major reductions ….. defence spending.
In the end the Kurds surrendered without putting ….. any resistance.
This action was undoubtedly ….. retaliation ….. last week's bomb attack.
The journalists found a city virtually ….. siege.
In June 1176 King Richard laid siege ….. Limoges.
An economic blockade was imposed ….. the country six months ago.
Troops retreated ….. disarray ….. heavy gunfire.
The militia in Lebanon has agreed to pull ….. ….. Beirut.
Enemy soldiers are now ….. retreat.
onslaught, to rage, missing in action, to fight, to struggle, to declare, military action, to deploy, war effort, to position, deployment, to announce, to take up, front line, to fire, to lift, to clash, to pinpoint, battle, to shoot, in combat,
Vietnam lost about one million people ….. .
Fierce fighting ….. for several days.
The United States threatened ….. against Iraq.
530 servicemen were reported ….. .
The Boers ….. the British at this time.
He says that Churchill had told them they could be proud to have mined coal for the ….. .
Gorbachev threatened ….. a state of emergency throughout Moldavia.
In mid-1990, martial law ….. but the security clampdown remains currently in force.
The UN plans ….. 500 troops to ensure the safe delivery of food and other supplies.
The team went behind enemy lines ….. the exact locations of missile launchers.
The French generals ….. thousands of troops along the border.
The General's visit to Sarajevo is part of preparations for the ….. of extra troops.
The troops ….. their battle positions at the front line.
Seventeen people were killed when security forces ….. on demonstrators.
Iranian and Iraqi troops ….. on the border.
14. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
front line, clash, to shoot, to hit, to down, to shell, burst, to launch, to station, bombing, to fall, to bomb, to target, to kill, to aim, attack, to blaze away, advance, bombardment, to deploy, fighting
The decision has been made ….. more powerful weapons.
So where is the ….. in a war like that?
The soldiers had orders to shoot ….. .
He claimed the rebels ….. 35 government aircraft.
The missiles ….. against enemy targets.
The captain ordered the men ….. at the enemy.
NATO warplanes ….. a dozen towns on Thursday.
The Germans began their ….. of Paris in early 1870.
The soldiers ….. on the enemy.
In 23 attacks, the terrorists ….. military bases.
Ten soldiers were wounded in a ….. with the rebels.
The ship ….. by fire from a German plane.
The vast base was vulnerable to nuclear ….. .
They fired in long ….. , which depleted their ammunition.
He remembers when schools were closed for fear of catastrophic ….. raids in wartime Edinburgh.
15. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
to launch, to hit, to bomb, to strike, to shoot, offensive, to outflank, to ride out, rout, to advance, to make, to raid, to break through, to fire, attack, to shell, to bombard, to miss, capture, civilian
Rebel artillery units regularly ….. the airport.
The GIA continued its attacks on ….. targets.
The missiles can ….. targets with pinpoint accuracy.
The army slowly ….. across the frozen tundra.
British warships began ….. German positions along the coast.
Vikings ….. settlements on the east coast.
Terrorists were able ….. in one country then flee to another.
The shooting happened while the man was trying to evade ….. by the security forces.
It was also important to demonstrate the ability of nuclear forces ….. a surprise attack.
The police ….. two shots at the suspects before they surrendered.
On March 30, 1972, Hanoi ….. its own major offensive across the demilitarized zone.
One after another the Italian bases in the desert fell as the retreat turned into ….. .
These base camps were used by the PKK guerrillas ….. forays into Turkey.
To the west, the army ….. by a huge number of British forces.
16. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
offensive, to shelter, to withstand, to appear, to defend, defensive,to clash with, to resist, to repel, pull-out, to mop up, to besiege, to put up, to withdraw, to hold out, to emerge, to protect, to retaliate, to cause, to leave
It took a week ….. the last of the enemy soldiers.
It is unlikely that his forces could ….. an allied onslaught for very long.
We were confident that the Allies would ….. victorious.
Thousands of young men came forward, willing ….. their country.
The city ….. the enemy onslaught for two weeks.
Guerrilla fighters were soon able ….. the army's attack.
In those impregnable mountains, the guerrillas could ….. for years.
Local people risked their own lives …. resistance fighters from the army.
Militant students hurled firebombs and riot police ….. with tear gas.
The capital ….. by the opposition militia for two months now.
The rebels ….. fierce resistance with small arms and rocket-propelled grenades.
These are purely ….. weapons, not designed for attack.
Troops ….. from the north of the country last March.
The ….. of the army paves the way for independence.
17. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Генерал считал, что в сложившейся обстановке нельзя ввязываться в бой с превосходящими силами противника.
Его дивизия умело ведет бой на этом участке фронта.
Он погиб в битве за Москву.
Ожесточенная битва продолжается уже третьи сутки.
Пять человек из его батальона считаются пропавшими без вести.
Представители США полагали, что необходимо интенсифицировать боевые действия против диктаторского режима.
Он принимал участие в боевых действиях во Вьетнаме.
Великобритания воюет на стороне США против Ирака.
Ни одна из воюющих сторон не хочет воевать на два фронта.
Комендантский час был введен в городе два месяца назад и будет отменен в течение ближайшей недели.
По сообщениям СМИ, в стране действует военное положение.
Правительство планирует разместить дополнительные войска для поддержания мира в неспокойном регионе.
Их представитель в ООН заявил, что недопустимо развертывание ракет среднего радиуса действия в этом регионе.
Наши войска заняли боевые позиции на линии фронта.
Им удалось прорвать оборону противника с большим трудом.
Взвод парашютистов-десантников был сброшен в тылу противника для захвата ключевых пунктов на дорогах, ведущих в город.
В то время наблюдатели отмечали высокий боевой дух как на фронте, так и в тылу.
Многие солдаты совершали подвиги на поле боя.
Войска противоборствующих сторон вступили в вооруженное столкновение на границе.
Нам удалось засечь важные военные цели на территории противника.
Все зенитные орудия вели огонь по обнаруженным самолетам противника.
18. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Его подразделение сбило несколько вражеских самолетов.
Баллистические ракеты обеих сверхдержав были нацелены на основные промышленные центры друг друга, но ни одна ракета так и не была запущена против какой-либо из этих цели.
Самолеты НАТО подвергли бомбардировке основные военные и промышленные объекты на территории Югославии.
В результате бомбардировки почти все жители деревни остались без крова.
Город подвергался артиллерийскому обстрелу в течение нескольких недель.
Террористы выбирают в качестве цели невинных, беззащитных людей.
В результате перестрелки на границе несколько человек получили ранения.
В столкновении с боевиками погиб один солдат подразделения специального назначения.
Войска открыли огонь по безоружным демонстрантам.
Его подразделение подверглось обстрелу со стороны боевиков.
Полицейские получили приказ стрелять на поражение.
Командир приказал солдатам стрелять короткими очередями.
Ракета поразила цель, находившуюся за тысячи километров от пусковой установки.
Ракета прошла мимо цели.
Наши войска наступают на опорный пункт противника.
Войскам специального назначения был отдан приказ начать штурм задания, в котором террористы удерживали заложников.
На рассвете его батальон предпринял атаку на оборонительные позиции противника.
Город вновь подвергся нападению вражеской авиации.
В течение двух дней они сдерживали наступление врага.
Войска были размещены в этом районе с целью отражения возможного наступления противника.
Его взвод совершил вылазку в тыл противника.
19. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Президент пригрозил, что его страна нанесет упреждающий ядерный удар по военным целям на территории противника.
Боевикам удалось окружить и захватить аэропорт.
Полиция оцепила район, в котором произошел захват заложников.
Его армия была разбита наголову.
Нам осталось ликвидировать отдельные очаги сопротивления противника.
Когда боевики поняли, что они окружены, они решили сдаться правительственным войскам.
Войска противника потерпели сокрушительное поражение.
Нам надо нанести противнику сокрушительное поражение.
Мы одержали победу над врагом, который казался непобедимым.
Вооруженные силы должны защищать страну от внешних и внутренних врагов.
Президент заявил, что вооруженные силы его страны нанесут ответный удар любому агрессору.
Правительство собирается сократить на 5% расходы на оборону.
Сокращение в этом году расходов на оборону на 3% маловероятно.
Президент должен обеспечить укрепление обороноспособности государства.
Противник оказывал яростное сопротивление наступающим частям нашей армии.
Наша армия встретила упорное сопротивление со стороны противника.
Нам необходимо в кратчайшие сроки сломить сопротивление противника.
Кто должен принимать решение об установлении и снятии блокады той или иной страны?
Израиль должен вывести свои войска со всех оккупированных им арабских территорий.
Войска отступали в организованном порядке.
Войска отступали по всему фронту.
V. Sections: Reconnaissance and intelligence, Militancy and subversion, Insurgency, Terrorist activities
1. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. совершать революцию
b. вооруженный мятеж
c. проводить разведку
d. подстрекать к бунту
e. заниматься подрывной деятельностью против государства
f. неудавшаяся попытка мятежа
g. поднимать восстание
h. руководитель разведки
i. вызывать / провоцировать бунт
j. бороться со шпионажем
k. народное восстание
l. секретный агент; разведчик
m. тайно руководить восстанием
n. шпионить / следить за кем-л.
o. поднимать восстание / мятеж
p. организовывать заговор
q. внедриться в террористическую группу
r. шпионская сеть
t. заниматься шпионажем
u. собирать разведывательные данные
v. организовать диверсию на нефтепроводе
w. разведывательная служба
x. применять жесткие меры
y. подавлять восстание
2. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. совершать террористический акт
b. патрулировать улицу
c. отказываться от терроризма
d. заниматься террористической деятельностью
e. террористический акт (с использованием взрывного устройства)
f. военизированная группа
g. проводить жесткую политику в области борьбы с терроризмом
h. гражданское неповиновение
i. террористический акт террориста-смертника
j. общественное недовольство
k. партизанская война / тактика
l. организовывать переворот
m. осуществлять заговор
n. раскрывать заговор
o. боевик; активист, борец
q. повстанец; мятежник
r. бунтарская деятельность
s. организовывать диверсию
t. расстроить заговор
u. попытка переворота
v. студенческие волнения
w. политические беспорядки
x. борец за свободу
y. искоренить терроризм
z. бороться с терроризмом
3. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. офицер контрразведки
b. служба безопасности
c. подрывать безопасность
d. требование выкупа
f. усиливать меры безопасности
g. террористическая деятельность
h. силы безопасности
i. террористическая угроза
j. заплатить выкуп
k. совершать политическое убийство
l. недостаточные меры безопасности
m. выполнить угрозу
n. воздушное пиратство
o. похищение человека
p. требовать выкуп
q. поддаваться на угрозу
s. угонять самолет
u. выдавать террориста кому-л.
v. укрывать террористов
w. получить выкуп
x. требовать выкуп за кого-л.
y. строгие меры безопасности
4. Give synonyms for the following words and phrases.
to stage (a coup), coup attempt, to foil (a plot), to uncover (a plot), to commit (an act of sabotage), militant, to be involved in (terrorism), to fight (terrorism), to do (reconnaissance), to obtain (intelligence), to be involved in (espionage), secret service, secret / intelligence (agent), (spy) ring, to rebel, to plot, to crack down, to mastermind (a rebellion), to put down (a rebellion), abortive (coup), to bring about (a revolution), to spark off (a riot), to instigate (a riot), (civil) unrest, to eliminate (terrorism), to take a tough line (on terrorism), to carry out a terrorist attack, kidnapping, to hijack (a plane), to make (a threat), to give in to (a threat), to extort (a ransom), to tighten (security), tight (security), rogue (state / regime)
5. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
deliberate damage that is done to equipment, weapons or buildings in order to prevent the success of an enemy or competitor
a government organization that gathers information about the secret activities of foreign governments, the military plans of an enemy etc
a secret plan by a group of people to do something bad or illegal, especially in politics
a secret government department whose job is to find out enemy secrets and to prevent its own government's secrets from being discovered
to secretly join an organization or enter a place in order to find out information about it or harm it
the action of trying to weaken or destroy the power or influence of a government or an established system, especially by attacking it indirectly in written or spoken material
to make a determined attempt to stop people doing something bad or illegal
a refusal by a group to accept someone's authority and / or an attempt to take control from people in authority, especially a group of soldiers or sailors
a noisy, violent and uncontrolled protest by a crowd of people
a successful attempt by a large group of people to change their government or the political system of their country, usually by force
to take strong and often violent action against authority, usually with the aim of taking power away from them
to secretly collect information about an enemy country or an organization you are competing against
the activity of finding out the political, military, or industrial secrets of a country's enemies or a company's competitors by using secret methods
the use of small groups of soldiers, military aircraft or satellites to find out about the size and position of enemy forces
an occasion when a group of people takes control of a country, usually by means of military force
6. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
a country that does not behave in the usual or accepted way and often causes trouble
to keep someone prisoner until money is paid
intended to illegally encourage people to oppose the government or not obey the law
to demand and get an amount of money from someone by using threats, force etc
someone who fights in a war against an unfair or dishonest government, army etc
someone whose job is to protect a building or to collect and deliver large amounts of money
an attack in which the person who carries out the attack deliberately kills himself or herself in the process of killing other people
to murder a famous or important person, especially for political reasons or for payment
to take a person away illegally by force, especially in order to make their family or government give you money or allow you to do what you want
to illegally take control of a plane, ship, or vehicle using violence or threats
a group of police, soldiers, vehicles, planes etc sent out to search a particular area
someone who belongs to a group of people fighting to take control of their country by force
an amount of money that is paid to free someone who is held as a prisoner
someone who tries to remove a government or leader by force
things that are done to keep a person, building, or country safe from threats such as crime or attacks by foreign countries
7. Explain the meaning of the words and phrases listed below.
counter-intelligence, infiltrator, spy ring, to reconnoitre, to orchestrate a rebellion, labour unrest, paramilitary group, mounted patrol, state terrorism, terrorist bombing, to harbour terrorists, to extradite a terrorist, suicide bomber, assassination, king's ransom, rogue state
8. Explain the difference between the meanings of the following of words.
reconnaissance – intelligence, to reconnoitre – to spy, rebellion – revolution – riot – mutiny, coup – plot, rebel – militant, insurgent – guerrilla – freedom fighter – terrorist, to hijack – to skyjack, to assassinate – to murder
9. Match the words in List A with those in List B to form phrases.
b. a plot
d. a plane
e. a terrorist act
f. to ransom
h. a terrorist threat
i. intelligence data
j. a terrorist attack
l. a ransom
m. the enemy defences
n. tuition fees
o. a coup
p. a riot
q. on terrorism
r. the government
10. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
Whitehall denies that Echelon is involved ….. industrial espionage
Philby had been spying ….. the Russians for several years.
He was arrested for spying ….. missile sites.
There were persistent rumours that the former head of British Intelligence was ….. the pay of the Soviet Union.
Rebel forces have been infiltrating ….. the country.
The people rebelled ….. the harsh new government.
Soldiers went in to put ….. a rebellion.
The plot was discovered before it was carried ….. .
Reynolds was charged ….. conspiracy ….. the government.
The government plans to clamp ….. ….. illegal militant groups.
They rioted in protest ….. the government.
It needed and wanted to bring ….. a revolution.
The Security Commission investigates breaches ….. security.
A riot broke ….. after a police shooting of a local man.
11. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
Anyone suspected of conspiring ….. the regime was ruthlessly dealt …. .
Radio stations said sailors at a naval base had mutinied ….. their officers.
Police are launching a new crackdown ….. drug users.
Three reconnaissance aircraft are permanently ….. patrol.
He is charged ….. kidnapping a businessman last year and holding him ….. ransom.
I am utterly opposed ….. any form of terrorism.
In the 12th century in Iran a group of Shiite Muslims conducted terrorist acts ….. religious and political leaders of Sunni Islam.
The Mugabe government repeatedly issues public death threats ….. its foes.
The President adopted a tough stance ….. terrorism.
The bombing has forced Olympic officials to step ….. security measures throughout Olympic venues and surrounding facilities.
Postal facilities and other government offices around the country were warned of the attempted bombings, and were put ….. security alert.
We met on the streets of Whitehall during the riots ….. capitalism.
report, to bring about, to stage, to subvert, to infiltrate, to raise, to riot, reconnaissance, to conspire, to make, service, military, to put down, to rise against, guerrilla, to spy, to crack down, to sabotage, secret, espionage, insurgent
He is the only Marine ever prosecuted for ….. .
Herrera knew that if his government failed ….. the revolt, it would spread to outlying areas.
They received intelligence ….. that the factory was a target for the bombing.
They were plotting ….. an armed insurrection if negotiations with the government should fail.
The report concluded that there was no evidence that the intelligence ….. were involved.
He is indignant at suggestions that they were ….. agents.
East and West still ….. one another.
Non-Iraqi terrorist groups ….. Iraq as soon as the conflict ended.
The citizens at last ….. their cruel rulers, drove them from the country, and took power themselves.
Crowds ….. throughout the small country and opposition activists demanded that the government step down.
They say senior clerics ….. with high-ranking intelligence officials to carry out the murders.
Smith was sentenced to 14 years for plotting ….. the government.
Their strategy seems to be widespread but low-level ….. warfare to discredit and destabilize the Phnom Penh government.
City authorities were quick ….. on the rioters.
The attack is being seen as a deliberate attempt ….. the peace talks.
subversion, to pay, revolution, act of sabotage, to struggle, to conduct, to combat, rioting, suicide, to involve, revolt, to enhance, to demand, attempt, to trigger, rebellious, insurgent, intelligence, subversive, clampdown, growing
They were expelled from the country for ….. activities.
Reports from secret ….. sources had indicated that there might be another strike against Royalbion.
The 1789 ….. marked the end of the French monarchy.
These groups have also been accused of plotting ….. more race riots in Oldham and Bradford.
Shortages in food have added to the ….. unrest in the capital.
The government is determined ….. international terrorism.
The coup ….. was followed by police brutality, executions, and torture.
Whitehall denies that Echelon ….. in industrial espionage.
The terrorists were planning ….. to destabilize the country.
Following the military coup, there has been ….. on press reporting in the capital.
Whether any intelligence ….. a country's security is doubtful.
The ….. officers, having seized the radio station, broadcast the news of the overthrow of the monarchy.
According to the army, the teenager said he was on a '….. mission' for the movement.
The government reported that it had subsequently killed 80 Hutu ….. in a series of raids.
Her kidnappers ….. a £5 million ransom.
14. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
lax, suicide, to renounce, ransom, to assassinate, militant, patrol, terrorist attack, rogue, to murder, to hijack, to launch, threat, to kidnap, bombing, rebel, seditious, tight, civil, to commit, to refuse
Urban violence and ….. unrest were mushrooming like small bombs threatening to blow up the machine from within.
The party ….. terrorism as a political tool.
They were charged with conspiring ….. acts of terrorism.
A string of 1999 apartment block ….. in Russia killed over 300.
He fell under suspicion for distributing ….. pamphlets.
The homes of ….. bombers will be sealed, then destroyed, he said.
Three American journalists ….. by political extremists.
A Chinese airliner ….. by two passengers and forced to fly to Taiwan.
Many people today, worldwide, remember exactly what they were doing when John Kennedy ….. in Dallas.
A bomb ….. forced them to make an emergency landing.
The bomb went off as an army ….. went by.
A bus-load of schoolchildren were held for ….. until the gang were given a plane.
As many as 200 civilians and an unknown number of military personnel died during heavy fighting between government and ….. forces.
There is ….. security at the airport and all baggage is being searched.
And analysts say the nature of the attack – commercial aircraft being used against American cities, instead of ballistic missiles sent by a “….. state” – is sure to figure in Russian protests against President Bush's missile-defence shield plans.
15. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Перед боем командир дивизии решил провести разведку боем.
Необходимо провести разведку местности, где, как предполагают, развернется сражение.
Ему пришлось признать, что некоторые члены делегации занимались сбором разведывательных данных.
Секретные службы занимаются как разведкой, так и контрразведкой.
Чем отличается разведчик от шпиона?
В течение долгого времени он занимался шпионажем в пользу США.
Его задача заключается в том, чтобы следить / шпионить за ядерными объектами противника в этом регионе.
Руководитель разведки принял решение внедрить своего агента в одну из радикальных группировок.
Группе разведчиков удалось проникнуть / просочиться в тыл противника.
Все население страны восстало против завоевателей.
Студенты университета бунтовали как на территории студенческого городка, так и на улицах города.
Моряки взбунтовались / подняли бунт и расправились с капитаном и его помощником.
Группа офицеров организовала заговор против короля.
Его приговорили к десяти годам тюрьмы за подрывную деятельность.
Правительство решило принять суровые меры против участников беспорядков.
Группа боевиков устроила диверсию на нефтепроводе.
Его партия подняла и возглавила восстание против олигархического правительства.
Все чувствовали, что кто-то тайно руководит восстанием в стране.
Мятеж был жестоко подавлен правительственными войсками.
Студенческие волнения охватили всю страну.
Государственный переворот был осуществлен в интересах прозападной политической элиты.
Ему чудом удалось избежать ареста после неудавшегося государственного переворота.
Заговор готовился небольшой группой политиков и военных.
16. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Чистая случайность помогла расстроить / раскрыть заговор против короля.
Все подходы к городу находятся под контролем повстанцев.
Повстанцы применяют тактику партизанской войны.
В чем разница между террористом и борцом за свободу?
К недавним террористическим актам причастны члены запрещенной военизированной группировки.
Их корабль совершает патрулирование вдоль всего побережья.
Для успешной борьбы с терроризмом необходимо выявлять не только тех, кто непосредственно занимается террористической деятельностью, но и тех, кто финансирует террористов.
Наша страна стала проводить жесткую политику в области борьбы с терроризмом.
Он считает, что победить терроризм невозможно.
Ирландская республиканская армия отказалась от террористической деятельности.
В последнее время боевики совершили несколько террористических актов.
Террористы-смертники вербуются на оккупированных Израилем палестинских территориях, а также в лагерях беженцев.
США обвиняют ряд государств в том, что они укрывают террористов.
Любая страна должна выдавать террористов, которые укрываются на ее территории.
Воздушное пиратство, похищения людей и политические убийства быстро распространились по всему миру.
Занятия в школе были отменены из террористической угрозы.
За граждан его страны похитители требовали выкуп.
Правительство отказалось платить выкуп за работников нефтяной компании, похищенных накануне.
После серии террористических актов правительство усилило меры безопасности во всех регионах страны.
Строгие меры безопасности ущемляют права и свободы граждан.
Совершение террористического акта стало возможным вследствие недостаточных мер безопасности.
Правительство делает все необходимое для укрепления сил безопасности.
Некоторые политики опасаются, что страна-изгой может нанести ядерный удар по территории США.