С. И. Жолобов
для студентов университетов
Нижний Новгород 2007
Жолобов С. И.
Краткий тематический словарь. Окружающая среда: Учебное пособие для студентов университетов. – Нижний Новгород: НГЛУ им. Н.А.Добролюбова, 2007. – 137 с.
Настоящая работа представляет собой лексический справочник по темам, изучаемым студентами на пятом курсе. Соответствующий словарный состав сгруппирован на основе тематического принципа. Каждая лексическая единица снабжена толкованием, переводом, иллюстративными примерами ее употребления в речи, а также минимально необходимой грамматической и стилистической информацией. Кроме того, в учебное пособие включены разнообразные упражнения, которые должны помочь студентам усвоить изучаемый ими словарный материал.
© С. И. Жолобов, 2007
1. The environment
nature / Nature [uncountable] everything in the physical world that is not controlled by humans, such as wild plants and animals, earth and rocks, and the weather природа: Man is engaged in a constant struggle with nature. | We grew up in the countryside, surrounded by the beauties of nature. | The most amazing thing about nature is its infinite variety.
laws of nature: It is the laws of nature, not the local manifestations of them, that are universal.
to go / get back to nature to start living a more simple life in which you do not use modern machines and eat fewer artificial or processed products: When people talk of going back to nature, do they really know what they are asking for? | He longed to explore, to take the wild adventure of going completely back to nature. | She was very anxious to get away from cities and back to nature.
freak (of nature) something in nature that is very unusual: Due to some freak of nature, it snowed in June.
forces of nature | natural forces | Mother Nature [uncountable] the forces, such as earthquakes, floods, storms and drought, that control people, the physical world and life itself силы природы; мать-природа: It was one of man's more successful attempts at curbing the forces of nature. | The inhabitants of the island fight a constant battle against the forces of nature. | The shape and size of creatures is determined by the many fundamental forces of Nature. | They gave natural forces distinct shapes. | After floods and a drought, what else can Mother Nature do to us? | We hope Mother Nature will save the crops by bringing rain.
the environment [singular] the air, water, and land on Earth in which people, animals, and plants live and which can be harmed by man's activities окружающая среда: Our disregard for the environment threatens the long-term survival of the planet. | Changing weather patterns could be a threat to the environment. | On April 22, 1970, the first Earth Day, approximately 20 million Americans gathered at various sites across the country to protest corporate and governmental abuse of the environment.
natural / world / local / marine environment: The Foundation rescues animals in distress and protects the natural environment.
to have an effect on the environment | to make / have an impact on the environment оказывать влияние / воздействие на окружающую среду: the effects of acid rain on the environment | The radiation leak has had a disastrous effect on the environment
to pollute / damage / harm / destroy the environment | to cause / do damage / harm to the environment загрязнять / разрушать окружающую среду: Global warming will damage the environment. | They contend that the environment is being irreparably damaged. | Industrial development is causing widespread damage to the environment. | Mining operations threaten to destroy our environment.
pollution / destruction of the environment загрязнение / разрушение окружающей среды: this unnecessary and wanton destruction of our environment
harmful / damaging to the environment вредный / опасный / губительный для окружающей среды: Our reliance on cars is so harmful to the environment. | Some of these chemicals are very damaging to the environment.
to be concerned about / care about the environment беспокоиться / заботиться об окружающей среде: Young people between 18 and 30 tend to be much more concerned about the environment than the older generation.
to protect / preserve / conserve / safeguard / save the environment охранять / сохранять окружающую среду: More legislation is needed to protect the environment. | We're not doing enough to protect the environment from pollution. | Activists want more measures taken to preserve the environment. | As a man with agricultural interests you will appreciate the importance of living in harmony with nature and of conserving the environment. | We have invested in clean coal technology to safeguard the environment.
preservation / protection of the environment охрана окружающей среды: It is a charity for the protection of the environment.
to reduce the pollution of / in the environment: The plan is to reduce the pollution of / in the environment.
(to lessen / reduce) the effect / impact of sth on the environment (уменьшать) влияние / воздействие чего-л. на окружающую среду: Certain chemicals have been banned because of their damaging effect on the environment. | What will be the impact of a carbon tax on the environment? | Environmentalists are struggling to lessen / reduce the impact of human activity on the natural world / environment.
to improve / clean up / enhance the environment улучшать состояние окружающей среды, очищать окружающую среду: Car ownership and use grow continuously, severely undermining the government's fragile attempts to improve the environment. | A new type of plant could help clean up the environment. | An equally important aim is to ensure that the planning system continues to protect and enhance the environment. | All of this stresses the need to ensure that future development must enhance rather than damage the environment.
ecology (1) [countable – usually singular] the relationship between the plants, animals, and the environment in a particular area экология: Plans to build a new airfield could threaten the delicate ecology of the island. | Development has been guided by a concern for the ecology of the area. | We are reproducing ourselves at such a rate that our numbers threaten the ecology of the planet. | Global ecological efforts can easily be at odds with local ecologies.
(2) [uncountable] the way plants, animals, and humans live together and affect each other, and the scientific study of the environment экология: The science of ecology is the study of the interactions that determine the abundance and distribution of organisms. | In other words, ecology attempts to explain why individuals live where they do and why their populations are the sizes they are. | They are aware of trade-offs between civilization and ecology. | He warned of the serious threat to global ecology which is going unheeded.
ecosystem [countable] all the animals and plants in a particular area, and the way in which they are related to each other and to their environment экосистема, экологическая система; биогеоценоз: The rainforest is a self-supporting ecosystem. | Pollution can have disastrous effects on the delicately balanced ecosystem. | The bay has a very complex and delicate ecosystem. | The failure of the dialogue to clarify the effects of population growth on ecosystems and mineral supplies has other causes. | Madagascar's ecosystems range from rainforest to semi-desert.
natural ecosystem естественная экосистема: All these new ideas threaten the natural desert ecosystem. | Figure 8 illustrates the differences between a natural ecosystem and an urban-industrial ecosystem.
undisturbed ecosystem ненарушенная (деятельностью человека) экосистема
to maintain an ecosystem поддерживать / сохранять экосистему: Many species of burrowing insects are essential for maintaining a healthy soil ecosystem.
the food chain [singular] all animals and plants considered as a group in which a plant is eaten by an insect or animal, which is then eaten by another animal and so on пищевая цепь, цепь питания, трофическая связь: Pollution is affecting many creatures lower down the food chain. | Pollution is having a long-term impact on the food chain in the bay. | The fox is needed in the food chain. | The oil spill has killed off billions of microscopic sea plants, thus threatening marine life further up the food chain. | Pesticides destroy insects that are an important part of the food chain for several species of songbird.
balance of nature / the environment | ecological balance / equilibrium [singular] равновесие в природе, экологическое / природное равновесие, экологический баланс: The order to create wealth can never justify permanent damage to the balance of nature. | The effluents we pour heedlessly into its waters are a threat to its delicate ecological balance.
to maintain / preserve the balance of nature / the balance of the environment / the ecological balance / equilibrium поддерживать / сохранять равновесие в природе / экологический баланс: I know that it is unnecessary to rip animals to pieces to preserve the balance of nature.
to upset / destroy / harm / disturb / alter the balance of nature / the balance of the environment / the ecological balance / equilibrium нарушать равновесие в природе / экологический баланс: Pesticides seriously upset the balance of nature. | The chemicals upset the balance of the environment. | There are warnings that the building of the dam will upset the ecological balance of the river basin. | The ecological balance in the area could be destroyed. | Large dams have harmed Siberia's delicate ecological balance.
environmental (adjective) relating to the natural world and the effect that human activity has on it экологический; относящийся к окружающей среде; относящийся к борьбе с загрязнением окружающей среды: Measures need to be taken to mitigate the environmental effects of burning more coal. | It protects against environmental hazards such as wind and sun. | The National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA), also enacted in 1970, required an environmental assessment of all federally funded projects.
environmental pollution / destruction загрязнение / разрушение окружающей среды: The project has enabled farmers to reduce environmental pollution whilst raising crop yields. | Nor do they contribute to environmental pollution by burning fossil fuels. | They are already threatened with environmental destruction, since 88 % of their original vegetation has been destroyed. | Yet in the age of unprecedented environmental destruction an awkward question nags at us.
environmental harm / damage (to sth): An oil spill of that size will cause a lot of environmental damage. | Seventy percent of global environmental damage is because of the rich countries.
environmental effect / impact влияние / воздействие на окружающую среду: Conservation strategies that would not alter lifestyles but would greatly lessen environmental impact are essential in the developed world. | The Commission claims that the government has breached the directive which requires an assessment of the environmental impact of major projects.
environmental consequences / effects / implications экологические последствия, последствия для окружающей среды: Some of the environmental consequences have been deeply negative. | Yet the environmental consequences of unchecked population growth will be devastating. | Removal of tariffs on forest products will have devastating environmental consequences on the world's remaining forests. | We believe a much better understanding of the environmental implications of using secondary aggregates is urgently required.
environmental disaster / catastrophe экологическое бедствие, экологическая катастрофа: Perhaps international pressure can stop this environmental disaster. | The result is that civil, socio-political and environmental disasters are now threatening the roots of our existence. | They act as a complement to his large works which are responses to a progressive environmental catastrophe.
environmental suicide экологическое самоубийство
environmental protection охрана окружающей среды: This meeting, at which the United States took a leading role, was controversial because many developing countries were fearful that a focus on environmental protection was a means for the developed world to keep the undeveloped world in an economically subservient position. | A desire for environmental change led to the creation of various political parties around the world whose emphasis was largely on environmental protection. | New and pressing concerns of geologists are conservation and environmental protection.
environmental issue / problem экологическая проблема, проблема состояния окружающей среды: Twenty years ago environmental issues rarely made the news. | Recently, more and more of us have become concerned about environmental issues. | People are becoming far more aware of environmental issues. | The Minister discussed environmental issues. | But that could cause other environmental problems. | But a new environmental problem is on the horizon.
(to raise / create // increase / heighten // encourage / promote / develop) environmental awareness осведомленность / информированность о состоянии окружающей среды; понимание проблем окружающей среды: It moved people to a new level of environmental awareness and activism.
environmental concern забота / беспокойство о состоянии окружающей среды; заинтересованное отношение к окружающей среде: The new regulation establishes the principle that environmental concerns take precedence over commercial arguments. | Some investors put environmental concerns uppermost on their list while others are only just waking up to green concerns. | They contend that environmental concerns have been thoroughly studied and debated.
environmental considerations экологические соображения: This is an area of rapid development with little or no environmental considerations. | Ethical and environmental considerations are an important part of this innovative programme.
environmental policy политика в области защиты окружающей среды, экологическая политика: His task would be to promote the government's international environmental policies abroad. | Trade and environmental policies are therefore inextricably interlinked.
environmental (advocacy) group группа защитников окружающей среды: Environmental advocacy groups have sued corporations directly for failing to follow various environmental laws. | But environmental groups offer some important qualifications. | Environmental groups plan to stage public protests during the conference. | Five years ago, increasingly concerned about the environment, he decided to work directly for an environmental group.
environmentally / environment / ecologically friendly | eco-friendly | environmentally / ecologically sound (adjective) not harmful to the environment экологически чистый / безвредный, безвредный для окружающей среды: As an agricultural crop, sunflowers are extremely environmentally friendly. | They represent products which have been singled out and improved to make them more environmentally friendly. | It's an ecologically friendly / ecologically sound means of transportation. | Tourism must try to be eco-friendly. | He veered away from the most environmentally sound option. | Working with nature is clearly practical, as well as ecologically sound.
environmentally harmful / damaging экологически вредный / опасный, вредный для окружающей среды
ecological [only before noun] (1) relating to the environment and the way plants, animals, and humans live together and affect each other экологический: This plant has no ecological value. | The government is to provide incentives for people to protect natural ecological assets such as forests. | But in ecological terms, something catastrophic had occurred. | The second is to gain the knowledge and experience to maintain humans within equilibrium in a closed ecological system.
environmental destruction нарушение природного комплекса, разрушение экологического сообщества
ecological harm / damage (to sth): Some of these carry toxic cargoes and an accident could result in economic as well as ecological damage.
ecological effect / impact влияние / воздействие на экологию: Clearly, a better understanding of long term ecological impact needs to be encouraged.
ecological consequences / effects / implications экологические последствия, последствия для окружающей среды: the ecological effects of industry
ecological disaster / catastrophe / crisis экологическое бедствие, экологическая катастрофа, экологический кризис: It's an ecological disaster with no parallel anywhere else in the world. | Global Rampart Dam was an ecological disaster probably without precedent in the world. | The destruction of the rain forests is an ecological disaster that threatens the future of life on Earth. | Scientists have described the Aral sea as the site of the worst ecological disaster on earth. | If they do this, ecological catastrophe is inevitable. | And that has worsened the overall ecological crisis that engine efficiency was originally meant to solve.
ecological issue / problem экологическая проблема, проблема состояния окружающей среды: The growing awareness of environmental and ecological issues often coincides with traditional beliefs and practices. | Paradoxically the ecological problems deriving from the application of artificial fertilizers are often equally complex and extensive. | The basic ecological problem of limited resources remains. | Both are concerned to overcome the ecological problem by using biotechnology.
ecological awareness осведомленность / информированность о состоянии экологии; понимание проблем экологии
ecological concern забота / беспокойство о состоянии экологии; заинтересованное отношение к экологии: As dump opponents had feared, it explicitly sidesteps many of the ecological concerns raised last fall by Park Service scientists.
ecological considerations экологические соображения
ecological approach экологический подход, подход с учетом воздействия на окружающую среду: New ecological approaches sought to help us understand human adaptation to the environment. | Cowles developed an ecological approach within an academic framework that stressed rigorous pure research.
ecological policy политика в области экологии, экологическая политика
(2) interested in preserving the environment экологический
ecological group группа экологов / защитников окружающей среды: It is known as one of the country's leading ecological groups. | Ecological groups say that nothing is being done to tackle the problem.
irreparable (formal) | irreversible | irretrievable | beyond recall / recovery | beyond / past redemption so bad that it is impossible to change or bring the situation back to a previous condition непоправимый, неисправимый; безвозвратный, невозместимый: This important book was the first to demonstrate that human activity could cause dramatic and irreversible damage to the earth.
irreparable / irreversible / irretrievable harm / damage to the environment | irreparable / irreversible / irretrievable environmental harm / damage непоправимый вред / ущерб окружающей среде: Extensive mining will cause irreparable damage to the area. | The forest suffered irreparable damage as a result of last year's fire. | Unless the oil spill is contained, irreparable damage will be done to the coastline. | Fossil fuels have caused irreversible damage to the environment. | We urge you to ensure the most stringent environmental assessment procedures are followed before any irreversible damage is done.
to pollute sth beyond recall / recovery / redemption наносить непоправимый вред / ущерб: The ground has been polluted beyond recall. | The rivers and lakes are fouled almost beyond recovery by pollutants. | I have no doubt that we are polluting the environment beyond redemption.
environmentalist | ecologist [countable] someone who is interested in or studies the environment and who tries to protect it from being damaged by human activities защитник окружающей среды; специалист по проблемам окружающей среды: The change has been sharply criticized by environmentalists. | The reductions have been criticized by environmentalists as not going far enough. | Two decades ago, environmentalists predicted we would run out of certain raw materials. | Environmentalists say the treaty is fundamentally flawed. | Environmentalists were sharply critical of the policy for its failure to encourage conservation. | Environmentalists fear that this is a short-sighted approach to the problem of global warming. | Ecologists argue that the benefits of treating sewage with disinfectants are doubtful. | In the opinion polls the ecologists reached 20 per cent alongside the Socialists earlier in the year. | His campaign attracted the support of feminists, peaceniks and ecologists.
ecologist [countable] a scientist who studies the environment and the way plants, animals, and humans live together and affect each other эколог: Economists say the ecosystem is basically healthy; ecologists worry it may be on the verge of being irreparably damaged. | The plan has been dismissed by ecologists as both gimmicky and technically unviable. | These methods are analogous to the energy-centred methods adopted by ecologists.
wildlife [uncountable] animals and plants that live or grow in natural conditions живая природа; дикие животные: Chemical leaks have had a disastrous effect on wildlife. | The park has an abundance of wildlife. | Today, hunting is no longer allowed and tourists visit these national parks to view and photograph the wildlife in their natural habitats. | The area has one of the world's greatest concentrations of wildlife. | Uganda's beautiful highlands are host to a wide range of wildlife. | The island offers such a wide variety of scenery and wildlife. | Environmentalists will be on the watch for damage to wildlife.
wildlife protection / conservation охрана / сохранение живой природы: Strong science-based strategies for wildlife conservation have emerged over the last one hundred years. | Also in these seminars, discussion will focus on wildlife conservation. | The treaty contains seven personal pledges to encourage wildlife protection, save energy, use recycling schemes and join environmental groups.
to protect wildlife: The organization was set up to protect wildlife across Europe. | It has been carefully designed to develop and protect wildlife and plants while attracting many thousands of visitors.
to encourage wildlife содействовать сохранению / стимулировать сохранение живой природы: And nine ponds have been created to encourage wildlife.
to threaten wildlife | to be / pose / present / represent / constitute a threat to wildlife представлять угрозу для живой природы: Intensive salmon farms threaten wildlife, the environment and our tourist industry.
wilderness [countable – usually singular] an area of land where people do not live or grow crops and where there are no buildings, especially because it is difficult to live there as a result of extremely cold or hot weather or bad earth дикая природа; дикая местность: Alaska is the last great wilderness. | They have climbed mountains and canoed for eight-day stretches in isolated wilderness. | The prince wandered the wilderness for many years.
to preserve wilderness: Muir valued nature for its own sake and argued forcefully to protect species and preserve wilderness, whereas Pinchot was much more concerned with the use of natural resources to serve human needs. | To the locals it was a wilderness they would rather have preserved for the hawks, the salmon and the mountaineers.
vegetation [uncountable] (formal) plants in general, especially in one particular area растительность: There was little vegetation on the island. | Much of the region's native vegetation has been damaged by developers who are building hotels along the coast. | Birds are abundant in the tall vegetation by the canal. | They are only doing what is necessary to prevent wholesale destruction of vegetation.
dense / lush / rank / thick vegetation пышная / густая растительность: Half an hour later and we were ready for a ride through the dense vegetation and forests of palms. | This is particularly true in areas of dense vegetation such as tropical rainforest. | Lefkas has an abundance of lush green vegetation. | The beautifully landscaped gardens sprawl with lush vegetation. | They made their way through the thick vegetation in the valley.
to clear a place of vegetation | to clear vegetation from a place очистить место от растительности: The railway track will have to be cleared of vegetation if it is to be used again.
species [countable; plural – species] a group of animals or plants whose members are similar and can breed together to produce young animals or plants биологический вид: Ecologists also have discovered that all species in an ecosystem interact with one another, either directly or indirectly. | Thus, the loss of one species, the starfish, indirectly led to the loss of an additional six species and a transformation of the community. | Clear lakes have more species than do those with muddy water. | Man is exterminating too many species for zoos to be much help.
animal / bird / plant / tree species | species of animal(s) / bird(s) / plant(s) / tree(s): Half the animal species of the world and 90,000 out of 250,000 known plant species, live in the rainforests. | More than 100 bird species and 35 mammal species have been identified at the park. | The Amazon rainforests alone are home to many unique animals and to one fifth of the world's bird species. | Exactly how and when these plant species came to the Great Plains is not certain. | This country has more than 30,000 species of animals and 5,000 species of wild plants. | Over 120 species of birds have been recorded in this National Park. | Seven species of birds of prey have been observed. | Some of these factors have changed the distribution of species of animals and plants. | There are several thousand species of trees here.
native / local species местный / туземный / аборигенный вид: Unchecked by natural predators and conditions, they reproduce by the millions, chasing out native species. | The three native species are all winter visitors in the central and southern parts of the region.
to threaten a species (with extinction) | to be / pose / present / represent / constitute a threat to a species представлять угрозу для вида: This is a practice that has threatened several species. | A new airport may still threaten many bird species. | The large numbers of wild orchids being traded threatens some species with extinction. | Like most of the forest species, it is threatened by deforestation and hunting.
a species survives вид выживает: One among them did a little research and discovered that zebras were an endangered species who could survive only in herds.
a species becomes extinct / dies out / disappears вид вымирает / исчезает: What is clear is that species are dying out at an unprecedented rate. | Newts and other rare reptiles are being stolen from ponds, and conservationists are worried that some species could die out altogether. | Can we comfort ourselves with a freezer full of cells as species disappear and the wild itself becomes extinct?
the human species / race | humankind | mankind | man [singular] all humans considered as a group; people in general человеческий род
rare species [countable] редкий вид: Last year rare species worth half a million pounds have been stolen in raids around the country. | The rule is an attempt to prevent harm to pets or rare species that may wander into the traps. | Today the locations of many rare or endangered species are closely guarded secrets.
endangered / threatened species [countable] animals or plants which may soon no longer exist because there are very few now alive вымирающий / исчезающий биологический вид; биологический вид, находящийся под угрозой вымирания / исчезновения: Pandas are an endangered species. | This type of rattlesnake has been declared an endangered / threatened species. | Some threatened species have special qualities or abilities and may hold the key to undiscovered benefits. | As a threatened species, the snowy plover is protected under the federal Endangered Species Act.
to class / list an animal / plant as an endangered / threatened species: The lizards are classed as an endangered species.
to protect / preserve an endangered / threatened species: The plan also provided for measures to protect endangered species, protect the ozone layer and increase energy conservation. | Great economic sacrifices have been made by developers, loggers and fishermen to protect endangered species. | The legislation that exists to protect endangered species is often inadequate and lacks proper enforcement.
protection / preservation of an endangered / threatened species: The Endangered Species Act was passed the following year and has been described by the Supreme Court of the United States as “the most comprehensive legislation for the preservation of endangered species ever enacted by any nation.”
endangered / threatened species list | list of endangered / threatened species | Red Data Book [countable] список вымирающих / исчезающих биологических видов; Красная книга: The birds are included in the same category as tigers on the list of most endangered species. | It gives a detailed list of endangered areas and species.
to put / place an animal / plant on the endangered / threatened species list / list of endangered / threatened species: Their numbers became so depleted in this country that in 1969 they were placed on the endangered species list.
extinct / deleted species [countable] вымерший / исчезнувший биологический вид; реликтовый вид: The valley contains fossils of many extinct species. | Why are there different combinations of extinct species in each layer of rock?
habitat [countable; uncountable] the natural surroundings in which an animal normally lives or plant usually grows место распространения, ареал (животного, растения); среда обитания: The polar bear's habitat is the icy wastes of the Arctic. | The grassland is an important habitat for many wild flowers. | Ancient habitats such as grasslands, bogs, and wetlands are rapidly disappearing. | Few countries have as rich a diversity of habitat as South Africa. | Plants, like animals, often have restricted habitats.
natural / native habitat естественная (природная) среда обитания: Mountain areas are the natural habitat of the golden eagle. | The owl's natural habitat is in the forests of the Northwest. | With so many areas of woodland being cut down, a lot of wildlife is losing its natural habitat.
wildlife habitat: This project will estimate the benefits and costs of wildlife habitats and compare the results using different valuation techniques. | It also aims to preserve wildlife habitat and agricultural land. | The most popular purposes for the grants are enhancement of the landscape and the creation of new wildlife habitats. | One option is to restore wildlife habitats. | County Durham needs its pockets of green land and wildlife habitats for endangered species.
to provide a habitat (for sb / sth) | to create a habitat: Suburban gardens can provide habitats for many forms of wildlife. | Dry stone walls may appear stark and lifeless, but they provide a valuable habitat for plants and animals. | It covers 237,216 acres of mountains, lakes, and river valleys, providing varied wildlife habitats. | Humans create habitats of a kind that may well occur in nature, but not commonly.
to protect / preserve a habitat: These figures emphasize the importance of protecting these coastal habitats. | We will continue to encourage this approach through schemes to protect landscape and habitats of special importance. | We need to protect our own native species from extinction and to preserve their habitats. | We are active in preserving wildlife and habitat for it.
protection / preservation of a habitat: Protection of sites, habitats and landscapes is of uppermost priority.
to destroy a habitat: As habitats are destroyed and species lost, the world is increasingly losing threads from the interconnected fabric of life. | If growing population size puts even more pressure on these habitats, they might well be destroyed sooner. | Some attacked the fact that faster growth has been environmentally unsound, creating excessive carbon emissions and destroying natural habitats.
habitat destruction | (the) destruction of a habitat: Many species are threatened in the wild due to habitat destruction by man and probably over-hunting. | The mountain Gorilla, a uniquely social animal, is threatened by habitat destruction and poaching. | They believe this action must be taken to prevent widespread destruction of wildlife habitats.
habitable | inhabitable (adjective) good enough for people and animals to live in пригодный для жилья / проживания / заселения: Some areas of the country are just too cold to be habitable. | Japan is mostly mountainous and has a only a relatively narrow strip of habitable land along the coasts.
uninhabitable (adjective) if a place is uninhabitable, it is impossible to live in непригодный для жилья / проживания / заселения: As parts of the world become uninhabitable, millions of people will try to migrate to more hospitable areas. | A nuclear accident would make the whole region uninhabitable. | Much of the country is uninhabitable because it is desert.
extinct (adjective) an extinct type of animal or plant does not exist any more вымерший, исчезнувший: Once extinct, this wonderful animal will be gone for ever. | The idea of cloning extinct life forms still belongs to science fiction.
to be extinct: Dinosaurs have been extinct for millions of years. | The white rhino is now almost extinct. | By 1830 the breed was almost extinct and by 1907 the situation was critical. | Many tropical islands once had their own species, but most of these are now extinct.
to become extinct: Dinosaurs became extinct millions of years ago. | Pandas could become extinct in the wild. | If nothing is done to save the whales now, the species will soon become extinct. | It is estimated that over 30 species have become extinct while waiting for a listing.
to drive an animal / plant extinct: It is difficult to estimate the rate at which humans are driving species extinct.
to declare an animal / plant extinct: The California condor was declared extinct in 1987.
extinction [countable] a situation in which a particular kind of animal or plant stops existing вымирание, исчезновение: The leading cause of extinction is habitat destruction, particularly of the world's richest ecosystems – tropical rain forests and coral reefs.
to face extinction | to be threatened with extinction | to be in danger of extinction находиться под угрозой вымирания: Hundreds of tree species face extinction. | Many endangered species are now threatened with extinction. | Many species of plants and animals are in danger of extinction.
(to be) on the verge / brink / edge of extinction (находиться) на грани вымирания: The breed was on the verge of extinction. | The goal was to reduce commerce in animals and plants on the edge of extinction.
to (the verge / brink / edge of) extinction: But 25 native species are endangered, seven to the verge of extinction. | They were hunted almost to extinction. | Many species have been shot to the verge of extinction.
to be doomed to extinction: The species is doomed to extinction. | The belugas of the St Lawrence may now number only 400, and this local population is almost certainly doomed to extinction.
to drive / push a species to (the verge / brink / edge of) / into extinction: With a change in plant composition, many of the native animal species were driven to extinction. | Loss of beachfront habitat and predation by domestic cats and introduced red foxes pushed the least tern to the brink of extinction. | They have driven the rhino to the edge of extinction. | Many plant and animal species will probably be driven into extinction, agricultural regions will be disrupted, and the frequency of severe hurricanes and droughts is likely to increase.
to save a species from extinction: Conservationists are trying to save the whale from extinction. | An operation is beginning to try to save a species of crocodile from extinction.
the extinction of a species occurs: The extinction of the dinosaurs occurred millions of years ago.
3. Environmental protection
to protect [transitive] to keep natural things such as animals, plants, forests etc safe from harm or destruction охранять, беречь, защищать
to protect sb / sth (from / against sth): The second was a pact on biodiversity requiring countries to develop plans to protect endangered species and habitats. | The laws are designed to protect consumers from unsafe products.
to protect the environment: More legislation is needed to protect the environment. | The plan is intended to protect the environment and reduce damage from natural disasters. | Particularly in the Northeast, many emphasize measures to protect the environment. | Public pressure to protect the environment is strong and growing.
to conserve [transitive] (1) to protect natural things such as land, water, or other resources and prevent them from changing or being damaged or destroyed охранять, беречь
to conserve sb / sth: We must conserve our woodlands for future generations. | It is axiomatic that traditional agricultural management of the uplands has maintained and conserved these landscapes and their wildlife. | Farming is therefore identified as fundamental in achieving the two objectives of maintaining rural populations and conserving the countryside.
to conserve the environment: Lord Hunt delivers his potent plea to conserve the mountain environment. | There are those concerning the nature of the state and the extent to which governments can conserve the environment. | As a man with agricultural interests you will appreciate the importance of living in harmony with nature and of conserving the environment.
(2) to save to use very little of something such as energy, water, land, or other natural resources so that it is not wasted сберегать, сохранять, экономить: We should conserve oil and gas by making full use of other energy sources. | It was intended to conserve valuable natural resources. | The best rule is to conserve energy and to increase funding for research into renewable energy sources. | Recycling helps conserve natural and often limited resources. | Everyone needs to make efforts to conserve water.
to preserve [transitive] to keep something as it is, especially in order to prevent it from decaying or being damaged or destroyed охранять, сохранять, оберегать, сберегать, беречь
to preserve sth: We need to protect our own native species from extinction and to preserve their habitats. | We must encourage the planting of new trees and preserve our existing woodlands. | We want to preserve as much open land as possible.
to preserve sth from sth: We must preserve the environment from the ravages of pollution.
to preserve the environment: If we use energy efficiently, we help preserve our environment, and save money, too. | She recommends that they should be felled and new trees planted to preserve the environment. | One day it could be used by the timber trade as a guide for preserving the environment which pays their wages.
to clean (up) [transitive; intransitive] to remove pollution or waste from a place or an industrial process чистить, очищать от загрязнения; приводить в порядок
to clean sth (up): The project's aim is to clean up polluted land. | Some manufacturing companies are also voluntarily cleaning up old waste dumps. | They could also find themselves having to pay to clean up pollution on sites they have bought. | We need a systematic plan for identifying and cleaning up waste sites. | Creating new technologies to clean up the air could actually spur economic growth rather than burden it. | The equipment needed to clean up the spill might not have arrived yet. | Cleaning up the water supply is their top priority. | A bill was introduced to clean up toxic wastes from local factories. | Most of the debate about cleaning contaminated sites has concentrated on the Superfund programme. | The technology for cleaning a site, rather than simply sealing it, is still inadequate and expensive.
to clean up: You should always clean up after a picnic.
to purify [transitive] to make something clean by removing dirty or harmful substances from it очищать
to purify sth: The liquid is purified by passing it through charcoal. | The system purifies water by filtering it through sand. | It has been found that house plants help purify the air. | The rooms are fitted with systems that purify the air and water. | Water can be purified by boiling for five minutes. | Only purified water is used.
to purify sth of sth: But this alone will not purify your water of waste products that are invisible to the eye.
to treat [transitive] to put a special substance on or into something or use a chemical process in order to clean it, to protect it, or to give it special properties очищать; обрабатывать, подвергать (технологической) обработке: It was many years before the city began to treat its sewage. | Federal and state engineers are seeking a way to capture and treat the contaminated runoff.
to treat sewage очищать / обрабатывать сточные воды
treating facility очистное сооружение: a water treating facility
protected species [countable] охраняемый биологический вид: Spotted owls are a protected species.
to list / class an animal / plant as a protected species: The winter-run chinook was listed as a protected species under the state and federal endangered species acts in 1989.
protection [uncountable] the act of keeping natural things such as a rare animal or an old building safe from harm or destruction, by means of special laws охрана; защита: This includes such activities as the protection and restoration of endangered species, the careful use or recycling of scarce mineral resources, the rational use of energy resources, and the sustainable use of soils and living resources.
environmental protection | (the) protection of the environment: Over the next 10 years, we need to move away from a production-based support mechanism to a mechanism that supports environmental protection. | Towards this end, agreements were signed on fishing, trade, environmental protection and the peaceful use of nuclear energy. | Among projects rejected on the grounds of a lack of funds are a number researching into climate change and environmental protection technology.
to ensure protection | to ensure (the) protection (of sb / sth): We have long believed the land use planning system is a vital mechanism for ensuring environmental protection and enhancement. | The companies also undertake to ensure the protection of four marine species: kelp, abalone, sand dollars and sea urchins.
to give / offer sb / sth protection (against / from sth) | to give / offer protection to / for sb / sth | to give / offer protection against / from sth: The tortious principle gives protection to the ultimate consumer of a product where the product has caused physical damage. | New legislation still does not offer adequate protection for many endangered species.
to provide protection for sb / sth | to provide protection against / from sth: This law provides protection for threatened animals and plants. | The atmosphere provides protection from the ultra violet light produced by the Sun. | A healthy diet should provide protection against disease.
to receive / enjoy protection (against / from sth)
conservation [uncountable] (1) the protection of natural things such as animals, plants, forests etc in order to prevent them from being spoiled or destroyed охрана (природы), защита: Over the years conservation has acquired many connotations: to some it has meant the protection of wild nature, to others the sustained production of useful materials from the resources of the Earth. | In the past, one of the cornerstones of the economic argument for conservation was its value to tourism. | The committee soon offered a comprehensive plan for redevelopment and conservation in all areas of the city.
environmental / nature / wildlife / forest / soil / water conservation: Any attempts to persuade farmers of the necessity of environmental conservation must take all these factors into account. | Progress both in environmental conservation and technology were officially deemed inadequate, even though 12,000 million roubles were spent on the former. | The National Trust owns a considerable land area, much of it of importance for nature conservation. | Strong science-based strategies for wildlife conservation have emerged over the last one hundred years. | The group is mainly concerned with bird conservation in coastal areas.
(the) conservation of the environment / nature / wildlife / forests / soil / water / the countryside: This realization of the cultural dimension to landscape history has implications for modern nature conservation. | In consequence, agriculture and nature conservation are not in conflict in the Auvergne uplands. | The document defines the objectives of the conservation of living resources.
conservation group / body: The Worldwide Fund for Nature and other conservation groups have called for a simplification of this network. | These are just some of the projects carried out by volunteers from local conservation groups in Essex. | Courses on the latter are open to non-members who are actively involved with other voluntary conservation bodies.
conservation issue / problem проблема охраны / защиты природы: This should be altered to apply generally to ensure that nature conservation issues are taken into account in all development decision-making. | With the attainment of concrete operations, the ability to reason logically about and solve conservation problems emerges.
conservation policy политика в области охраны природы, политика сохранения окружающей среды: Thus a conservation policy involves a wide ranging set of economic, political and social issues.
conservation work: Living in camps, they carried out conservation work, planting new forests and helping with flood control projects.
to promote conservation способствовать / содействовать охране природы, пропагандировать охрану природы: The organization promotes conservation of forest resources.
to practise conservation охранять / беречь природу: They hope that the public realizes the need for practising conservation, even underwater.
(2) saving(s) the careful use of something such as energy, water, land, or other natural resources so that it is not wasted сбережение, сохранение, экономия: Conservation strategies have to become more widely accepted, and people must learn that energy use can be dramatically diminished without sacrificing comfort.
energy / gas / oil / coal / water / waterpower conservation / saving(s):
Predicting fuel consumption and the effects of energy conservation practices has had only limited success. | Instead of energy conservation, they advocate building more dams and nuclear plants. | Campaigners claim that the company has not examined other approaches, such as water conservation and the cleaning of existing reservoirs. | Energy saving is an essential issue for every kind of organization. | Often substantial energy savings are achieved by recycling waste materials.
(the) conservation / saving of energy / fuel / gas / oil / coal / water / waterpower / natural / mineral / living resources: Efficiency improvements in cars are likely to be responsible for significant conservation of fuel in the next 10 years. | Recycling is an important part of the conservation of resources.
preservation [uncountable] the act of keeping something as it is, especially in order to prevent it from decaying or being damaged or destroyed охрана, сохранение; защита
wildlife / tree preservation: The tree preservation order will be extended to cover hedgerows.
(the) preservation of the environment / wildlife: Preservation of the environment is vital. | We are working for the preservation of the environment.
preservation group / society: Tim Wallace is appointed to the committee and is to be responsible for the funds allotted to the preservation group. | Happily, preservation groups stepped in to save some stock for posterity.
to ensure preservation обеспечивать охрану / сохранность / защиту: There is a desperate need to provide these precious specimens with surroundings that are better designed to ensure their preservation.
clean-up | cleanup [countable – usually singular] the process of removing pollution or waste from a place or an industrial process чистка, очистка; приведение в порядок: The polluter should pay for the cost of the clean-up. | As huge as this fund is, it is inadequate to deal with the thousands of hazardous sites in need of cleanup. | The mayor launched the clean-up campaign. | Residents have called for a clean-up campaign to keep their streets free from rubbish. | The Governor has now called in the National Guard to assist the cleanup operation.
purification [uncountable] the process of making something clean by removing dirty or harmful substances from it очистка, очищение: water / air purification | an air purification system | water purification tablets
purification facility / facilities / plant очистная / очистительная станция / установка, очистное сооружение: a water purification plant / facility | purification facilities
purifier [countable] a machine or a substance which removes dirty or harmful substances from something очиститель, очистной аппарат: Air purifiers actually remove odours and particles from the air through a series of filters. | Domestic equipment is run off a new generator and includes a water maker, water purifier, ice maker and microwave.
treatment [uncountable; countable] the process of putting a special substance on or into something or use a chemical process in order to clean it, to protect it, or to give it special properties очистка; (технологическая) обработка: This is a new product for the treatment of industrial waste. | There should be greater treatment of sewage before it is discharged.
treatment facility / facilities / plant очистная станция / установка; очистное сооружение: The new treatment facilities should be commissioned in late 1993. | Water treatment facilities are non-existent in the area, with chemicals such as chlorine unobtainable to stop the outbreak. | Growing population placed increasing demands on electric generation and water treatment facilities. | But unless the city met the requirement, it would have to build a $ 135 million treatment facility.
sewage treatment очистка / обработка сточных вод
sewage treatment facility | sewage / treatment / disposal works / farm (British English) | sewage / waste (treatment / disposal) plant (American English) a place where sewage is treated so that it can be safely got rid of or changed into fertilizer установка для очистки / обработки сточных вод, станция очистки сточных вод: The first priority is to provide sewage treatment facilities. | At present, sewage works must ensure that effluent meets the required standards of cleanliness for 95 percent of any 12 month period. | Ocker Hill Power Station with two prominent chimneys, a sewage works and a canal surface with oil and floating debris. | The water companies will have to improve the performance of their sewage works or risk other claims.
conservationist [countable] someone who works to protect the environment from damage or destruction специалист по охране окружающей среды; специалист по охране и рациональному использованию природных ресурсов: But conservationists said words must be backed by actions. | That was abolished after an outcry from conservationists. | Conservationists in Chile are concerned over the effect of commercial exploitation of forests. | Conservationists are mostly wedded to preserving diversity in nature.
wildlife area / site [countable] район дикой природы; заповедник; долгосрочный заказник дикой природы: The money could be better spent protecting existing wildlife areas. | The 20 state and federal wildlife areas and refuges are open for duck hunting generally on Wednesdays and weekends. | Projected figures suggest that over 1,500 wildlife sites would be damaged or destroyed in the national roads programme.
(nature / wildlife) reserve (British English) | (nature / wildlife) preserve / reservation (American English) | conservation area [countable] an area of land in which animals and plants, especially rare ones, are officially protected заповедник; природная охраняемая территория; национальный парк: Care would be taken not to harm the environment in the nature reserve there, which was designated a world heritage area. | It is a nature reserve, with not a single permanent human inhabitant. | The impressive wildlife reserve of the Algonquin Provincial Park is a stunning array of native animals in the wild. | The flower now exists only in a small conservation area in Essex. | He's the chief warden of a big-game reservation.
sanctuary [countable] a special area where animals live in a natural environment protected from people заказник, заповедник: But the mountains are more than sanctuaries. | A number of bird sanctuaries were seriously affected by the spill.
wildlife / nature sanctuary заповедник живой природы: The park is the largest wildlife sanctuary in the US. | A wildlife sanctuary is releasing eight of the animals into a special protected set. | No less than 35 per cent of the country is protected in the form of parks and nature sanctuaries.
wildlife refuge [countable] заповедник: The island of Angistri went up in flames within minutes of being declared a wildlife refuge.
wildlife park [countable] парк-заповедник живой природы: a wildlife park with tigers and various other felines
national park [countable] land which is protected by a government because of its natural beauty or historical or scientific interest, and which people can visit национальный парк; заповедник: The Hwange national park alone is said to have 45,000 elephants: three times as many as the vegetation can support. | I live in Exmoor, which is designated as a national park. | Exmoor National Park stretches over 265 square miles of moor.
wilderness area [countable] (American English) an area where the government has decided that no roads or buildings can be built so that it can be enjoyed for its natural beauty and animals can live there in peace нетронутая человеком местность; природный заповедник: It's a wilderness area, under the protection of the Parks Department. | Each sovereign state has enacted legislation establishing national parks, scientific or scenic reserves and wilderness areas. | The proliferation of this literature has so simplified going into our wilderness areas that readers are literally taken by the hand. | I have consistently maintained that the canoe is the traditional craft for exploring wilderness areas without disturbing wildlife.
green (adjective) (1) clean designed to protect the environment or limit damage to the environment экологически чистый: Fans of electric cars say they are clean, quiet and economical. | Nuclear power is cleaner than coal.
clean air / water / energy / fuel / product: Environmentalists have spread the alarm about clean air and water. | Local government has not been able to supply clean water from surface sources. | The Government has made moves to encourage owners of vehicles to adopt cleaner fuel, but action is slow. | Gas usage will increase particularly in the home-heating sectors and in industries requiring clean fuels.
clean / green policy / method / technology: trying to persuade governments to adopt greener policies | greener farming methods | wind farms and other green energy schemes | I simply say that it is fairly obvious that Britain could have taken the lead in clean coal technology.
clean / green environment: Preferences in politics can include anything from higher wages, a cleaner environment, world peace, or the realization of democracy. | Even the most affluent – who can afford private health care and private education – cannot buy a clean environment. | By investing in public transport, we start to transform commuters' lives and create a cleaner environment.
green revolution: Biotechnology is going to be speeding up the green revolution in agriculture. | We all know that there has been a green revolution. | But the potential of biotechnology, like that of the green revolution, is assessed in different ways by different people.
(2) Green relating to the protection of the environment принадлежащий движению защитников окружающей среды, поддерживающий движение защитников окружающей среды: He was an early champion of green politics. | Green campaigners are aiming to block development of the site. | He pledged to make Europe greener. | Our children are being educated to be green in everything they do. | The power of the Green movement in Germany has made that country a leader in the drive to recycle more waste materials.
Green [countable] a member of the Green Party участник движения защитников окружающей среды: He used to be a Liberal, but now he's a Green. | The Greens have 254 candidates in the election. | The proposed launch of the green paper last week was postponed on the orders of Downing Street.
the Green Party a political party whose main aim is to protect the environment Партия зеленых: They are now in a position to govern the state in alliance with either the Free Democrats or the Green Party. | The names of political parties are always capitalized, e.g. the Green Party.
4.1. General concepts
to pollute [transitive] to make air, water, soil etc dangerously dirty and not suitable for people to use загрязнять: Polluted water sources are a hazard to wildlife. | It says that the company razed forests, polluted rivers, retarded crop growth and caused birth defects.
to pollute the environment / air / atmosphere / water / water supply / soil / land / river / sea / ocean / area / region / world / planet / earth: We won't invest in any company that pollutes the environment. | The factory pollutes the air and water. | An investigation revealed that the mine was polluting both the air and the groundwater. | Cigarette smokers pollute the air for other people but take no account of this in deciding how much to smoke. | These gases pollute the atmosphere of towns and cities. | Transnational oil and mining companies pollute rivers and finance grossly disruptive mines. | The fertilizers and pesticides used on many farms are polluting the water supply. | The oil spillage has polluted the harbour. | It is believed the spill is continuing to pollute the region.
to pollute sth with sth / by (doing) sth: Factories are no longer allowed to pollute the air with black smoke. | Many of these factories pollute the air with hydrogen sulfide. | Heavy industry pollutes our rivers with noxious chemicals. | The factory explosion, which polluted the surrounding area with dioxin, was reportedly caused by negligence. | Cardigan Bay, once famed for its dolphins, is now polluted with raw sewage and animal wastes. | Large parts of the Mediterranean are still polluted with toxic waste. | The air was heavily polluted with exhaust fumes. | A number of beaches in the region have been polluted by sewage pumped into the Irish Sea.
to pollute sth beyond recall / redemption нанести непоправимый ущерб: The ground has been polluted beyond recall. | I have no doubt that we are polluting the environment beyond redemption.
polluted environment / air / water / water supply / soil / land / river / sea / ocean / area / region / world / planet / earth: Urban ecologists started concerning themselves with children growing up in polluted environments. | Residents of the two cities breathe the same polluted air. | The mine was shut down last August after a spill of polluted water from a waste pond flowed into a nearby river. | Central London is the most polluted spot in Britain. | The police have warned the city's inhabitants not to bathe in the polluted river. | It is probably the most polluted body of water in the world.
heavily / seriously / severely / badly polluted: The river is already heavily polluted by chemical and metallurgical industries. | There was little information on the health of people living in that area, which had been known to be heavily polluted. | The lake is seriously polluted. | The island has been seriously polluted by a copper mine. | The city is being severely polluted by an array of emission-releasing industries, an oil refinery and three million cars. | Water in the area is severely polluted.
high-polluting: a high-polluting industrial plant
to contaminate [transitive] to make a place or substance dirty or harmful by putting something such as chemicals or poison in it загрязнять; отравлять; портить; заражать, инфицировать
to contaminate sth: Lead in plumbing can contaminate drinking water. | He believes that sewage is contaminating the water and driving them away. | Industrial sewage continues to contaminate our beaches. | One secret military unit tried to contaminate the drinking water of the refugees.
to be contaminated (with / by sth): The food was contaminated during the production process. | Drinking water supplies are believed to have been contaminated. | Millions of people will have eaten food contaminated with small amounts of dioxin. | Nuclear weapons plants across the country are heavily contaminated with toxic wastes. | Three thousand factories and defence facilities are contaminated by radiation. | Much of the coast has been contaminated by nuclear waste. | They were stopped because health tests found that water in the basement was contaminated by sewage.
heavily contaminated: The soil around the plant is heavily contaminated.
contaminated air / water / river / stream / food / area / runoff: From here, contaminated air radiates out to the open countryside. | Contaminated water leaked from the nuclear reactor. | More than 100,000 people could fall ill after drinking contaminated water. | Several outbreaks of infection have been traced to contaminated food. | The ordinance prohibits the city from recharging in contaminated areas. | Federal and state engineers are seeking a way to capture and treat the contaminated runoff.
to poison [transitive] to make land, rivers, air etc dirty and dangerous, especially by the use of harmful chemicals; to create pollution that damages part of the environment отравлять; заражать: Pesticides are poisoning our rivers. | Chemical waste has poisoned the city's water supply. | The chemical leak poisoned the water supply. | The land has been completely poisoned by chemicals. | Thousands of children were poisoned by radiation. | The soil has been poisoned with chemical waste from the factory.
to foul (up) [transitive] (formal) to make something very dirty, especially with waste загрязнять; засорять; портить; пачкать
to foul sth (up) (with / by sth): The oil spill has fouled at least four beaches. | Two oil-related accidents near Los Angeles have fouled the ocean and the skies there. | He lit a cigarette and started to foul up the air with stinging yellow smoke. | We're fouling the seas with chemicals and oil. | The seashore is fouled up with oil from the wrecked ship. | Entire coastal bays and lagoons along the coast have been fouled by oil spills and the runoff of toxic chemicals. | A village's entire beach and harbour can be fouled by a single rotting whale.
to defile [transitive] (formal) to make something dirty, foul, filthy or impure, especially by showing no respect; to pollute загрязнять; засорять; портить; пачкать; оскорблять, осквернять: It's a shame that such a beautiful area has been defiled by a rubbish dump.
to despoil [transitive] (literary) to make a place much less attractive by removing or damaging things
to despoil sth (of sth): The sandy beaches are being despoiled by an oil spill. | Regulated, socialized economies trample on human dignity, despoil the natural environment and depress economic performance. | People picking mushrooms are sometimes stopped by passers-by and ticked off for despoiling the countryside.
pollution [uncountable] (1) the process of making air, water, soil etc dangerously dirty and not suitable for people to use, or the state of being dangerously dirty загрязнение (окружающей среды): Most forms of pollution do not respect national boundaries. | Pollution is a major health hazard. | Pollution is threatening the marine life in the bay. | The report identified eight pollution hot spots.
environmental / air / atmospheric / water / river pollution | (the) pollution of the environment / air / atmosphere / water / river: The fine was for the company's pollution of the air near its plants.
pollution from sth: Pollution from cars is the main cause of global warming. | That means less gasoline consumption and less air pollution from trucks.
(2) substances that make air, water, soil etc dangerously dirty загрязнение, загрязненность: Equipment to monitor pollution and climate change will be installed in the park. | Pollution may destroy the 17th century shrine. | Once you have cured the water pollution problem, you will have to take steps to avoid it happening again.
to cause / contribute to / generate / produce pollution: There have been accidents during transportation, which have caused serious pollution. | The report found that 95 percent of respondents were aware that cars contributed to environmental pollution. | Litter disfigures the countryside and contributes to pollution, but this is just the tip of the environmental iceberg. | As the number of people increases, more pollution is generated, more habitats are destroyed, and more natural resources are used up. | Not only do they consume more natural resources, they also produce more pollution.
to be exposed to / suffer from pollution: Studies have shown that not all individuals are equally exposed to pollution. | The region as a whole suffers from significant air pollution from ageing heavy industrial plants.
to fight / tackle / prevent / control / monitor pollution: The use of electric cars could be a key factor in fighting pollution. | The local authority have agreed to implement a series of new measures to fight the pollution. | The notice requires the region to tackle pollution in North Queensferry. | The new agency is responsible for controlling air pollution. | This continues, but at least now efforts are also being made to prevent further pollution and even repair some of the damage.
measures to tackle road congestion and environmental pollution.
to reduce / cut / decrease / limit // increase (the level of) pollution / pollution levels: The city is looking into ways to reduce air pollution. . | The change reflects the continuing failure by state and local governments to reduce pollution enough to meet federal health standards. | The convention, signed by the six states bordering the Black Sea, aims to reduce current pollution levels. | A federal law spells out the penalties for missing the deadline to cut air pollution. | She says that transporting goods by rail instead of road would cut air pollution dramatically. | This will increase rather than decrease pollution.
reduction / cut in pollution: California in 1990 enacted a plan requiring drastic cuts in air pollution from automobiles.
(to set / adopt / meet / enforce) pollution standards: The water authorities thus not only set and enforce pollution standards, they are major polluters themselves. | Crawford is one of the founders of the International Dark-Sky Association, which lobbies governments to adopt pollution standards. | But most policy takes a different approach, the imposition of pollution standards that regulate the maximum amount of allowed pollution.
environmental / air / atmospheric / water / marine pollution: Recycling also helps control environmental pollution by reducing the need for waste dumps. | The project has enabled farmers to reduce environmental pollution whilst raising crop yields. | Heavy industry was developed along the north coast, without any consideration of chemical, atmospheric and environmental pollution. | Coal and air pollution go together. | Atmospheric pollution continues to rise. | Sewage was the major cause of water pollution. | We are all familiar with news items concerning marine pollution due to oil spills.
chemical / industrial / nuclear / radioactive / toxic / noise / sound pollution: Because of chemical pollution of rivers, the cost of producing safe, palatable drinking water has risen dramatically. | Industrial pollution has killed much of the river's wildlife. | The general public are also in danger from industrial pollution. | There has been growing concern among Polynesians about radioactive pollution of the area. | Our survey revealed a noise pollution impact on the community that is not imagined.
source of pollution источник загрязнения: The chemicals have been identified as a source of pollution. | This waste is a potential source of pollution when it degrades, releasing undesirable chemicals into the soil and air. | The greatest sources of pollution are cars, power stations, the chemical industry and agriculture. | The major sources of pollution were oil spills, discharges from refineries and natural seepage from oil-bearing strata.
pollution levels / the level of pollution (rise[s] / fall[s]) уровень / степень загрязнения (увеличивается / уменьшается): Pollution levels are often dangerously high in large cities. | Pollution levels in the area shot up as soon as the factory started operating. | High levels of pollution from the Ilo refinery have been blamed on outdated equipment. | The level of pollution in the river was falling.
pollution control борьба с загрязнением; меры по охране окружающей среды; контроль уровня загрязнения: Central to the green bill is the introduction of integrated pollution control. | What pollution controls will the state authorities put in place? | Before they were defined, there were no ecological targets for pollution control, only political ones. | The factories were ordered to install pollution control equipment but failed to respond.
contamination [uncountable] загрязнение, загрязненность, засоренность; порча; заражение, инфекция, инфицированность: Contamination arises from leaking underground storage tanks, poorly designed industrial waste ponds, and seepage from the deep-well injection of hazardous wastes into underground geologic formations. | The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 scattered radioactive contamination over a large part of Europe. | The contamination of the sea around Capri may be just the beginning.
spoliation | despoliation | despoilment [uncountable] (formal) the violent or deliberate destruction of something ограбление, грабеж; расхищение; нанесение вреда / повреждения / порчи: the spoliation of the environment
fallout [uncountable] the dangerous radioactive dust which is left in the air after a nuclear explosion and which slowly falls to earth радиоактивные осадки: There can be little lasting protection against the effects of radioactive fallout. | They were exposed to radioactive fallout during nuclear weapons tests. | The study linked the increase directly to the radioactive fallout from Chernobyl. | It is the fallout of atmospheric tests which ended in 1974.
acid rain [uncountable] rain that contains large amounts of harmful acid which can damage the environment and is caused by chemicals in the air, for example from cars or factories кислотный дождь: Acid rain forms when gases produced by burning coal and oil are dissolved in the atmosphere. | Acid rain is not straightforwardly attributable to the burning of coal. | Acid rain is a serious global problem because few species are capable of surviving in the face of such acidic conditions. | Acid rain has made numerous lakes so acidic that they no longer support fish populations. | Acid rain is also thought to be responsible for the decline of many forest ecosystems worldwide. | Ever tighter regulations are being introduced to protect the environment from emissions contributing to the greenhouse effect or acid rain. | The government committed billions of pounds for a programme to reduce acid rain.
pollutant [countable; uncountable] a substance that makes air, water, soil etc dangerously dirty and not suitable for people to use загрязняющее вещество, загрязнение, загрязнитель; примесь; загрязняющий агент: All the effects of pollutants need to be considered for both short- and long-term exposure. | Many people are allergic to airborne pollutants such as pollen.
air / atmospheric / water / marine / environmental pollutants: More recent targets are cancer and other illnesses that may be caused by air and water pollutants. | Just as fuel consumption grows disproportionately as speeds rise, so does the emission of air pollutants. | A smoker in the house will increase the variety and quantity of air pollutants considerably.
chemical / industrial / nuclear / radioactive / toxic / noise / sound pollutants: The true effect on wild dolphin populations of prolonged exposure to chemical pollutants is hard to measure. | Many scientists blame the warming on industrial pollutants that trap infrared heat in the atmosphere rather than letting it escape into space. | The city's canals are used as a dumping ground for a range of toxic pollutants.
to generate / produce / discharge / release pollutants: Most cities generate a complex brew of pollutants. | Although low-sulfur coal produces fewer pollutants, it's more expensive to mine. | Point sources discharge pollutants at specific locations – from, for example, factories, sewage treatment plants, or oil tankers. | Sulphur dioxide is one of several pollutants that are released into the atmosphere by coal-fired power stations.
to reduce pollutants: New regulations will reduce hazardous air pollutants. | Cleaning up road dust is one of the cheapest ways to reduce the pollutant.
contaminant [countable] (formal) a substance that makes something dirty, polluted, or poisonous загрязняющее вещество, загрязнение, загрязнитель; примесь: Pollution arising from non-point sources accounts for a majority of the contaminants in streams and lakes. | Because of their stability, they are hard to dispose of and are persistent environmental contaminants. | We are exposed to an overwhelming number of chemical contaminants every day in our air, water and food.
polluter [countable] a person or organization that causes pollution источник загрязнения (окружающей среды): The defence and energy departments, impervious to markets, are among the country's biggest polluters. | The polluter should pay for the cost of the clean-up. | All others should be brought up to modern standards using the principle that the polluter pays. | Ideally, polluters would pay the true costs of the degradation they cause. | This stipulates that a polluter should pay for the repair of environmental damage.
to emit | to give off [transitive] to send something out into the air, especially gas, light, heat, or sound выбрасывать, извергать, выделять; излучать; испускать
to emit sth (into the air / atmosphere // from sth): The chimney emitted clouds of smoke. | The factory has been emitting black smoke from its chimneys, which is against the law. | An average car emits five lungfuls of poisonous carbon monoxide gas per mile. | Hundreds of different types of hydrocarbons are emitted from vehicle exhausts. | A volcano emits smoke and ashes. | The Earth emits natural radiation.
to give sth off: Natural gas gives off less carbon dioxide than coal. | When they die, plants give off gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. | Try not to breathe in the fumes given off by the paint.
to discharge [transitive; intransitive] to send out waste liquid, gas, smoke etc, or to allow it to escape, especially when this has harmful effects сбрасывать; выпускать, спускать, выливать, сливать; извергать
to discharge sth (into / from sth // at sea): Large amounts of dangerous waste are discharged daily by the factory. | Many cities discharge their sewage into the sea without treating it at all. | There should be greater treatment of sewage before it is discharged. | The mercury was discharged from a local chemical plant. | Most deaths are caused not by catastrophic accidents but by fouling from oil that is illegally but routinely discharged from ships. | The resulting salty water will be discharged at sea.
sth discharges into / from sth: The oil which discharged into the sea seriously harmed a lot of birds and animals. | Rainwater collects here and then discharges into the river Kennett.
to release [transitive] to allow something such as a chemical to spread into the area or atmosphere around it выбрасывать; выпускать; выделять
to release sth: Sewage plants that turn sludge into safer materials certainly help the environment, but they do release some chemicals. | Harmful quantities of radiation are also released both before and after the uranium fuel enters the power station. | This is about the energy that would be released if a hydrogen atom could be totally converted into energy.
to release sth into the air / atmosphere / environment / river / sea / soil: Additionally, this waste is a potential source of pollution when it degrades, releasing undesirable chemicals into the soil and air. | Coal power stations release sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere. | As fossil fuels are burned, chemicals and particulate matter are released into the atmosphere. | Oil was released into the sea. | No product can be released into the environment without the prior authorization of the relevant controlling body.
to belch | to spew [transitive; intransitive] to send out a large amount of smoke, steam, flames etc, or to come out of something in large amounts выбрасывать, извергать
to belch / spew sth (out) | to belch / spew sth into the air: The truck was belching black smoke. | The car belched out clouds of smoke. | The power-generation plant belched out five tonnes of ash an hour. | Rubbish litters our countryside, toxic fumes are belched into our air and radioactive discharge pollutes our seas. | A volcano belches out smoke and ashes. | The volcano spewed out more scorching volcanic ashes, gases and rocks. | Factory chimneys spewed fumes out into the sky. | That upsets some anti-nuclear activists, who claim that a rocket explosion could spew cancer-causing radioactivity into the atmosphere.
to belch / spew from / out from sth | to belch / spew into the air: Blue smoke belched from the car's exhaust pipe. | Black smoke belched out from the forest fire. | Suddenly, clouds of steam started to belch from the engine. | Brown water spewed from the tap. | This leads to premature wear and plumes of blue smoke spewing from the exhaust.
to spill [intransitive; transitive] to (cause to) accidentally flow out of a container проливать(ся), разливать(ся)
to spill: No one was injured and no oil was spilled during the incident. | Most of the oil spilled is not from those dramatic spills.
to spill from sth: Oil is still spilling from the stricken ship. | 70,000 tonnes of oil spilled from the tanker.
to spills into sth: Millions of gallons of crude oil spilled into the sea, causing widespread shore damage. | More than 72,000 tonnes of crude oil spilled into the estuary after the tanker ran aground in 1996.
to leak [intransitive; transitive] (of a liquid or gas) to escape from a hole or crack in a pipe or container; (of a container or pipe) to allow liquid or gas to escape вытекать; просачиваться; давать течь, протекать, подтекать; пропускать
liquid / gas leaks from / into sth: Oil was leaking from the pipeline. | Contaminated water leaked from the nuclear reactor. | Radioactive water has leaked into the reservoir. | Industrial waste leaked into the water supply.
a container / pipe leaks: The petrol tank is leaking.
a container / pipe leaks liquid / gas: A tanker is leaking oil off the coast of Scotland. | The broken tanker has leaked thousands of tonnes of crude oil and threatens to destroy the wildlife paradise of the Shetlands.
emission (1) [countable – usually plural] an amount of gas or other substance that is sent into the air выброс, выбросы (в окружающую среду): Motor vehicles account for 72 percent of all harmful emissions. | They are expected to halve pollution caused by large commercial vehicles, bringing them into line with regulations governing car exhaust emissions.
to cut (back) / reduce / slash emissions: Britain has agreed to cut emissions of nitrogen oxide from power stations. | It estimates that in that time it cut its carbon dioxide emissions by 20 percent. | They are demanding that richer countries cut back their carbon emissions to compensate. | We will meet our international obligations to reduce harmful chimney emissions. | Industrialized countries could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 20 per cent. | We have slashed soot and dust emissions by nearly 90 percent.
emissions decline: Emissions from power stations have declined since 1979.
a reduction / cut in emissions / the emission of sth: The Green Party have called for a substantial reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases by the UK.
to curb / limit / control / stabilize emissions: The market could grow much bigger if countries further subsidize wind power to curb greenhouse gas emissions. | Governments, airlines and passengers should take action to curb global emissions, the report concluded. | Both countries would also limit nitrogen oxide emissions through stricter controls on motor vehicles. | The oil industry would be faced with the cost of meeting the ever higher burden of controlling emissions at the manufacturing plants. | Gas is environmentally helpful in achieving the Government's target of stabilizing carbon dioxide emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2005.
to increase emissions: Defendus would increase emissions by a mere 11 percent. | But Clinton insists that new technologies will improve energy efficiency, enabling developing countries to continue economic growth without increasing emissions.
emissions increase: U.S. emissions of carbon dioxide are still increasing. | Sulphur dioxide emissions would also increase if that strategy were implemented.
sth produces emissions: In Johansson's model, this option produced lower emissions, but they were not low enough.
to achieve emissions: Public transport of the future may use fuel cells to achieve zero emissions.
emissions from sth / into sth: Sulfur emissions from steel mills become acid rain. | Unlike incineration, there are no emissions into the atmosphere. | The report also mentions poorly designed and inefficiently used dust yards as a major source of secondary emissions into the atmosphere.
harmful / toxic / car / automobile / exhaust / industrial / gas / carbon / dioxide / oxide / sulphur emissions | emissions of sth: The Board claims that environmentalists have underestimated the degree of protection afforded by clouds and industrial emissions. | Washington continues to challenge the scientific claim that global warming is in part caused by emissions of carbon dioxide.
emission level(s): In addition, diesels generally require less maintenance than petrol engines and can retain impressive emission levels over large mileages.
(to set / establish) emission standards (for sth) / standards on emissions | (to set / place / impose) emission limits (on / for sth) / limits on emissions | (to set / put / impose) emission ceilings (on sth) / ceilings on emissions: Those are a necessary complement to last year's directive on emission standards for heavy duty diesel vehicles. | The year saw continued progress in setting tighter standards on emissions and in-use testing around the world. | As technology improves, thereby making it possible to set a lower emission standard, new sources face increasingly more strict controls. | This sets strict limits on emissions in an effort to reduce the country's contribution to global warming and acid rain. | Apart from general operating conditions, it has set emission limits for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide. | So they risk losing most potential economic growth if a climate treaty sets ceilings on emissions.
to meet emission(s) standards: The exhaust emissions standards could only be met with current technology by installing three-way catalytic converters in petrol-driven vehicles.
(2) [uncountable] the act of sending gas, heat, or light into the air выделение; распространение излучение; испускание: The emission of gases such as carbon dioxide should be stabilized at their present level. | It is usually caused by the emission of particulates or nitrogen dioxide.
fumes [plural] strong, unpleasant and sometimes dangerous gas or smoke испарение; газы: The four great chimneys to his left spewing out their fumes into the grey cloud. | They have been protesting about fumes from a chlorine factory.
to give off fumes выделять испарения / газы: And there is the paint they use which gives off really bad fumes. | Do not buy foam-filled furniture if you can avoid it, as it can give off lethal fumes when it ignites. | Some rags, which had apparently been used to wipe it out, gave off oil fumes.
to breathe (in) / inhale fumes: The National Institute on Drug Abuse has estimated that 1,000 teens die annually by breathing fumes from easily accessible products. | According to the latest figures at least two youngsters die every week as a direct result of inhaling solvent fumes.
to be overcome by fumes получить отравление испарениями / газами: Several residents of the area were overcome by toxic fumes. | Many people were overcome by fumes from the burning factory.
car / vehicle / traffic / exhaust / gas / petrol / diesel / oil / chemical / noxious / toxic / cigar / cigarette fumes | fumes of sth: Traffic fumes raised pollution to record levels yesterday. | The atmosphere was being poisoned, every green thing blighted, and every stream fouled with chemical fumes and waste. | The site would clean toxin-laced dirt by burning it, sending noxious fumes into nearby skies. | We campaigned ferociously to ban the stuff that could kill people in minutes with its toxic fumes.
exhaust / car / automobile / vehicle fumes / gas(es) / emissions | exhaust [uncountable] waste gas or steam produced by an engine as it works выхлопные / отработавшие газы: Cars and lorries cause air pollution through exhaust fumes. | The city's streets are filthy and choked with exhaust fumes. | The carbon deposit was thought to come from car exhaust fumes from a large car park close to the church. | The column of burning exhaust gas strikes the ground and seems to spread out in all directions. | Approximately 100,000 cars clog the narrow streets each day and exhaust gases are eroding the city's ancient monuments. | Puffs of hardened car exhaust linger in the air on busy streets. | They are expected to halve pollution caused by large commercial vehicles, bringing them into line with regulations governing car exhaust emissions. | It's also much quieter and even better behaved, by that we mean it burns cleaner with less exhaust emissions.
discharge [uncountable; countable] the act of sending out waste liquid, gas, smoke etc, or the substance that is sent out, especially when this has harmful effects сброс; выпуск, спуск, слив; сток
(the / a) discharge (of sth) / discharges (into / to sth / from sth): Discharge of raw sewage into the sea is unsanitary and unsafe. | This will eliminate the disposal of waste acid in the North Sea and significantly reduce discharge to the River Tees. | The discharge of harmful chemicals into drinking water is banned. | Thousands of fish were killed as a result of a discharge of poisonous chemicals from a nearby factory. | The authorities are particularly concerned about discharges from nuclear power stations. | The major sources of pollution were oil spills, discharges from refineries and natural seepage from oil-bearing strata. | All discharges and disposals of radioactive waste from Springfields were within relevant limits.
release [uncountable] a situation in which something such as a chemical is spread into the area or atmosphere around it выброс; выпуск; выделение
(the) release of sth into the atmosphere / air / environment / river / sea / soil: The burning of coal, oil and gas to provide energy results in the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. | The accident caused the release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. | The release of these toxic substances into the environment is potentially devastating.
oil spill / spillage [countable; uncountable] an amount of oil that has accidentally flowed out of a container разлив нефти: In 1989, there was a massive oil spill in Alaska. | The oil spill threatens (an unparalleled) ecological catastrophe. | Oil spills have sullied thousands of acres. | Entire coastal bays and lagoons along the coast have been fouled by oil spills and the runoff of toxic chemicals. | It was like cleaning up after an oil spill. | The oil spillage has polluted the harbour. | The remainder were largely due to sewage, industrial pollution or oil spillages.
leak [countable] an escape of liquid or gas through a hole or crack in something; an amount of liquid or gas that comes out of a hole or crack in something течь, протечка, утечка; просачивание: The chemical leak poisoned the water supply. | Chemical leaks have had a disastrous effect on wildlife. | They stressed, however, that there had been no radiation leak at the plant, which is of the Chernobyl type. | The first reactor was closed down for repairs earlier this year after a gas leak. | A gas leak caused the explosion / blast.
exhaust (pipe) | tailpipe (American English) [countable] a pipe on a vehicle or machine through which waste gas or steam passes выхлопная труба; вытяжка: An exhaust pipe for a car will fall into this exception. | The car needs a new exhaust. | From what goes into a vehicle to what comes out its tailpipe, Arizona lawmakers have not leaned on diesel.
waste [uncountable] | wastes [plural] | waste product [countable] unwanted materials or substances that are left after you have used something отходы (производства): That means councils are having to rethink the way they deal with waste. | Their wastes include solvents, fuels, mine tailings, radioactive wastes, and unexploded bombs and shells.
to produce / create waste давать отходы: Britain produces 20 million tonnes of household waste each year. | Greenpeace is campaigning for the closure of all industries producing wastes containing organochlorides, including dioxins. | Nuclear power carries the risk of accidents and produces radioactive waste which will pollute the environment for centuries. | So households have no incentive to minimize or recycle the waste they create.
production of waste: It should include a review of energy usage and, where applicable, the production and disposal of waste.
waste producer: But the written description will have to be provided by all other commercial and industrial waste producers.
to reduce / cut (down / down on) waste: One objective is to reduce waste by 50 percent by 1995, particularly substances harmful to the environment. | We are therefore constantly looking for ways both to reduce the amount of waste we produce and to upgrade that which remains. | One such project was to have focused on reducing the toxic waste produced when making the plutonium core of nuclear missiles.
to bury waste захоронить отходы: Congress has tried to find a site to bury high-level nuclear wastes for decades, with a notable lack of success. | The thought of thousands of tonnes of radioactive waste being buried under their favourite stretch of countryside filled local residents with horror.
to store waste хранить отходы: Long-term storage is favoured by environmentalists as less nuclear waste is produced, although spent fuel cannot be stored indefinitely. | The country lacked the technology to store the waste safely and it was threatening water supplies. | They say it's irresponsible to store radioactive waste where it can be a public danger and a safety risk. | The dump is intended to store low- and intermediate-level waste from the year 2005.
storage of waste хранение отходов: a controversy over the storage of nuclear waste
to recycle / reprocess waste перерабатывать отходы: It's a good idea to recycle household waste. | The department is now advising other customers on how to recycle their waste. | Nature has the capacity to recycle wastes and reconstitute them into new resources of concentrated material quality. | The United Kingdom does not reprocess nuclear waste; we do not even import nuclear waste.
to incinerate waste сжигать отходы
(the) incineration of waste: They see incineration as a solution to toxic waste whose usefulness should be employed on a greater range of materials.
waste leaks / finds its way into a particular place отходы просачиваются: Industrial waste leaked into the water supply. | Chemical waste has found its way into the water supply.
household waste бытовые отходы: In the case of household waste, the price rarely covers more than a fraction of the cost of collection and sorting.
dangerous / hazardous / nuclear / radioactive / chemical / toxic / industrial waste: Under that programme, they have been able to demonstrate ways of breaking up many dangerous industrial wastes. | We do not believe that the United Kingdom should import any toxic and hazardous waste. | The ultimate question, however, was what would happen to the steadily accumulating stockpiles of nuclear waste in the long term. | Nuclear weapons plants across the country are heavily contaminated with toxic wastes. | The government has announced a ban on all imports of toxic waste from abroad.
refuse (formal) | rubbish (especially British English) | garbage (especially American English) | trash (American English) [uncountable] waste material that has been thrown away мусор, отходы, твердые отбросы: Heaps of decaying refuse littered every street. | We are gradually developing safer and more effective methods of refuse disposal. | I forgot to put the rubbish out for collection this morning. | Bigger garbage firms developed as concern about the safety of garbage dumps did. | The yards are overgrown and cluttered with trash.
household / domestic refuse / rubbish / garbage / trash бытовые отходы, бытовой мусор: This aims to reduce the mounting flood of household refuse, which currently stands at 70 million tonnes a year. | As with domestic refuse, the problems of methane gas generation also exist when disposing of industrial waste underground. | Furthermore, mixing up used disposables with the rest of the household rubbish makes it difficult to recycle them afterwards. | Disposal of our domestic rubbish is something we tend to forget about once it's been picked up by the dust-cart.
(to make a) refuse / rubbish / garbage / trash collection // collection of refuse / rubbish / garbage / trash (производить) уборку мусора / сбор отходов: A number of local authorities, for example, put out refuse collection to private tender. | Refuse collection has been seriously affected by the strike. | The Phoenix Department of Public Works does this by competing in garbage collection. | The District Council made a weekly collection of refuse. | Garbage collections are made every Tuesday morning.
to collect refuse / rubbish / garbage / trash убирать / вывозить мусор: The dustmen collect the rubbish on Thursdays. | But new measures have been taken, and sweeping machines constantly ply the main streets collecting rubbish.
to take out refuse / rubbish / garbage / trash выносить мусор: Can you take out the garbage when you go? | Mowing lawns and taking out the trash are jobs for the tenant.
litter [uncountable] waste paper, cans etc that people have thrown away and left on the ground in a public place, making it untidy сор, мусор; отходы: About 2% of fast-food packaging ends up as litter.
to drop litter | to throw litter into sth: People who drop litter can be fined in some cities. | Never throw litter into ponds or streams. | Always clear up after a picnic and never drop litter.
to pick up litter: Pick up your litter after a picnic. | I am tired of picking up litter thrown by other people.
to be full of litter: These streets are full of litter. | The park and river are full of litter.
to clear sth of litter | to clear litter from sth: The gutter between the sidewalk and granite slabs is cleared of leaves and litter. | On Wednesday we cleared a beach and woodland of litter.
litter-free: Local authorities will have a duty to keep their land litter-free.
chemical [countable] a substance used in chemistry or produced by a chemical process химикат, химический продукт, химическое вещество: Many industrially produced chemicals may cause cancer, birth defects, genetic mutations, or death. | Farmers are moving away from the use of chemicals and pesticides. | Sewage plants that turn sludge into safer materials certainly help the environment, but they do release some chemicals. | Additionally, this waste is a potential source of pollution when it degrades, releasing undesirable chemicals into the soil and air.
dangerous / hazardous / toxic chemicals: Dangerous chemicals banned in the United States often continue to be produced and shipped to developing countries. | Over the years indiscriminate dumping has resulted in a large number of environmentally dangerous sites that are leaking toxic and hazardous chemicals. | Numerous instances of the dumping or abandonment of toxic chemicals and other materials have been discovered. | Entire coastal bays and lagoons along the coast have been fouled by oil spills and the runoff of toxic chemicals.
sewage | sewerage [uncountable] the mixture of waste from the human body and used water that is carried away from houses by pipes under the ground сточные воды; нечистоты: Recycled water can never be legally considered sewage. | Cities upstream use the river to get rid of sewage.
raw / untreated / crude sewage / sewerage неочищенные / необработанные сточные воды: Raw sewage was discharged into the ocean. | The factory secretly dumped millions of gallons of raw sewage into the Ohio river. | The resort has been accused of dumping raw sewage in the lake at least four times in the last three years. | In extreme wet weather, it allows untreated and unscreened sewage to escape to the River Forth.
treated sewage / sewerage очищенные / обработанные сточные воды: The plant, due to open in 1995, will pump treated sewage further offshore into Cape Cod Bay.
to treat sewage / sewerage очищать / обрабатывать сточные воды: It was many years before the city began to treat its sewage. | Ecologists argue that the benefits of treating sewage with disinfectants are doubtful.
sewage / sewerage treatment очистка / обработка сточных вод: Chlorine is used in sewage treatment.
sewage / sewerage disposal | (the) disposal of sewage / sewerage удаление / сброс сточных вод: Not surprisingly, these sites usually lack a water supply and provision for sewage disposal. | Some cities in the world do not have proper facilities for the disposal of sewage. | Then add on the local charge for sewerage disposal.
sewage / sewerage pollution загрязнение сточными водами: He's certain it's caused by sewage pollution. | According to the Society, the major health hazard is still sewage pollution.
to dump sewage / sewerage into / in a particular place: A million tonnes of untreated sewage is dumped into the sea.
to pump / pipe sewage / sewerage into / out to a particular place: Untreated sewage is being pumped into the sea, from where it pollutes our beaches. | It's not enough to get rid of raw sewage by pumping it out to sea.
sewage / sewerage pours into a particular place: Thousands of tons of filth and sewage pour into the Ganges every day.
effluent [uncountable; countable] (formal) liquid waste such as sewage, chemicals or waste from factories, usually flowing into the sea or rivers сточные воды; очищенные сточные воды; сброс, отток, отвод сточных вод (после очистки нечистот): The chemical effluent from the process flows untreated into the rivers. | In a report on marine pollution, the organization states that 12,000 pipes have been licensed to discharge industrial effluent. | Although we tend to think of industrial effluent, sewage is a more important source of pollution. | Effluents from local factories are finding their way into the river. | The effluent from the factory was dumped into the river. | All industrial chemical plants produce waste effluents. | The effluents we pour heedlessly into its waters are a threat to its delicate ecological balance.
repository [countable] (formal) a place where large quantities of things are stored or kept safe хранилище; склад: a nuclear waste repository | It also recommends that the debate over the choice of 28 sites as possible repositories for nuclear waste should be re-opened.
(waste) dump | (waste) tip (British English) | refuse / rubbish dump / tip (British English) | garbage / trash dump (American English) [countable] a place where large amounts of waste are taken and left, usually outside a town (мусорная) свалка, место свалки: The dumps were generating explosive gases and leaching noxious chemicals that polluted underground water sources. | Some environmentalists have expressed concern that using old mines as waste dumps could be both dangerous and expensive. | But over the past century we have made it into a rubbish dump. | They've agreed to postpone development of a rubbish dump for at least 10 years. | The time has come to find a solution to prevent Britain becoming one big, dangerous rubbish tip. | Officers found a large bread knife on the rubbish tip. | Countless numbers of discarded water jugs and plastic trash bags have turned many areas into garbage dumps.
town / municipal / council dump / tip городская свалка: Municipal rubbish tips are some of the most important feeding areas for gulls, crows, vultures and kites. | Here there was a natural beach, bordered by a thin band of scrub: beyond it was the council rubbish dump. | The largest group work at the municipal garbage dump near the banks of the river Cauca.
dangerous / hazardous / nuclear / toxic waste(s) dump / site: The operation made financial and environmental sense by eliminating the need to use a hazardous waste site. | Communities of fish and invertebrates are attracted to structures such as oil platforms and nuclear waste dumps. | There is still no provision for a national toxic wastes dump.
dump / waste site | dumping ground [countable] a place where large amounts of dangerous waste are taken and left место захоронения отходов; место сброса отходов; место свалки; свалка: Dangerous wastes will be deposited by error in the rivers and the dump sites that endanger residential neighbourhoods. | Friends of the Earth is urging local authorities to use the new laws as a means of prosecuting polluting dump sites. | Toxic waste sites are more prevalent in poorer communities. | Three out of every five black and Hispanic Americans live in the vicinity of an uncontrolled toxic waste site. | Despite the good intentions of RCRA, numerous hazardous waste sites were created throughout the country.
dumping ground (for sth): Most people do not want this country to become a dumping ground for toxic waste. | Eastern Europe is rapidly becoming a dumping-ground for radioactive residues. | Rivers have always been a dumping ground for man's unwanted waste.
landfill (1) [uncountable] the practice of burying waste under the ground, or the waste buried in this way захоронение отходов; закапывание мусора / отходов: the environmental costs of landfill
(2) landfill site / tip [countable] a place where waste is buried under the ground мусорная свалка: Through lawsuits and protests, toxic landfills and dumps near the Hudson River were closed. | Ninety per cent of American rubbish is dumped in landfill sites. | Currently 95 percent of it is buried in landfill sites at an annual average of half a tonne of rubbish per household. | Solid wastes are either burnt or buried in landfill tips and fluid wastes are dumped in the sea. | But it's becoming a major issue as landfill sites fill up.
open landfill открытая мусорная свалка
sanitary landfill мусорная свалка с засыпкой (грунтом)
dustbin (British English) | garbage can / container (American English) | trash can / bin (American English) [countable] a large container outside your house, used for holding waste until it is taken away мусорный контейнер / бак; мусорный ящик: The average family in Europe throws as much as £20 worth of reusable materials into its dustbin each year. | A bomb planted in a garbage can exploded early today. | The second blast went off near a trash bin in the parking lot. | We recently replaced some large plastic barrels used as trash cans with more attractive station furnishings.
dustbin bag / liner (British English) | garbage / trash bag (American English) | trash can liner (American English) [countable] a plastic bag put inside a dustbin to hold the waste and keep the container clean мусорный мешок: It was a black plastic dustbin bag.
(litter / rubbish / waste paper) bin | litter basket (British English) [countable] a container for litter in a public place ящик для мусора; мусорный бачок, мусоросборник: He stuffed the newspapers into a litter bin and headed down the street. | Two stolen paintings have been found dumped in a rubbish bin. | Lily put them, unhesitatingly, in the waste paper bin.
litter bug | litterbug (informal) | litter lout (British English) [countable] someone who leaves paper, cans etc on the ground in a public place, making it untidy: It would have been more honest to say that I thought the litterbug needed a lesson.
to dump | to tip (British English) [transitive] to get rid of waste material by taking it somewhere and leaving it there сбрасывать; выбрасывать; вываливать, сваливать; избавляться: The sign by the side of the road said "No tipping".
to dump / tip sth: As it becomes more expensive to dump dangerous waste, so the economic advantages of shredding deteriorate. | The polluted waste is often dumped, making the surrounding land infertile. | No rubbish to be tipped here. | Residents are concerned that toxic waste may be dumped. | This piece of land was used for the purpose of tipping rubbish.
to dump / tip sth at sea // in / into a sea / ocean / river: The government declared that it did not dump radioactive waste at sea. | The convention establishes the principle that nothing that is harmful to human health and marine life can be dumped at sea. | On Thursday delegates approved a resolution calling for a two-year ban on dumping radioactive wastes in the sea. | A million tonnes of untreated sewage is dumped into the sea. | Toxic waste is being dumped into the ocean. | A man who's accused of dumping highly toxic waste into a river has been remanded on bail. | A lot of waste is being tipped into the sea.
to dump / tip sth in a mine / mineshaft / landfill (site / tip) / quarry // at a site: The rest is dumped in landfill sites. | Solid wastes are either burnt or buried in landfill tips and fluid wastes are dumped in the sea. | He says in the 1950's there were plans to dump nuclear waste in mineshafts. | Which is better, to incinerate the rubbish from our towns or to tip it into disused quarries? | According to Greenpeace, 1,100 tons of munitions were dumped at the site in 1991 and 8,400 tons thus far this year.
to dump / tip sth on a beach / along a coast: It was the Mirror too which exposed the massive government cover-up last year over the poisonous waste being dumped on our beaches. | Over 150,000 tonnes of waste are dumped annually along the coastline.
to dump / tip sth in / near / next to sth: People who want to get rid of old cars sometimes dump them in the woods. | Find out what waste is being dumped near your home and campaign against it. | In one city, contaminated waste was dumped next to a shopping centre.
to litter (up) [transitive; intransitive] to leave waste paper, cans etc on the ground in a public place, making it untidy сорить, мусорить: Heaps of garbage littered the grounds. | Glass from broken bottles litters the pavement. | The streets were littered with smashed vehicles and glass. | The streets were littered with rubbish.
wasteland | waste ground [uncountable; countable] an unattractive area of land that is empty or has old ruined buildings, factories etc on it and, as a result, cannot be used for anything пустошь, пустырь; бросовая земля: These plants grow on wasteland, beside tracks and roads in woods and hedges. | What the mass of urban wasteland needs lies between these extremes. | The waste ground is separated from a park by some old fencing which is in need of repair.
4.4. Waste disposal and recycling
to dispose [transitive] to get rid of something, especially something that is difficult to get rid of удалять, уничтожать, избавляться; сбрасывать; утилизировать;захоронить (отходы)
to dispose of waste / refuse / rubbish / garbage / trash / litter / fumes (in a particular place): After recycling, we must find the safest way in which to dispose of the waste. | They have no way to dispose of the hazardous waste they produce. | Solid low-level waste will be disposed of deep underground. | Engine oil cannot be disposed of down drains.| Please dispose of your litter thoughtfully. | This apparently disposes of the toxic fumes much more safely.
to bury [transitive] to put something in the ground and cover it with earth захоронить (отходы): Congress has tried to find a site to bury high-level nuclear wastes for decades, with a notable lack of success. | The thought of thousands of tonnes of radioactive waste being buried under their favourite stretch of countryside filled local residents with horror.
to recycle | to reprocess [transitive] to put used objects or materials through a special process so that they can be used again перерабатывать, подвергать переработке / повторной / вторичной обработке; утилизировать
to recycle waste(s) / waste material(s) / (waste) paper / bottles / plastics / glass / rubbish / air / water / land (into sth): The council is encouraging people to recycle their household rubbish. | The department is now advising other customers on how to recycle their waste. | Plastic bottles can be recycled into clothing. | The Japanese recycle more than half their waste paper.
to reprocess (nuclear) waste / spent (nuclear) fuel / uranium / plutonium: The plant's main function has been to reprocess uranium. | The plant will initially reprocess irradiated fuels from the country's five existing nuclear power plants. | The rationale of reprocessing spent nuclear fuel is inevitably being questioned.
disposal [uncountable] the act of getting rid of something удаление, уничтожение; сброс; утилизация; захоронение
waste / refuse / rubbish / garbage / trash / litter disposal | the disposal of sth удаление отходов; сброс отходов; захоронение отходов: The costs of waste disposal are rising. | In recent years, most countries have tightened their standards of waste disposal. | We are gradually developing safer and more effective methods of refuse disposal. | Congress passed a law that regulates the disposal of waste. | There is no site in the county for the disposal of hazardous waste.
nuclear-waste / radioactive waste disposal | the disposal of sth захоронение ядерных / радиоактивных отходов: It simply underlined the almost intractable dangers of nuclear waste disposal. | Sites are being selected for final disposal of radioactive waste.
sewage disposal удаление / сброс сточных вод: Not surprisingly, these sites usually lack a water supply and provision for sewage disposal. | Beaches around the world are closed regularly, often because of high amounts of bacteria from sewage disposal, and marine wildlife is beginning to suffer.
burial ground / underground disposal захоронение (отходов) в землю, подземное захоронение
space disposal / disposal into space захоронение (отходов) в космосе: For nuclear waste, disposal into space is more feasible but has been discounted on numerous occasions because of the risks.
(waste) disposal site место сброса отходов / свалки; место захоронения (отходов): Although waste disposal sites are well controlled, there is an ever present risk of pollution. | No one has yet tackled the technical problems of finding suitable disposal sites on land or at sea.
waste / rubbish disposal facility / plant | facility for waste / rubbish disposal очистная станция; очистное сооружение; завод по переработке отходов / отбросов; утилизационный завод, утилизационная установка: She added that the party would not approve the construction of nuclear waste disposal facilities. | At present the local authority has no facilities for toxic waste disposal, which must be sent elsewhere.
waste disposal system система удаления отходов: A survey will be carried out of sewage disposal systems and it is highly likely that major expenditure will be necessary. | We will improve recycling and waste-disposal systems.
recycling | reprocessing [uncountable] the process of treating used objects or materials so that they can be used again переработка / утилизация (отходов), повторная / вторичная обработка: Recycling is important to help protect our environment. | Recycling reduces the waste of raw materials. | Next come our policies for encouraging waste recycling. | Collecting and cleaning some types of plastic for recycling uses more energy than making new plastic.
recycling / reprocessing plant [countable] a place where objects or materials are changed so that they can be used again предприятие по переработке / утилизации (отходов): The same cannot be said for the San Marcos recycling plant, which could be considered more of a liability. | At the nuclear reprocessing plant they extract plutonium from spent atomic fuel rods.
sewer (pipe / line) [countable] an underground pipe or passage that carries sewage сточная труба; канализационная труба, (канализационный) коллектор: The sewers collected sewage and storm runoff and discharged it, untreated, into the harbour. | Today's sewers are built with an expected life of 60 years. | The best way to dispose of so much water is to pour it into the city sewer.
sewerage [uncountable] | sewerage / sewage / sewer system [countable] a system of pipes and passages that carry sewage канализация, канализационная система / сеть, система канализации: Engineers now realize that sewerage cannot be technically viable without a large domestic water supply. | The town has already put in a proper sewerage system. | Even waste water from water changes is not allowed to go into our sewage system during this period. | The disposal costs could include a one-time charge to dump the water permanently into the sewer system. | There were reports of fuel cuts and a breakdown of the water and sewage systems in Stepanakert. | What enthusiasts often overlook is that western communities do not always depend on sewer systems. | London owes much of its rat problems to the poorly maintained sewer systems.
sewage (treatment) / sewerage works (British English) | sewage (treatment) plant (American English) | sewage farm (British English) | sewage treatment facility / system [countable] a place where sewage is treated with chemicals to make it less harmful очистные сооружения, станция / сооружения очистки / по очистке сточных вод; установка для очистки / обработки сточных вод: The water companies will have to improve the performance of their sewage works or risk other claims. | A modern sewerage works was built at Tudhoe Village. | Should we close down sewage plants because they are not absolutely perfectly clean? | Demonstrating the cleaning powers of modern sewage treatment plants is something of an obsession for those who work there. | The first priority is to provide sewage treatment facilities. | Those beaches which benefit from improved sewage treatment systems are praised for their water quality.
recyclable (adjective) able to be recycled пригодный к повторному / неоднократному использованию: For example, glass products are completely recyclable. | A number of products are now packaged in recyclable materials. | Waste Management had a facility in Philadelphia that originally took in recyclable materials for free.
recycled (adjective) having been used before and then processed so that it can form a new product повторно / неоднократно использованный: This newspaper is made of recycled paper. | Recycled water can never be legally considered sewage.
refuse collector (British English) (formal) | dustman (British English) | dustbin man (British English) | garbage collector / garbage man (American English) [countable] someone whose job is to remove waste from dustbins мусорщик, сборщик мусора: Aylesbury's refuse collectors are out on the job around seven hours a day. | Whether one considers lawyers and doctors as more important than farm labourers and refuse collectors is simply a matter of opinion. | It was followed by a rash of local selective strikes by health-service workers, dustmen, even the grave-diggers of Liverpool. | Everybody else became a fireman or a cop or a garbage collector or truck driver. | He praised the virtues of volunteerism and made vague mention of garbage men he knows who collect trash as volunteers.
dust cart (British English) | dustcart (British English) | garbage truck (American English) [countable] a large vehicle that goes from house to house to collect waste from dustbins мусоровоз: And putting it in an alley can cause garbage trucks to sink up to their axles.
4.5. Depletion of the ozone layer
ozone [uncountable] (technical) a poisonous blue gas that is a type of oxygen a poisonous form of oxygen a kind of oxygen that exists high in the Earth's atmosphere озон: Ozone is a highly reactive form of oxygen gas. | Ozone is produced by the reaction between oxygen and ultra-violet light. | Ozone is best known for its role in screening the Earth from harmful ultraviolet rays from the Sun. | Press reports revealed that ozone levels in the upper atmosphere fell during the past month. | In heavy concentrations, ozone is irritating to the eyes, nose and throat.
to deplete / destroy ozone: They calculate that ozone is depleted fastest when the sun is least active. | The polar regions are particularly at risk because the chemical reaction that destroys ozone is helped by their weather conditions.
(to cause) ozone depletion / destruction: Predicting the rate of ozone depletion is difficult. | The observation shocked the world into action and convinced scientists and governments alike that ozone depletion was a serious problem. | These chemical reactions cause ozone destruction. | A worldwide agreement reached more than 10 years ago banned the long-lived chemicals responsible for ozone destruction.
ozone pollution: A series of other steps will be triggered by particularly high levels of low-level ozone pollution. | Given the enormous and costly pollution control efforts to tackle ozone pollution to date, these variable ten-year trends are very disappointing. | In California, pines suffer from yellowish flecking due to ozone pollution and Los Angeles is notorious for its thick ozone smogs.
ozone layer [singular] a layer of gases in the sky that prevents harmful radiation from the sun from reaching the Earth озонный / озоновый слой, слой озона; озоносфера: The loss of the ozone layer is also believed to be having a cooling effect.
to deplete / destroy / damage the ozone layer разрушать озоновый слой: CFC is just one chemical that depletes the ozone layer. | They help deplete the ozone layer, allowing ultraviolet rays to cause deadly skin cancers. | But they are thought to destroy the ozone layer, which protects the earth from the sun's rays. | But because of their longevity they are expected to go on damaging the ozone layer for decades. | Pollution beyond a certain critical level has disastrous social consequences, for example irreversibly damaging the ozone layer above the earth.
depletion / destruction / thinning of the ozone layer разрушение озонового слоя: Destruction of the world's rain forests, global warming, and the depletion of the ozone layer are just some of the problems that will reach critical proportions in the coming decades. | The consequences of the depletion of the ozone layer are dramatic.
to protect the ozone layer: This was seen as essential if such countries were to co-operate in efforts to protect the ozone layer. | The plan also provided for measures to protect the ozone layer.
hole in the ozone layer | ozone hole [countable] a hole in the layer of gases in the sky that prevents harmful radiation from the sun from reaching the Earth (This is thought to be caused by harmful gases from cars, household products, factories etc entering the earth's atmosphere.) озоновая дыра: The increase in the incidence of skin cancer is directly due to the hole in the ozone layer. | CFCs are the chemicals responsible for the hole in the ozone layer.
ozone-friendly not containing chemicals that cause pollution damaging the ozone layer безвредный для озонного / озонового слоя: an ozone-friendly fridge / aerosol / hair spray | ozone-friendly packaging | But the campaigners found only four fridges which were on the list of ozone-friendly household appliances.
carbon dioxide [uncountable] a gas without colour or smell produced when animals breathe out, when carbon is burned in air, or when animal or vegetable substances decay углекислый газ; углекислота; диоксид углерода: Within the last century, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased dramatically, largely because of the practice of burning fossil fuels – coal and petroleum and its derivatives. | Plants absorb carbon dioxide from the air and moisture from the soil. | Methane is often regarded as the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. | The amount of carbon dioxide released by human activities such as burning coal and oil is small in comparison.
chlorofluorocarbon / CFC [countable] a gas used in fridges and aerosol cans, believed to be responsible for damaging the ozone layer (CFCs are not often used any more because they damage the ozone layer of the Earth's atmosphere.) фреон: More chlorofluorocarbons must have been released in the industrialized north. | CFCs cause damage to the ozone layer.
chlorofluorocarbon / CFC gases: It is free of chlorofluorocarbon gases which have been used to cool most fridges for decades. | CFC gases were in common use in aerosol sprays, refrigerators and air-conditioners.
to ban CFC use запрещать использование фреона
greenhouse effect [singular] an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere which is believed to cause the temperature of the Earth to rise парниковый эффект: These gases are responsible for maintaining a global temperature acceptable to life, and this process is referred to as the greenhouse effect. | Neither can we guarantee that everywhere on Earth will be warmer as the greenhouse effect progresses. | The greenhouse effect is caused by the build-up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
global warming [uncountable] a general increase in world temperatures caused by increased amounts of carbon dioxide around the Earth потепление климата: The carbon dioxide they produce contributed to global warming. | Additionally, the latest studies suggest that global warming may increase the amount of ozone destroyed. | Administration scientists continue to insist that there is no proven link between CO2 emissions and global warming. | Temperature records have unequivocally confirmed the existence of global warming. | According to some scientists, global warming threatens the survival of the whole human race. | Environmentalists fear that this is a short-sighted approach to the problem of global warming. | The threat of global warming will eventually force the US to slow down its energy consumption.
(natural) resource [countable – usually plural] things that exist in nature and can be used by people, for example the land, water, forests, energy sources and minerals природные ресурсы / богатства, полезные ископаемые, естественные богатства; запасы, ресурсы: From a human standpoint, this means that all of the world's physical resources are in finite supply. | In fact, because larger amounts of resources per person are used in the developed nations, each citizen from the developed world has a much greater environmental impact than does a citizen from a developing country. | Today we are overpopulated, straining the earth's resources. | Water power is our country's most important natural resource. | A major project is under way to reintroduce the waterwheel and turbine in order to harness this great natural resource once again. | They are looking at ways of reducing the waste of natural resources.
economic resources экономические ресурсы / объекты
land / forest resources земельные / лесные ресурсы
raw material resources сырьевые ресурсы
energy resources энергетические ресурсы, энергоресурсы
fuel resources топливные ресурсы
oil / gas resources ресурсы / запасы нефти / газа
water-power resources гидроэнергетические ресурсы
water resources водные ресурсы, гидроресурсы
groundwater resources ресурсы / запасы подземных вод
geothermal resources геотермальные ресурсы
mineable resources извлекаемые запасы
prospected resources разведанные запасы
undiscovered resources вероятные / прогнозные запасы
untapped resources неиспользуемые ресурсы
mineral resources [plural] минеральные ресурсы / богатства: Britain's mineral resources include oil, coal and gas deposits. | The Programme is focussed on world mineral resources, production, trade and use.
human resource(s) трудовые / человеческие / людские ресурсы, людские резервы: Our people are clearly our key (human) resource.
natural resources | mineral resources COLLOCATIONS
to be rich / abundant in natural / mineral resources | to abound in / with natural / mineral resources: Cambodia is very rich in natural resources. | Many of these countries are rich in timber and mineral resources.
rich / abundant natural / mineral resources: a country with abundant natural resources | Growth requires abundant cheap resources, especially fossil fuel, but also food and water.
an abundance of natural / mineral resources изобилие природных / минеральных ресурсов: a land with an abundance of natural resources
to develop / exploit / tap / mine (for) natural / mineral resources to develop and use something such as the land, water, forests, energy sources and minerals for business or industry добывать / разрабатывать природные / минеральные ресурсы: Do we aggressively develop renewable resources? | Casey founded a company to exploit the mineral resources in the area. | We must exploit the natural resources of our country. | The scheme aimed to tap underground water resources. | Branch lines were arranged to tap either mineral resources or new areas of settlement. | They mine a lot of copper around these parts. | Copper has been mined here since the sixteenth century. | This area has been mined for over 300 years. | For centuries small amounts of coal had been mined from shallow pits. | Most of the new settlers came here to mine for gold.
(the) development / exploitation of natural / mineral resources: the planned exploitation of its potential oil and natural gas reserves
to use / consume natural / mineral resources: It involves wondering how to use hard-won resources to achieve something meaningful. | They believed that the vast natural resources of the United States should be used for the betterment of the American people. | Not only do they consume more natural resources, they also produce more pollution.
to deplete / use up / waste / be wasteful of natural / mineral resources истощать / исчерпывать / хищнически эксплуатировать природные / минеральные ресурсы: If we continue to deplete the Earth's natural resources, we will cause serious damage to the environment. | Surely it is an economic nonsense to deplete the world of natural resources. | As the number of people increases, more pollution is generated, more habitats are destroyed, and more natural resources are used up.
natural / mineral resources are running out природные / минеральные ресурсы кончаются / иссякают
to be careful with natural / mineral resources: It would force industries to be more careful with natural resources.
(the) use / consumption of natural / mineral resources: The use of finite natural resources, e.g. coal, oil, must, perhaps, result in ultimate shortages. | It also questions the practicality of simultaneously lowering the consumption of natural resources and improving quality of life.
(the) depletion of natural / mineral resources истощение / исчерпание / хищническая эксплуатация природных / минеральных ресурсов
limited / finite natural / mineral resources ограниченные ресурсы: In a population confined to a particular habitat competition for limited resources is an inevitable feature of life so long as reproduction occurs. | But can we really afford to take such risks with our limited space and natural resources in Britain? | The physical environment is extremely difficult, and natural resources limited. | The world's finite resources must be used wisely.
scarce natural / mineral resources недостаточные / скудные ресурсы: Both countries rely on the river for scarce water resources.
raw material(s) [countable – usually plural] materials such as coal, oil etc in their natural state, before being treated in order to make things сырье; сырьевой / исходный материал; сырье и материалы; материалы-полуфабрикаты: The cost of our raw materials has risen significantly. | This paper company imports raw materials from North America. | Businessmen looked for profitable markets and new sources of cheap raw materials; the military looked for overseas bases. | Their raw material and energy costs would rise, while being deprived of their previous government subsidies.
fossil fuel [uncountable; countable] a fuel such as coal, oil, or gas which was underground from plant and animal remains millions of years ago ископаемое топливо: Environmentalists would like to see fossil fuels replaced by renewable energy sources. | The fossil fuels (coal and oil) are finite resources. | Fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas will service our needs for some considerable time to come. | The world cannot continue to rely on the burning of fossil fuels for much of its industrial production and transportation. | An obvious and technically achievable alternative to fossil fuel combustion is nuclear fission.
coal [uncountable] a hard black substance which is dug out of the ground and burnt as fuel to produce heat уголь; каменный уголь: | Today, oil and natural gas have replaced coal and wood in most areas. | Now coal exports are smaller and these docks are less busy. | Gas-fired electricity is cheaper than coal.
to produce / mine (for) coal добывать уголь: It is estimated that the 150 men could produce 10,000 tons of coal a week. | It remains lunacy to produce yet more coal to add to power stations' stockpiles. | How much coal was mined here?
to burn / consume / use coal использовать / потреблять уголь: Then the others will be free to burn the oil and coal that might otherwise be consumed in the nuclear nations. | Much of the coal mined may have been consumed domestically, or used for iron-smelting or lime-burning.
coal production / mining добыча угля: When was the peak period for coal production?
the burning / use / combustion of coal: They merely pave the way for an increasing proportion of those emissions to come from the burning of imported coal. | The burning of coal, oil and gas to provide energy results in the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. | The excess mortality was attributed to coal mining and the extensive use of soft coal in the mining areas.
the coal (mining) industry | coal mining угольная промышленность: The Government must be reminded that the average age of the labour force in the coal mining industry is about 30 years. | What of Labour's plans for the future of the coal industry? | There is something about coal mining that seems to brutalize a place.
coal reserves запасы угля: Germany's coal reserves were concentrated in a few large fields.
oil | petroleum [uncountable] a thick dark smooth liquid from under the ground or the bottom of the sea which is used for making petrol, paraffin, and various chemical substances нефть: We need to do more to reduce our dependence on foreign oil. | This level of imported oil could thus be displaced by the combined use of domestic gas and coal. | Meanwhile world oil demand is rising steadily at around 2 percent a year. | Oil prices have dropped significantly since May. | Oil exports from former Soviet republics have turned the Bosporus into a pulsing artery of the world's oil supply. | The weight of import dependence on Middle East oil supply has shifted from west to east. | Heat can be provided by oil, gas, or electricity. | Local oil companies want a 10 percent tariff on refined petroleum products and 3 percent duty for imported crude oil. | The gap between low cost and high value makes petroleum a highly political resource.
to drill for oil проводить разведочное бурение в поисках нефти: They might drill for oil and come up dry.
to hit / strike oil найти нефть, достичь нефтеносного слоя при бурении
to produce oil добывать нефть: The Middle Eastern countries produce most of the world's oil.
oil production добыча нефти, нефтедобыча: This is despite efforts to increase indigenous oil production. | The possibility of oil production seems less likely. | By early June the situation appeared to be under control and oil production, which had been briefly suspended, was resumed.
to burn / use / consume oil использовать / потреблять нефть: Then the others will be free to burn the oil and coal that might otherwise be consumed in the nuclear nations. | Furthermore it can permit coal use in boilers originally designed to burn oil without substantial derating.
the burning / use / combustion of oil: The burning of coal, oil and gas to provide energy results in the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
crude (oil / petroleum) oil in its natural state сырая / неочищенная нефть: A large tanker can carry several million tons of crude oil. | Relatively thin, its crude is among the easiest to refine.
refined oil светлый нефтепродукт; керосин
to refine oil очищать нефть
oil / petroleum products нефтепродукты: Domestic consumers of petroleum products have an interest in a secure source of petroleum products.
oil well нефтяная скважина, скважина нефтяной залежи: How deep do you drill an oil well?
oil crisis: Cheap solar energy conversion has been a dream of some scientists since the first oil crisis back in the late 1970s. | The loss of confidence in the mid-1970s is usually put down solely to the oil crisis.
oil reserves [plural] (балансовые) запасы нефти: But as oil reserves dwindled over the past decade, local school property taxes doubled to help make up the difference. | Many other countries of the world that are deficient in oil reserves have coal and natural gas. | Two-thirds of the worlds oil reserves still sleep quietly beneath the soil of Mecca. | Estimates of world oil reserves have increased steadily since the 1970s, more than doubling by some calculations.
known oil reserves достоверные запасы нефти: Known oil reserves are enough to last for 40 years, natural gas for over 65 years and coal for 250 years.
to deplete oil reserves: As oil reserves are depleted, its price will continue to rise.
(natural) gas [uncountable] gas that is taken from under the ground and can be used for heating, lighting, or cooking природный газ: Today, oil and natural gas have replaced coal and wood in most areas. | Natural gas gives off less carbon dioxide than coal. | This pipeline will supply the major Greek cities with Russian natural gas. | The dwindling supplies of crude oil and natural gas are frequently discussed in newspaper articles.
gas reserves (балансовые) запасы газа: the planned exploitation of its potential oil and natural gas reserves
hydrocarbon | hydrocarbons [countable] (technical) a chemical substance that is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon, such as coal, oil, or gas углеводород, углеводороды (уголь, нефть, газ): Because of the huge up-front investment in production platforms, modestly-sized hydrocarbon discoveries in deep water are not economic. | Is it feasible to deliver so large a quantity of hydrocarbons to the required point? | Studies on a range of alternative singlet forms of basic hydrocarbons have been done.
hydrocarbon fuel углеводородное топливо: Natural gas, which is an ecologically acceptable hydrocarbon fuel, now represents more than half of our reserve base.
to harness [transitive] to control and use the natural force or power of something использовать; овладевать: We can harness the power of the wind to generate electricity. | The Missouri River is harnessed for hydroelectric power. | We are experimenting with ways to harness energy from the wind. | We are harnessing the power of the waves. | There is a great deal of interest in harnessing wind and waves as new sources of power. | Turkey plans to harness the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers for big hydroelectric power projects.
to deplete [transitive – usually passive] to reduce the amount of something that is present or available уменьшать; исчерпывать, истощать, обеднять, опустошать; хищнически эксплуатировать: If we continue to deplete the Earth's natural resources, we will cause serious damage to the environment. | It is an economic nonsense to deplete the world of natural resources. | As oil reserves are depleted, its price will continue to rise. | The oil fields have been depleted by a rapacious exploitation policy. | Over the last few years, rainforests have been steadily depleted. | CFC is just one chemical that depletes the ozone layer. | Their numbers became so depleted in this country that in 1969 they were placed on the endangered species list. | Measures have been taken to protect the world's depleted elephant population.
to dwindle (away) [intransitive] to become gradually less or smaller over a period of time until almost nothing remains сокращаться, уменьшаться, убывать, истощаться: Resources are dwindling. | But as oil reserves dwindled over the past decade, local school property taxes doubled to help make up the difference. | Water supplies have dwindled to their lowest level in ten years. | The stream has dwindled to a trickle. | The elephant population is dwindling.
depletion [uncountable] (a) reduction уменьшение; исчерпание, истощение, обеднение, опустошение; хищническая эксплуатация: the depletion of the ozone layer | the problem of ozone depletion | the depletion of underground water supplies | the depletion of forests in Uganda
6. Exploitation of natural resources
deposit | repository (formal) [countable] a layer of a mineral, metal or another substance that is left in soil or rocks through a natural process месторождение, залежь, залежи: a mineral / iron ore / coal / oil / gas deposit | underground deposits of gold and diamonds | rich deposits of oil and natural gas | There is the equally important matter of safeguarding mineral deposits. | Mineral undertakers have long-standing powers to obtain rights over land containing mineral deposits. | This area happens to be the repository of most of Iraq's oil.
to discover / find / identify a deposit: Rich mineral deposits have been discovered in the area. | There's a huge amount of oil that hasn't been discovered. | Valuable new deposits of tin have been found in Bolivia. | Typically, they hunt vast areas to find suitable deposits. | In March 1988 Glencar announced that it had found deposits of gold, estimating the reserves at £300 million. | Its companies have identified billions of dollars' worth of oil and mineral deposits.
coal field | coalfield | coal deposit [countable] an area where there is coal under the ground that is suitable for mining месторождение / залежь / залежи угля, угольное месторождение; угольный бассейн: Coal-fired plants are mainly located inland, and very close to existing coalfields. | Other coalfields have changed in similar ways. | A detailed revision of the coalfield areas commenced in 1902.
coal mine | coal pit (British English) [countable] a place from which coal is dug out of the ground угольная шахта, угольный карьер: They used to live in the county of Saepiol in North Hamgyong, where the father worked in the Aoji coal mine. | Cerrejon is the second largest open pit coal mine in the world.
oil field | oilfield | oil deposit [countable] an area of land or sea under which there is oil месторождение нефти; нефтяной бассейн: As more oilfields were discovered, petroleum products increased by more than 16 times in the 1920s. | Five more oilfields were producing oil from the North Sea continental shelf in 1976, including the massive Brent and Alpha fields. | The purpose of the visit was to review North Sea technologies with a view to utilizing them in their own oilfields. | Drilling will continue on the site to assess the dimensions of the new oilfield.
to operate an oil field: Under a 1986 standstill agreement, the fields are still partly the property of the American oil companies, though they have been operated by the Libyan government.
gas field | gasfield | gas deposit [countable] an area of land or sea under which there is natural gas месторождение (природного) газа, газовое месторождение; газоносная площадь: There are indications that in this gas field a secondary fracture porosity may exist. | Mr Stevenson said he expected to get at least $60 million from the sale of the company's Australian fuel retailing business and more than 30 million for its 8.5 per cent stake in a Pakistani gasfield.
coal field | oil field | gas field COLLOCATIONS
in / on a coal field / oil field / gas field: During their period production trebled in the coalfield. | Labour unrest followed in the coalfields, in the cotton mills and on the railways. | The era of class confrontation in Britain's coalfields had been confined mainly to the short period 1910-26. | But on the coalfield and in the factories of the towns there was an increasing demand for labour. | The work on the coalfields was intensified and a widespread search for minerals which were normally imported was carried out.
to prospect | to explore | to dig [intransitive] to examine an area of land or water, in order to find gold, silver, oil or another valuable substance проводить разведку, искать, производить поиск, делать изыскания, разведывать (месторождение); исследовать
to prospect (for sth): The oil companies are already prospecting not far from here. | The company is prospecting for gold in Alaska. | He prospected for minerals everywhere from the Gobi Desert to the Transvaal. | Oil companies spend much of their profit in prospecting for oil.
to explore (sth) / dig for sth: Central to the operation is a mile-deep well, dug originally to explore for oil. | The government is allowing the areas of inshore coastal waters to be explored for oil and gas. | Already this year, some 120 companies have joined Libya's first open bidding process to dig for new oil in 15 areas; the bid results are expected in January.
to mine [transitive – usually passive; intransitive] to dig large holes in the ground in order to remove such a mineral as coal, gold, copper, tin, lead, diamonds добывать, разрабатывать месторождение / рудник
to mine sth (from sth): They mine a lot of copper around these parts. | Copper has been mined here since the sixteenth century. | This area has been mined for over 300 years. | In Britain in 1690 three million tons of coal were mined. | Gold is mined from deep under ground. | For centuries small amounts of coal had been mined from shallow pits.
to mine for sth: The company first started mining for salt in 1851. | Most of the new settlers came here to mine for gold. | Explorers have been mining for gold in this area for several years. | People still mine for coal in this area.
prospecting | exploration (for sth) [uncountable] the examination of an area of land or water, in order to find gold, silver, oil or another valuable substance разведочные / поисково-разведочные работы, изыскания, изыскательские работы, разведка (месторождения), ведение поиска / разведки; старательство; рудоискательство: Gold prospecting in Ireland started much earlier than this – in 1957 Anglo-United were prospecting for gold in Clentibret. | Increased tin and gold metal prices from 1980 onwards encouraged prospecting for these commodities. | The government has announced the opening of the first tender for exploration on its continental shelf. | The legislative and regulatory framework applied to gas exploration is also included in the study. | We are acknowledged leaders in many aspects of gas exploration, production and supply. | The rest will be open to exploration companies under tight restrictions.
exploration for sth: The exploration for new sources of energy is vital for the future of our planet.
to carry out / conduct / be involved in prospecting / exploration: Little mineral exploration has been carried out in the area which is poorly exposed except in coastal sections. | The Group conducts substantially all of its oil and gas exploration and development activity through unincorporated joint ventures. | He was involved in oil, zinc and lead prospecting.
exploration facility / equipment разведочное оборудование / снаряжение: oil exploration facilities in the North Sea
oil rig [countable] a large structure on the land or in the sea, which has equipment for getting oil from under the ground or the bottom of the sea нефтяная вышка; установка для бурения нефтяных скважин: It is rumoured that an oil rig is to be set up on the local water meadows. | He works on the oil rigs. | Five oilmen were injured when a gas explosion shook a North Sea oil rig yesterday.
oil (rig) platform a large structure in the sea, which has equipment for getting oil from under the bottom of the sea нефтепромысловая платформа, нефтепромысловое основание: Balder is a semi-submersible crane barge designed for work in constructing oil rig platforms.
pipeline | oil / gas pipeline [countable] a line of connecting pipes, often under the ground, used for sending gas, oil, water etc over long distances трубопровод; нефтепровод; газопровод: This pipeline will supply the major Greek cities with Russian natural gas. | Gas and oil pipelines have staunched many creeks and rivers, swamping prime pastures and crop lands. | Cities are full of gas stations, motor vehicles, natural gas pipelines, and the like. | Many problems lie ahead for the development of gas pipelines, but the prospects are increasingly positive. | What should be the first region to be developed for the long-distance gas pipeline? | To fill the gap, imports from the Siberian gas pipeline are envisaged.
through a pipeline по трубопроводу: Gas exports through the new trans-Siberian export pipeline from Urengoy have helped in the past and will help in the future.
to build / construct / lay a pipeline строить / прокладывать трубопровод: A consortium plans to build a natural-gas pipeline from Russia to supply eastern Germany. | The East-West pipeline is nearly half welded and laid.
the building / construction of a pipeline: But the war is also about the building of a gas pipeline. | Soviet agreements with the Shah included credits for arms purchases and the construction of an oil pipeline.
to carry / transport sth by pipeline | to push / ship sth through a pipeline подавать / перекачивать по трубопроводу, транспортировать по трубопроводу: Natural gas is transported by pipeline. | Another is to transport coal slurry by pipeline from mines to power stations situated in areas of high electricity demand. | What do you push through the pipeline that makes you the most amount of money and provides the most benefit? | No further oil was shipped through Lonrho's pipeline, causing the company loss of revenue.
transportation by pipeline: Transportation by pipeline and handling are simple, and local storage is not required.
a pipeline bursts трубопровод лопается / разрывается: Thousands of gallons of oil flowed into he river when an oil pipeline burst.
prospector [countable] someone who examines an area of land or water, in order to find gold, silver, oil or other valuable substances геолог-разведчик, изыскатель; старатель, золотоискатель; рудоискатель: The discovery of gold and silver brought a flood of prospectors into the Arizona and New Mexico Territories.
coal miner | pitman | collier (British English) (old-fashioned) [countable] someone who digs coal in a coal mine шахтер, горняк: The Government's prime motivation is to carry out an act of revenge on coal miners and coal mining communities. | The coal miners throughout the Soviet Union went on strike. | Many of the older pitmen may never work again.
7. Sources of energy
energy | power [uncountable] power that is used to provide heat, operate machines etc such as oil, gas and coal энергия: We have reduced the energy we get from coal. | Thousands of Chicago customers lost electric power because of the storm.
to generate / produce energy / power производить энергию: Wind turbines will be used to generate energy. | This station generates power for the whole region. | The committee will debate the role of nuclear power in supplying energy. | In 1909 an abortive attempt was made to produce hydroelectric power.
to convert sth to / into energy / power преобразовывать / превращать в энергию: All these provide indirect means of converting solar energy to forms of energy which are useful to us. | This occurs as the result of toxins that form as mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy. | Because the truth would emerge as soon as you converted the energy into a different form.
to provide energy / power (for / to sb) | to supply energy / power (to sb) | to provide / supply sb with energy / power обеспечивать / снабжать энергией, поставлять / доставлять энергию: The belt provides vast material resources, vast amounts of solar power, and vast elbow room. | Power for the lighting is supplied by a generator. | Power is provided by a small 9 volt battery.
energy / power supply | (the) supply of energy / power: There will be a discussion document on our future energy supply. | The renewable energy sources must eventually dominate world energy supply.
to use / make use of / consume energy / power использовать / потреблять энергию: However, far more use is made of geothermal energy for direct heat. | The international conference was in part to discuss how to get the West to consume less energy. | Other companies are also looking for ways to reduce the amount of energy consumed in the major processes for making polymers.
(the) use / consumption / application of energy / power | energy / power use / consumption / application: Towards this end, agreements were signed on fishing, trade, environmental protection and the peaceful use of nuclear energy. | One reasonable solution is to combine conservation strategies with the increased use of solar energy. | The UK's total energy consumption could be cut if we all make the effort. | Within 18 months, they had reduced energy consumption by 30 percent. | The overheating causes an increase in overall energy consumption of only 7 %.| He led the team that developed the Soviet Union's atomic bomb and began seeking peaceful applications of nuclear power. | Yet these represent a relatively tiny portion of the uses for solar power.
to conserve / save energy / power беречь / сберегать / экономить энергию: Good insulation helps to conserve energy and reduce costs. | We must save 25 percent of energy through better insulation and so on. | Insulating your home is a good way to save energy.
to waste / squander energy / power безрассудно тратить / разбазаривать энергию
energy / power efficiency эффективность использования энергии: Energy efficiency and renewable energy go hand in hand. | Both groups favour investment in energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. | It doesn't take much to improve the energy efficiency of your home.
atomic / nuclear energy / power атомная энергия: They had a plan for the international regulation of atomic energy. | Nuclear energy as an alternative is opposed by many because of the massive devastation an accident can cause. | Nuclear energy is only one viable alternative to coal or gas. | By then nuclear energy should be contributing more than one-fifth of electricity generation. | Many people are opposed to the use of nuclear power. | It has also adopted nuclear power as a solution to the greenhouse effect. | Much of our energy comes from nuclear power.
hydroelectric / water power гидроэлектроэнергия, гидроэнергия: By 1942 we possessed something no other country did: a huge surplus of hydroelectric power. | There was an abundance of water power.
thermal energy / power тепловая энергия
geothermal energy / power energy pertaining to the internal heat of the earth геотермальная энергия: Indigenous oil discoveries proved disappointing and efforts have been directed towards hydroelectric power, nuclear and geothermal energy.
solar energy / power солнечная энергия: This is a heating system that utilizes solar energy. | Much of the expansion in solar energy has been funded with loans from international lending institutions. | Engineers have recently experimented with the concept of capturing solar energy. | Other renewable options – biomass and solar power – are also being explored. | The price of solar energy relative to traditional fuels has been dropping steadily, and if environmental concerns were factored into the cost, solar power would already be significantly cheaper.
wave energy / power энергия волны
wind energy / power энергия ветра: Many congressmen are keen to revive research into renewable energy sources like solar and wind power. | The market could grow much bigger if countries further subsidize wind power to curb greenhouse gas emissions. | The success of wind power represents a litmus test for renewable energy. | Environmentally friendly energy sources include water and wind power.
tidal energy / power энергия приливов: The most important are nuclear fission, wind, wave and tidal energy sources and solar energy by direct conversion and biomass.
energy / power shortage(s) | a shortage of energy / power нехватка / недостаток / дефицит энергии: A world energy shortage is far more dangerous and could even lead to wars. | The coalition partners predict further elections in six to eight months, and the energy shortage threatens to hamper their reform plans.
energy crisis энергетический кризис: Like the oil crisis of the 1970s, the California energy crisis is fuelling an investment boom in alternative energy. | Oil shortages have brought on an energy crisis.
source of energy / power | energy / power source [countable] источник энергии; источник питания: The ultimate aim is to replace gasoline altogether by using battery power or other non-polluting energy sources. | But they are strongly opposed to his expected tax on oil, coal and other energy sources.
renewable energy / power source | renewable source of energy / power: The best rule is to conserve energy and to increase funding for research into renewable energy sources. | Attention should be focused on developing renewable energy sources. | The renewable energy sources must eventually dominate world energy supply.
alternative energy / power source | alternative source of energy / power: It is 40 percent more expensive than coal, and there is an abundance of alternative energy sources. | The nuclear plants will not be phased out until the alternative energy sources are ready to come on-stream. | Any and all ideas about alternative sources of energy are seriously being considered and explored. | This requires the development of alternative sources of energy that are either renewable or inexhaustible. | Although it is desirable to have a wider range of energy options, other alternative sources of power are not likely to provide large-scale solutions in the foreseeable future.
environmentally friendly energy / power source | environmentally friendly source of energy / power: Environmentally friendly energy sources include water and wind power.
electricity | (electric[al]) power [uncountable] a form of energy that is carried by wires, cables etc, and is used to provide light or heat, to make machines, computers, televisions etc work электричество, электроэнергия, электрическая энергия: The electricity has been cut off. | More than 18,000 consumers were left without electricity when snow brought down live cables. | In one case, a town went without electricity for a week. | Few people realize how much we live by electricity. | The power came back on. | Many of the mergers were designed to set up monopolies to raise prices in industries such as steel, electric power and railways.
to generate / produce electricity / (electric) power производить / генерировать / давать электричество: Household waste could be burned to generate electricity. | The gas will drive turbines to generate electricity for the local grid. | The possibility of using wood to generate electricity should also be explored. | Domestic refuse can be burned to produce heat and electricity. | A power station could produce enough electricity to supply a small town.
to provide electricity / (electric) power (for / to sb) | to supply / deliver electricity / (electric) power (to sb) | to provide / supply sb with electricity / (electric) power обеспечивать / снабжать электричеством, поставлять / доставлять электричество: The utilities couldn't deliver electricity at a fair price because the government forced them to sell at an unfairly low price. | But two reactors are still operating, providing heating and electricity to Tomsk. | Pinchot wanted to dam the Tuolumne River and flood the valley to provide water and electricity to San Francisco.
electricity / (electric) power supply | (the) supply of electricity / (electric) power: The electricity supply will be cut off if we don't pay our bill. | Within the state sector, the statutory public monopoly of electricity supply and express delivery service has been ended. | The company was also legally bound to promote competition in the industry and ensure electricity supplies met standards of supply and quality.
to use / make use of / consume electricity / (electric) power использовать / потреблять электричество: Anyone who used electricity or drove a car had no right to tell peasants to stop felling trees.
(the) use / consumption of electricity / (electric) power | electricity / (electric) power use | consumption
to conserve / save electricity / (electric) power беречь / сберегать / экономить электричество: Worse was expected to come as industrial and domestic consumption of electricity picked up after the attrition of the war years.
to waste / squander electricity / (electric) power безрассудно тратить / разбазаривать электричество
to cut (off) electricity / (electric) power отключать / выключать электричество, прекращать подачу электричества: They cut off the electricity last week. | The electricity supply had not been cut off and nor had the telephone. | Lightning from the storm cut off the electricity. | They threatened to cut off gas and electricity to Moldava, of which the Dnestr region supplied almost 80 percent. | If the electric power could be cut, industry everywhere would be brought to a standstill.
to turn / switch off electricity / (electric) power выключать свет: The electricity has been turned off. | Turn off the power before starting to repair the machine. | Switch off the electricity before you attempt any repairs. | Make sure the power is switched off first.
to run on / be powered by electricity / (electric) power работать на электричестве: The machines run on electricity. | In the auto shop, students are retrofitting trucks from Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to run on electric power.
(electric) power line линия электропередачи / электроснабжения; линия высокого напряжения: Living close to overhead electric power lines causes health hazards.
fuel [uncountable; countable] a substance such as coal, gas, oil, or petrol that can be burned to produce heat or energy топливо, горючее: Coal is one of the cheapest fuels. | Wood, coal, oil, petrol and gas are all different kinds of fuel. | When the war ended, the most pressing need was to provide food and fuel. | Gas is also competing directly with coal for the heavy fuel oil market. | Polar ice also would provide hydrogen for rocket fuel and for industrial processes.
fuel supply | fuel supplies поставки топлива: Officials now warn that fuel supplies could be seriously disrupted this winter. | The nation's fuel supplies will not last forever.
fuel shortage(s) | a shortage of fuel нехватка / недостаток / дефицит топлива: They said there was a fuel shortage. | Refugees are facing serious food and fuel shortages.
liquid / solid fuel жидкое / твердое топливо: Do you have room to store oil or solid fuel or wood?
nuclear fuel ядерное топливо: Revenues, from reprocessing domestic and imported nuclear fuels, are not expected to exceed £5.2 billion. | Officials have still to decide how the radioactive dust and nuclear fuel inside should be cleaned up. | After three years' work the last consignment of nuclear fuel rods has been removed. | Energy Department officials say nuclear fuel rods have been safely transported for decades.
lead-free / unleaded fuel топливо, не содержащее тетраэтилсвинца: How will unleaded fuel affect the performance of my car? | New vehicles will be required to comply with set standards from 1995, while unleaded fuel will become available in 2000.
fuel oil топливная нефть, жидкое топливо, мазут: Prices of fuel oil, diesel and kerosene were also raised.
bunker fuel / oil флотский мазут; котельное топливо для судов: Up to that time coal was chiefly used as a domestic fuel but from 1812 onwards it went to sea as bunker fuel.
spent (nuclear) fuel отработанное ядерное топливо: At that stage the inspector did not mention spent nuclear fuel. | If the spent fuel cannot be reprocessed, alternative dry storage is needed. | Reprocessing spent nuclear fuel rods increases the volume of waste and should be undertaken only when necessary for safety reasons.
fuel consumption расход / потребление топлива: Just as fuel consumption grows disproportionately as speeds rise, so does the emission of air pollutants. | Given that pollution levels relate to fuel consumption, private cars and taxis are also the greatest polluters.
fuel efficiency топливная экономичность (двигателя): Greater fuel efficiency is essential and there are now prototype cars that can travel between 52 and 100 miles per gallon. | The only certain way of cutting CO2 emissions is to encourage fuel efficiency.
fuel leak утечка топлива: Delays were caused by the discovery of dangerous fuel leaks.
to burn / use / consume fuel использовать / потреблять топливо / в качестве топлива: Do we carry on burning fossil fuels at rapid rates? | Mr Livingstone has offered exemptions for business deliveries and if vehicles use green fuels. | In addition to better economy, diesel cars use cheaper fuel and are no less environmentally-friendly than petrol-engined models fitted with catalytic converters.
the burning / use / combustion of fuel: We are hastening this process with the burning of fossil fuels. | It has not yet been established that global warming is due to excessive combustion of fossil fuels.
to produce fuel производить топливо: Development costs could be reduced by expanding these existing nuclear sites which are currently used primarily to produce fuel for military purposes. | Environmentalists argue that the costs of producing the fuel must also be taken into account.
to run on / be powered by fuel работать на топливе: Most cars run on unleaded fuel. | By 2000 the great majority of cars will run on unleaded fuel.
to run out of fuel растратить / израсходовать топливо: They ran out of fuel.
to discharge fuel (into sth) сливать / выливать топливо: The defendants negligently discharged fuel oil into Sydney Harbour.
to save fuel экономить топливо: Drivers are being encouraged to save fuel. | Now, remaining supplies of fossil fuels should be saved, not squandered.
to economize / save on fuel экономить на топливе: Higher taxes encourage people to economize on fuel. | Also, in his view, it saves on fuel and oil costs.
petrol (British English) | gasoline | gas (American English) [uncountable] a liquid obtained from petroleum that is used as fuel for cars and other vehicles бензин
leaded petrol / gasoline этилированный бензин: As a first step, the sale of leaded petrol will be banned from January 1992. | What is the situation with regard to leaded petrol? | The leaded petrol market is shrinking so fast that some major petroleum companies have discontinued refining leaded petrol. | In the United State, (the) use of leaded gasoline was phased out on January 1.
lead-free / unleaded petrol / gasoline неэтилированный бензин; бензин, не содержащий свинца: Some people say that once the car is adjusted I should alternate between leaded and unleaded petrol? | In February unleaded gasoline fell 3. 75 cents to 54. 44 cents a gallon.
petrol consumption расход горючего
petrol station (British English) | gas station (American English) | filling station бензозаправочная / автозаправочная станция, бензоколонка: At gasoline stations it is illegal for customers to pump more than 10 gallons a minute.
to run on / be powered by petrol работать на бензине: All models run on unleaded petrol. | It will take many years to phase out existing cars that run on high octane leaded petrol.
to run out of petrol растратить / израсходовать бензин: He forgot to switch over fuel tanks, so he thought he ran out of petrol when he didn't.
oil refinery [countable] a factory where oil is made purer нефтеперегонный / нефтеочистительный завод: When oil was first imported this was the place chosen for an oil refinery. | By June 29 a further solidarity strike had halted production at the country's only oil refinery. | The company also plans to invest in some of its remaining 11 refineries to make them more efficient. | New investors would be allowed to set up oil refineries without government permission. | They have to put up with a giant oil refinery right on their doorstep.
(electric) power station (especially British English) | (electric) power plant [countable] a building where electricity is produced to supply a large area электростанция: The power station burns coal from the Ruhr region. | Nearly all the power stations have worked out much more expensive to build than was estimated. | Our power stations are notoriously inefficient. | The electricians at the power stations went on strike and stayed out nearly five days. | The government's priority is to build more power plants. | In an electric power plant the heat converts water into high-pressure steam.
conventional power station / plant one using coal, oil, or natural gas as fuel, as contrasted with heat from a nuclear reactor электростанция на традиционных источниках энергии
thermal power station / plant тепловая электростанция: Thermal stations burning coal, oil or nuclear fuel work 24 hours a day and their output is less easy to adjust.
hydroelectric / water power station / plant гидроэлектростанция, гидроэлектрическая станция: It welcomed the realization of the joint hydroelectric power station project.
nuclear power station / plant атомная электростанция: Nuclear power stations are notoriously unreliable and construction costs go way over original estimates. | The Government insisted that Britain's nuclear power stations are as safe as houses. | The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 scattered radioactive contamination over a large part of Europe. | The concern arises when a nuclear power plant is refuelled.
geothermal power station / plant геотермальная электростанция
solar power station / plant солнечная электростанция, гелиоэлектрическая станция: But the idea of full-blown solar power stations is unrealistic in the foreseeable future.
coal-fired / coal-burning / coal-powered / coal-fuelled power station / plant электростанция, работающая на угле: Coal-fired power stations are among the worst offenders in the production of sulphur gases. | Even a new cleaner generation of coal-fired power stations is 10 years away. | Trees consume carbon dioxide emitted by coal-fired power stations and other sources. | This is because of the higher levels of carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired stations compared with natural gas.
oil-fired / oil-burning / oil-powered / oil-fuelled power station / plant электростанция, работающая на нефти / мазуте / жидком топливе: The power company is considering converting several of its rarely-used oil-fired stations for use with orimulsion.
gas-fired / gas-burning / gas-powered / gas-fuelled power station / plant / (electricity) generating station электростанция, работающая на природном газе: Of 32 planned gas-fired power stations, three-quarters are badly designed and likely to waste more than half the gas they use. | Emissions from a gas-fired plant are about half those from a coal-fired one. | Its last gas-fired plant was built in 1972 in Pittsburg. | Several large gas-fired electricity generating stations will begin to operate and that will inevitably take away a proportion of the market. | Will the Labour party shut down the new gas-fired generating stations, break those contracts and lay off the men?
to close (down) / shut down a power station / plant
a power station / plant closes (down) / shuts down: The power plants have shut down.
to commission a power station / plant | to put / place a power station / plant into commission вводить в действие / сдавать в эксплуатацию электростанцию
to decommission a power station / plant | to put / place a power station / plant out of commission снимать с / выводить из эксплуатации электростанцию: a decommissioned power plant in Colorado
power plant [countable] a machine or engine that produces power and supplies it to a building, factory, plane, car etc силовая / энергетическая установка
dam [countable] a special wall built across a river or stream to stop the water from flowing, especially in order to make a lake or produce electricity плотина, дамба; насыпь; запруда; перемычка, мол: Work on the dam began in 1983 but was held up by economic and environmental objections. | Environmentalists fear that, if completed, the hydroelectric dam will severely disrupt the Danube ecosystem. | The Aswan High Dam is on the river Nile in Egypt. | The dam will stand 600 feet high. | In other countries smaller dam projects have created bodies of water in which mosquitoes thrive. | Following widespread protests the government announced the cancellation of the dam project in early March.
to build / construct / erect dam строить / возводить плотину: It was quite another thing to build a dam, store the water, and make the desert bloom. | They went ahead with plans to build a dam on the Danube River. | The Marshalls erected dams on their estate and were responsible for creating Tarn Hows.
storage / reservoir dam плотина водохранилища At the lodge gates turn right over the reservoir dam, then walk up through Blackstone Bank Wood.
hydroelectric dam плотина гидроэлектростанции: The soil washed from the hills is silting up the hydroelectric dams. | It has also promised not to build any new hydroelectric dams, the source of the rest of the country's electricity.
to burst / break a dam прорывать плотину: Breaking the dam could submerge downstream cities such as Wuhan.
a dam bursts / breaks плотину прорывает: A dam burst and flooded their villages. | The dam burst after heavy rains. | More than 70 people were killed in the floods, caused when a dam burst. | If the dam breaks it will inundate large parts of the town.
the burst / break of a dam прорыв плотины
reservoir [countable] an artificial or natural lake where water is stored so that it can be supplied to the houses in an area водохранилище, водоем; резервуар; бассейн: This will act as a water reservoir to keep the soil from becoming too soggy. | Which towns use the water from the reservoirs on the River Derwent? | This reservoir was formed by damming the River Blith. | Radioactive water seeped into underground reservoirs.
natural reservoir естественное водохранилище
artificial reservoir искусственное водохранилище
to build a reservoir: Water companies should concentrate on reducing waste instead of building new reservoirs.
a reservoir dries up водохранилище / водоем высыхает / пересыхает: Reservoirs are drying up and farmers have begun to leave their land in search of water.
(water) catchment area [countable] (technical) the area of land around a river or lake that it gets its water from водосбор, водосборный бассейн, водосборная площадь, область водосбора: Attempts will be made to reduce pesticide use in water catchment areas.
to dam (up) [transitive] to stop the water in a river or stream from flowing by building a special wall across it перегораживать / подпирать плотиной, запруживать реку, сооружать дамбу: Pinchot wanted to dam the Tuolumne River and flood the valley to provide water and electricity to San Francisco. | The local people dammed up the river to make a lake for their water supply. | The East Branch River was dammed in 1952. | The Stanislaus River is dammed fourteen times on its short run to the sea.
power failure | power cut (British English) | (power / electrical) outage (American English) | blackout [countable] a period of time when there is no electricity supply нарушение энергоснабжения, (аварийное) отключение / прекращение подачи электроэнергии; перерыв в подаче энергии; авария в энергосистеме: Half way between Victoria and Gatwick there was a power failure, the lights went out and the train ground to a halt. | A drop in voltage can be more serious than a power cut. | I keep a supply of candles to use in power cuts. | He said there was no power outage. | A brief electrical outage sapped its power. | There was an electricity blackout in a large area in the north of the country.
to have / suffer / experience a power failure / cut / outage / blackout: Customers of San Diego Gas & Electric had power failures that lasted an average of 57 minutes that year. | Parts of the country have had power cuts because of the storm. | On enquiry they were told that the other had been lent to a local restaurant when it suffered a power cut. | Several neighbourhoods in the San Francisco area experienced blackouts last night.
a power failure / cut / outage / blackout occurs: For example, the specialist Sun Frost range keeps food fresh for weeks rather than days if a power cut occurs. | Even a one-day outage, such as the one that occurred last June, can cost these giant companies $ 100 million.
to cause a power failure / cut / outage / blackout: The last locally-caused power failure of greater magnitude was the Loma Prieta earthquake in October, 1989. | Storms caused power cuts in hundreds of homes last night. | A windstorm in Washington is causing power outages throughout the region. | The storm caused a sudden blackout and brought down telephone lines.
to black out [transitive] to cause a failure of electrical power in sth нарушать / отключать энергоснабжение; вызывать аварию энергосистемы: Storm damage blacked out much of the region. | The entire city was blacked out overnight.
renewable (adjective) renewable energy and natural materials replace themselves by natural processes, so that they are never completely used up возобновляемый: Renewable energy will become progressively more important as time goes on. | They are at last beginning to invest in renewable energy. | Worldwide, groundwater is 40 times more abundant than fresh water in streams and lakes, and although groundwater is a renewable resource, reserves are replenished relatively slowly. | Trees are a renewable resource that when managed properly can sustain our needs indefinitely. | The basic challenge for sustainable agriculture is to maximize the use of locally-available and renewable resources. | Renewable sources of energy must be used where practical. | And we should develop renewable sources of energy.
non-renewable (adjective) non-renewable types of energy such as coal, oil, or gas cannot be replaced after they have been used невозобновляемый, невосполнимый: All countries are being asked to cut down on their use of non-renewable resources. | Estimates of the availability of non-renewable fuels vary. | The key threat that Green politics poses to the capitalist global system is in the matter of the consumption of non-renewable resources. | They are also increasing their rate of consumption of non-renewable resources in the form of fossil fuels. | These are the non-renewable sources of energy that have been used predominantly in the past.
water / electricity / gas supply [uncountable] the act of providing water, electricity, or gas водоснабжение, электроснабжение, газоснабжение; подача / поставка воды / электроэнергии / газа: The local people dammed up the river to make a lake for their water supply. | The electricity supply industry is to be broken up and sold. | Some estimates suggest that up to 11 percent of total gas supply in Britain is being lost.
water / electricity / gas supply (system) [countable – usually singular] a system that is used to supply water, electricity, or gas система водоснабжения / электроснабжения / газоснабжения; водопровод: Industrial waste leaked into the water supply. | Chemical waste has found its way into the water supply. | Chemical waste has poisoned the city's water supply. | The chemical leak poisoned the water supply. | The fertilizers and pesticides used on many farms are polluting the water supply. | Cleaning up the water supply is their top priority. | It is claimed the dust left behind pollutes water supplies. | Most urban water supplies in the United States now contain fluoride in varying amounts. | The electricity supply is less reliable in mountainous areas of the country. | Alarms sound if gas supplies break down, and automatically connect reserve tanks. | A simple change in the weather can make significant changes in demand on the gas supply system.
to cut off the water / electricity / gas supply отключать систему водоснабжения / электроснабжения / газоснабжения: The town is without electricity and the water supply has been cut off. | The electricity supply has not been cut off.
to site | to locate [transitive] to place or build something in a particular place размещать, помещать; располагать в определенном месте; назначать место (для постройки и т. п.): Any coal-burning power plant must be sited with extreme care. | Where have they decided to site the new factory? | The new factory is to be sited in Fort Collins. | Where is the new factory to be located? | Newly formed global corporations in the emerging world are also gradually beginning to locate facilities in the developed world. | Atlanta was voted the best city in which to locate a business by more than 400 chief executives.
to disrupt | to dislocate [transitive] to prevent something, especially a system, process or event, from continuing in its usual way by causing problems нарушать; разрушать; подрывать; срывать: The drought has severely disrupted agricultural production. | The aim of the strike was to disrupt rail services as much as possible. | Climate change could disrupt the agricultural economy. | Frequent strikes dislocated the economy. | The strike at the financial nerve centre was designed to dislocate the economy.
disruption | dislocation [uncountable; countable] a situation in which something, especially a system, process or event, is prevented from continuing in its usual way нарушение; разрушение; подрыв; срыв: There had been loss of shipping and sales of overseas assets, but there was no great disruption and dislocation. | The disruption has now spread and is affecting a large part of central Liberia.
disruption / dislocation to / of sth: There was severe disruption to the gas, water and electricity supplies. | The new building was stained by smoke, but there was no disruption to normal operations. | A big jump in energy conservation could be achieved without much disruption of anyone's standard of living.
to cause disruption / dislocation (to / of sth) | to impose disruption / dislocation on sth | to lead to / result in disruption / dislocation: The strike caused widespread disruption to train services. | The storm caused considerable dislocation of air traffic. | Snow has caused serious dislocation to / of train services. | They very often impose large-scale social and environmental disruption on a society. | Change without unity would lead to disruption and chaos. | These could easily lead to the disruption of overseas markets and sources of raw materials.
to minimize disruption / dislocation: If you are considering going on secondment during term time it is obviously important to minimize disruption to the teaching programme.
economic / industry / social / civil disruption / dislocation: This will cause economic disruption comparable with a hike in oil prices or interest rates. | The 1930s was a period of economic dislocation. | At the time of the shooting the students were not rioting or causing civil disruption.
serious / major / severe / substantial / massive / widespread disruption / dislocation: They caused serious disruption to the government's privatization plans. | But it would have caused major disruption in many other areas as well. | The rail strike is causing major disruptions at the country's ports. | The accident, which left wreckage spread over a wide area, blocked the road causing severe traffic disruption. | To support such action, officials would have to show that the publications caused or would probably cause substantial and material disruption. | The one day strike will close many government offices causing massive disruption.
8. Natural Disasters
disaster | catastrophe | calamity [countable; uncountable] a sudden event such as a flood, storm, or accident which causes great damage or suffering бедствие, катастрофа; беда, несчастье; авария: The earthquake was a national disaster. | The blizzard was a catastrophe that affected 17 states, ranging from New Hampshire to Tennessee. | Hurricane George was just the latest calamity to hit the state.
to cause / bring (a) disaster / catastrophe / calamity вызывать бедствие / катастрофу, приводить к бедствию / катастрофе: The earthquake has caused an ecological disaster. | It's threatening to cause a huge ecological disaster. | It is estimated that one heavy rainstorm could bring disaster. | That is 80m times the power of the Hiroshima bomb – enough to cause a global catastrophe.
to spell disaster (for sb / sth) | to threaten (a) catastrophe to make someone expect disaster / catastrophe предвещать бедствие / катастрофу, угрожать бедствием / катастрофой: The drought could spell disaster for wildlife. | The lack of rain could spell disaster for farmers. | More bad weather would spell disaster for this year's wheat crop. | The oil spill threatens an unparalleled ecological catastrophe.
to be a disaster / catastrophe / calamity (for / to sb / sth) to have a very bad effect on: The oil spill was a disaster for Alaskan sea animals. | The fire was a catastrophe for / to everyone.
to be heading for (a) disaster / catastrophe / calamity | to be headed for / towards (a) disaster / catastrophe / calamity | to move towards (a) disaster / catastrophe / calamity идти к бедствию / катастрофе: Forecasters predict the region's economy is heading for disaster. | In sum, our nation was headed towards ecological disaster. | The economy seems to be moving towards catastrophe.
to face / suffer / experience (a) disaster / catastrophe / calamity попасть в беду, испытать несчастье: The Black Sea is facing ecological catastrophe as a result of pollution.
to deal with / cope with / recover from (a) disaster / catastrophe / calamity: It could prevent us from dealing expeditiously with emergencies such as natural disasters or military threats. | The local people are used to coping with disaster.
to result in / end in / lead to (a) disaster / catastrophe / calamity: Most people now accept that global warming could result in an environmental catastrophe. | The expedition ended in disaster, with three people being killed.
to avoid / prevent / avert / ward off (a) disaster / catastrophe / calamity: If the world is to avoid environmental catastrophe, advanced economies must undergo a profound transition. | But they also knew there was a remote chance that their efforts might help to prevent catastrophe. | This would help prevent such a disaster occurring again. | Sudan requires food immediately to avert a humanitarian catastrophe. | We are the last generation who can avert this catastrophe.
(a) disaster / catastrophe strikes / hits (sb / sth) | (a) disaster / catastrophe occurs / happens | (a) disaster / catastrophe befalls sb / sth бедствие / катастрофа происходит / случается / постигает кого-л.: Everything was going smoothly until suddenly disaster struck. | The 1987 hurricane was the worst natural disaster to hit England for decades. | This is one of the worst natural disasters ever to befall the area.
ecological / environmental / economic / nuclear / man-made disaster / catastrophe: Rampart Dam was an ecological disaster probably without precedent in the world. | But it's also a story of ecological disaster and man's excess. | Tex Slampacker was referring to yet another man-made ecological disaster. | Perhaps international pressure can stop this environmental disaster. | The result is that civil, socio-political and environmental disasters are now threatening the roots of our existence. | The 1986 nuclear disaster in Chernobyl spread radiation worldwide. | Scientists say the oil spill is an ecological catastrophe. | Most people now accept that global warming could result in an environmental catastrophe. | Each side claims that its estimate of the chances of nuclear catastrophe is more accurate.
national disaster / catastrophe: The earthquake was a national disaster.
disaster area / zone / scene зона бедствия: The Los Alamos area was officially declared a disaster area after the forest fires there in May.
natural disaster / catastrophe [countable; uncountable] a disaster / catastrophe caused by nature, not by an accident стихийное бедствие: Natural disasters such as floods and earthquakes are common occurrences in California. | The governor said the earthquake was the worst natural disaster to hit India for over 50 years. | There are many who have suffered personal disaster and whose livelihoods have been destroyed by natural catastrophe or invasion. | Most countries of the world have their records of great natural catastrophes which changed the local face of the earth.
drought [countable; uncountable] a long period of dry weather when there is not enough water for plants and animals to live засуха; засушливость; нехватка дождей: A severe drought has caused most of the corn crop to fail. | Somalia was again crippled by a drought that threatened to kill hundreds of thousands more. | The area has been ravaged by drought. | Exacerbated by drought, water abstraction has increased by 70 percent over the past three years to satisfy consumer demand.
(a) drought threatens sb / sth: This year a severe drought threatens the lives of 3m people, half the population.
(a) drought hits sth | to be affected / touched by (a) drought | to be plagued by / with (a) drought: The village has been hit by a devastating drought. | Both places represent semiarid savannas and have repeatedly been affected by drought and famine. | Fires continued to burn elsewhere in the West in states plagued by one of the worst droughts of the century.
to suffer / experience (a) drought: Central Africa is suffering one of the worst droughts of the century. | During the same period, the city experienced its first severe drought.
severe / prolonged drought: A severe drought caused most of the crops to fail, then winds reaching hurricane force destroyed what was left. | A severe drought is threatening the rice crop. | This year (a) severe drought has ruined the crops. | This summer, the situation has been exacerbated by prolonged drought.
flood | inundation (formal) [countable; uncountable] | flooding [uncountable] a very large amount of water that covers an area that is usually dry наводнение, потоп; затопление; половодье; паводок; разлив: Floods in Bangladesh caused over 100 deaths. | The village was cut off by floods. | The town was completely destroyed by floods. | After the flood it took weeks for the water level to go down. | The river banks have been built up to prevent flooding. | Villagers were moved to higher ground, the great barrage was built, and the flooding began. | Last weekend's flooding left over 10,000 people homeless. | The severe flooding has claimed over 500 lives. | Over the past decade this has flooded six times with another inundation expected this spring.
to cause / lead to a flood / inundation / flooding (in a place): The rainstorms caused floods in the low-lying parts of the town. | The flooding, caused by three days of torrential rain, is the worst in sixty-five years. | The removal of such a sediment source may be disastrous, causing inundation of coastal flood defences. | They were helped by a Spring tide which caused extensive flooding and rendered all the fords impassable. | Flooding caused by the dam may displace up to a million people.
a flood / flood water(s) / floodwater(s) strike(s) / hit(s) / inundate(s) / sweep(s) through (a place): The flood struck / inundated several cities. | The southwest of England has been badly hit by floods. | A couple of years ago these lanes were far from peaceful when a flash flood swept through the area. | Floodwaters periodically inundate the lowlands of the state. | Over 25 people drowned when a school bus tried to cross a river and flood waters swept through.
a flood / flooding destroys / devastates / obliterates / wipes out / ravages sth | a flood / flooding causes / brings destruction (to sth): The country has been devastated by floods. | Frequent flooding eventually obliterated all traces of the community that used to live there. | Whole villages were wiped out by the floods. | The area has been ravaged by floods. | The flood caused great destruction. | The floods brought death and destruction to the area.
to be in flood a river that is in flood has much more water in it than usual so that water flows over its banks: The river is in flood again.
to suffer a flood: Last winter, the town suffered the worst floods for fifty years.
to survive a flood: Snapping out of his brief trance, Mungo supposed Stanley was relieved that at least the shop had survived the flood.
to prevent a flood / inundation / flooding: The scheme proposed by the National Rivers Authority is designed to prevent flooding caused by a repeat of the 1947 event.
a flood / flood water(s) / floodwater(s) subside(s) / recede(s) паводковая вода убывает: The flood (waters) subsided. | After three weeks the flood waters finally receded.
raging flood сильное наводнение
flash flood / flooding a flood that happens very quickly or suddenly, and continues for only a short time внезапное / неожиданное наводнение: In the event of a flash flood, remember that you should immediately seek higher ground. | Summer flash floods achieve little beyond destroying crops. | Violent thunderstorms have caused flash flooding across the region.
flood water(s) / floodwater(s) паводковая вода: Helicopters continued to search for others who had climbed trees to escape from the flood waters. | The building was evacuated, as flood water filled the basement. | The flood waters were controlled by a succession of carefully engineered sluice-gates and locks.
to flood | to inundate (formal) (1) [transitive] to cover an area of land with a large amount of water затоплять, заливать: A dam burst and flooded their villages. | Towns and cities all over the country have been flooded. | If the dam breaks it will inundate large parts of the town. | Water burst through the dam and flooded local villages. | Floodwaters periodically inundate the lowlands of the state. | The fields were inundated with the heavy rain.
(2) [intransitive] to become covered with a large amount of water быть / оказаться затопленным: Ten years ago the valley flooded. | The whole town flooded last summer. | The houses down by the river flood quite regularly. | The whole town flooded when the river burst its banks.
(3) to overflow [intransitive; transitive] | to burst one's banks if a river or lake floods / overflows, water rises up over its edges and covers the land around it разливаться, выйти из берегов
to flood / overflow: Three major rivers have already flooded, and two more are on red alert. | Reservoirs overflowed, and saturated levees continued to break in the San Joaquin Valley. | The drains flooded and water overflowed down the main street.
to flood / overflow one's banks / bed: Many streams have flooded their banks, making some roads impassable. | The river overflowed its banks. | 500 people were forced from their houses when several rivers overflowed their banks. | Now the water ran strongly only when the river overflowed its new bed.
to flood out [transitive] if people, places, or things are flooded out, the water from a flood makes it impossible for people to stay in that place or to use that thing: The river flooded them out every few years. | Several families living by the river were flooded out. | Train lines were flooded out.
earthquake [countable] a sudden shaking movement of the earth's surface that often causes a lot of damage землетрясение: The 1989 earthquake rendered them dangerous, and the structure came down in 1991. | Earthquakes are not common in this part of the world. | The earthquake killed 62 people. | The San Francisco earthquake of 1906 had a magnitude of 8.3. | The earthquake registered 5.3 points on the Richter scale.
to record an earthquake зарегистрировать землетрясение
to cause / trigger (off) an earthquake вызвать землетрясение: He claimed that the site was geologically unsound and any stress caused by a shift in water levels could cause an earthquake. | Shifting plates of the Earth's crust push against each other, triggering volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.
an earthquake hits / strikes (sth) / happens / occurs землетрясение происходит: A severe earthquake hit / struck (the area). | Mexico City was badly hit in the 1985 earthquake. | About two-hundred people died in the earthquake which hit northern Peru. | A powerful earthquake struck the Italian island of Sicily early this morning. | A severe earthquake struck the area. | An earthquake measuring 6.1 on the Richter scale struck southern California on June 28. | Earthquakes happen when stresses in rock are suddenly released as the rocks fracture.
an earthquake destroys / devastates / flattens / razes (to the ground) / shakes sth | an earthquake causes / brings destruction (to sth) | an earthquake reduces sth to rubble: In 1906 an earthquake destroyed much of San Francisco. | Kobe was devastated by the 1995 earthquake. | Western India was devastated by a huge earthquake. | More than 10,000 houses were flattened by the quake. | The city has been razed by an earthquake. | The city continued to thrive until a massive earthquake razed it to the ground in 749AD. | On 4 March 1977, Bucharest was shaken by a severe earthquake. | A massive earthquake reduced the city to rubble. | The president flew in to look at the destruction caused by the earthquake.
to survive an earthquake: They survived what was, at least, a Pretty Big Onethe largest earthquake to strike northern California in eighty-three years.
light / minor earthquake легкое землетрясение: There was a terrifying rumbling noise and the stairs shook as though a minor earthquake had passed beneath the house.
severe / powerful / devastating earthquake сильное / разрушительное землетрясение: San Francisco was shaken by a severe earthquake which, together with the fire that followed, almost completely destroyed the city. | A powerful earthquake struck the Italian island of Sicily early this morning. | The plant, situated on the outskirts of the capital, Yerevan, was closed after the devastating earthquake in 1988.
earthquake zone: The city is in an earthquake zone. | Government officials visited the earthquake zone on Thursday morning to co-ordinate the relief effort.
volcano (plural – volcanoes / volcanos) [countable] a mountain with a large hole at the top, through which hot rocks, lava, and ash sometimes rise into the air from inside the earth вулкан: They found ash from the volcano all the way over in Kansas. | The volcano came to life a week ago. | The volcano spewed out more scorching volcanic ashes, gases and rocks.
a volcano erupts вулкан извергается: Pompeii was destroyed when the volcano erupted in 79 AD. | The volcano last erupted over fifty years ago. | The volcano erupted last year killing about 600 people. | The volcano erupted in 1980, devastating a large area of Washington state.
active volcano one that may explode at any time действующий вулкан: Etna is Europe's most active volcano.
dormant / sleeping volcano one that is not active at the moment спящий вулкан: The term 'dormant volcano' is applied during the period between eruptions to those volcanoes thought to be potentially active. | The site chosen for the painting is a view across the bays of the dormant volcano Rangitoto which dominates Auckland's skyline. | So on this occasion when the priest set forth this ancient cry, it was as if a sleeping volcano erupted.
extinct / dead volcano one that is no longer active at all потухший вулкан: Even mightier in the background is the extinct volcano of Arthur's Seat. | The island is actually the summit of a huge, extinct volcano.
eruption [uncountable; countable] an outbreak of a volcano извержение: eruptions of ashes and lava | in a state of eruption
volcanic eruption извержение вулкана
landslide | landfall | landslip (British English) | mudslide [countable] a sudden fall of a lot of earth or rocks down the side of a cliff, hill, mountain etc обвал, оползень: There were also a number of landslides in the area. | Small communities in Idaho were cut off when highways were closed by landslides or flooding. | Areas threatened by landslides and floods are being identified and rezoned to prevent later devastation. | Most of the deaths were caused by landslides and collapsing buildings. | Roads were flooded or blocked by landslips. | Five homes there were evacuated because of mudslides. | Some mudslides were reported throughout the region, blocking part of a river and causing some flooding.
to cause / trigger (off) a landslide / landslip / mudslide: Flooding caused landslides and serious property damage. | Torrential rains caused a massive mudslide. | Initial rescue efforts were hampered by a lack of heavy equipment and by landslides triggered by the initial earthquake.
avalanche [countable] a large mass of snow, ice, and rocks that suddenly falls down the side of a mountain лавина, обвал: Two skiers were killed in the avalanche. | The original station in the open was destroyed by an avalanche with the loss of thirty-five lives in 1964. | Eventually he is killed by an Alpine avalanche.
storm [countable] a period of very bad weather when there is a lot of rain or snow, strong winds, and often thunder and lightning буря, гроза; ураган; шторм: The forecast says there will be storms. | The Spanish ships were wrecked in the storm. | A lot of trees were blown down in the recent storms. | They're still clearing up the storm damage.
a storm brews / gathers собирается буря: There was a storm brewing on the horizon. | There's a storm brewing in the Pacific. | A storm was gathering.
a storm breaks / unleashes itself it suddenly begins буря поднимается / начинается / разражается: The storm broke at five o'clock. | A violent storm broke just as we reached the mountain. | That very night a fierce storm broke over the sea. | In the evening the wind became stronger and soon a great storm broke above us. | It was when they decided to return to shore that a terrible storm unleashed itself in the Moray Firth.
hurricane [countable] a storm that has extremely strong winds and heavy rain and that moves over water, especially found in the West Atlantic Ocean ураган; тропический циклон: The hurricane blew some palm trees over. | In 1842 six ships were at anchor in Funchal Bay when a hurricane blew them all on to the shore. | Hurricane Andrew was last night heading into the Gulf of Mexico. | In 1346 a hurricane whipped up the sea to destroy the town. | Hurricane George was just the latest calamity to hit the state.
the eye of a hurricane центр урагана: The eye of the hurricane hit Florida just south of Miami.
hurricane force very strong: Everywhere there are typhoons, sometimes of hurricane force. | Hurricane force winds are expected tonight. | A hurricane-force gust blew off part of a church tower.
tornado (plural – tornadoes / tornados) | whirlwind | twister (American English) (informal) [countable] an extremely strong wind that moves quickly with a circular movement, causing a lot of damage смерч, торнадо; вихрь; сильный ураган: A tornado destroyed twelve homes in Ashport, Tennessee yesterday. | Rival scientists battle to place scientific equipment in the path of a raging tornado. | A team of scientists chases tornadoes, then the twisters chase the scientists. | Being in a car that is lifted into the sky by a twister tends to give you good material.
cyclone [countable] a violent tropical storm or wind in which the air moves very fast in a circle циклон; область низкого давления: Darwin was flattened by Cyclone Tracy in 1974. | The north and south winds met where the house stood, and made it the exact centre of the cyclone. | A cyclone in the Bay of Bengal is threatening the eastern Indian states.
typhoon [countable] a very violent storm in tropical areas in which the wind moves in circles, found in the West Pacific Ocean тайфун: Suddenly a fierce typhoon descends upon the Pequod. | This is because the hottest time coincides with the typhoon season. | It has called the typhoon the worst natural disaster in South Korea in four years. | The typhoon has left a trail of death and destruction across much of central Japan.
storm | hurricane | tornado | whirlwind | twister | cyclone | typhoon COLLOCATIONS
to cause a storm / hurricane / tornado / whirlwind / twister / cyclone / typhoon: That collision of conflicting air masses usually causes particularly rambunctious storms to slam California.
a storm / hurricane / tornado / whirlwind / twister / cyclone / typhoon occurs: It is designed to withstand the sort of storm that statistically would be expected to occur once in every 10,000 years.
a storm / hurricane / tornado / whirlwind / twister / cyclone / typhoon hits / strikes (sth) буря налетает / наносит урон: The storm finally hit. | The hurricane / tornado / typhoon hit / struck (several cities). | Hurricane Louis is expected to hit at the weekend. | The storm was the most powerful to hit Hawaii this century. | The 1987 hurricane was the worst natural disaster to hit England for decades. | The state of Florida was hit by a hurricane that did serious damage. | Twenty people were killed when storms struck the Mid-West.
a storm / hurricane / tornado / whirlwind / twister / cyclone / typhoon destroys / devastates / flattens / razes (to the ground) / levels (to / with the ground) / ravages sth буря разрушает / наносит урон: Hundreds of homes were flattened by the tornado. | The storm levelled hundreds of houses, but left some untouched. | A tornado ravaged the countryside.
a storm / hurricane / tornado / whirlwind / twister / cyclone / typhoon rages буря бушует: By the time we reached the airfield next morning a tropical storm was raging.
a storm / hurricane / tornado / whirlwind / twister / cyclone / typhoon abates / subsides / blows over / blows itself out буря стихает / утихает: The ship sailed when the storm abated. | We waited for the storm to abate. | The storm has lasted a long time, it should soon blow over. | The hurricane blew itself out.
to be / get caught in a storm / hurricane / tornado / whirlwind / twister / cyclone / typhoon: They are believed to have been caught in a storm without enough food or water. | Then one day Johnny Appleseed got caught in a fierce storm.
great / fierce / heavy / severe / terrible / raging / violent / howling storm / hurricane / tornado / whirlwind / twister / cyclone / typhoon сильная буря: But there may also be more extremes in the weather such as severe storms, droughts and floods. | Once there was a terrible storm with very heavy rain. | The sky was overcast and suddenly there was a violent thunder storm. | The authors also predict an increase in violent storms, fires, landslides and avalanches in the Alpine region as well as widespread deforestation.
lightning [uncountable] a powerful flash of light in the sky caused by electricity and usually followed by thunder молния: There was a great summer storm, with thunder and lightning and heavy rain.
lightning flashes / flickers молния сверкает: Lightning flashed overhead. | Overhead, lightning flickered frequently as the static electricity accumulating in the ash cloud discharged.
lightning strikes / hits (sb) молния ударяет: Two farm workers were struck by lightning. | Another bolt of lightning struck behind him. | That tree was struck by lightning.
flash / bolt of lightning вспышка молнии: A flash of lightning lit up the sky. | Another flash of lightning lit up the cave. | The rumbling becomes louder and is interspersed with flashes of lightning as the sky blackens. | Atop a mountain he slew his daughter, then was immediately struck dead by a bolt of lightning.
lightning strike | stroke of lightning удар молнии: I believe that there was a lightning strike on the car. | Energy was released into the building by a lightning strike.
forked lightning зигзагообразная молния
ball lightning шаровая молния
flood plain | water meadow [countable] | flood lands [plural] an area of flat land beside a river that is frequently flooded when the river becomes too full пойма; заливной луг: The little town crowns a low plateau just out of reach of the flood plain of the nearby Deerfield River. | Another area needing careful management is the water meadow, where control of water flow is vital. | This faces out on to a flooded water meadow full of grazing buffaloes.
marsh [countable; uncountable] an area of low-lying flat land near a river, lake, or the sea that is always wet and soft and that is characterized by grassy vegetation and often forming a transition zone between water and land плодородная низменность; пойменное / травяное болото; топь: A former pool had silted up and was turning into a miniature reed marsh. | We followed them through the marsh, which smelled of dying plants. | Cattle fattening on the coastal marshes supported a prosperous peasantry as in Lincolnshire. | Miles of salt marsh stretched before us, reaching to the shores of the River Severn. | At the mouth of the river is a large area of marsh. | There is a complete progression of habitats from dry meadows through marshes and reed-beds to open water.
wetland [countable – often plural; uncountable] an area of low-lying flat land near a river, lake, or the sea, such as a marsh or swamp, that is partly covered with water, or is wet most of the time заболоченная территория, заболоченное место; сырой участок: It was a programme to preserve the state's wetlands. | This marshy wetland would have easily been converted for their use. | There are some areas of wetland which are of ancient origin.
farming [uncountable] the practice or business of growing crops or keeping animals on a farm занятие сельским хозяйством / фермерством, ведение сельского / фермерского хозяйства; земледелие: In the wettest and wildest parts of the marshes, fishing and fowling replaced more organized farming.
arable / livestock / sheep / dairy / fish / fur farming: It was no accident that a good many towns were sited on the borderline between arable farming and pastoral regions. | Livestock farming has been seriously affected by the need to produce so much so quickly. | But coyotes are taking the biggest bite out of sheep farming in Northern California. | This makes the area unsuitable for dairy farming where a constant supply of lush summer grass is essential.
farming industry: The farming industry needs to inform the public about all aspects of their industry and open these up to public discussion. | As has been said before, there is a general gloom about the farming industry.
agriculture [uncountable] the practice or science of farming сельское хозяйство; земледелие; агрономия: Local wildlife and agriculture are likely to be badly affected, environmentalists claim. | More than 75% of the land is used for agriculture. | But this pattern has begun to change, especially in the ever-sensitive area of agriculture. | The initiative will allow the entrepreneurs to test new approaches to agriculture or develop new agricultural products and activities. | Agriculture is still largely based on traditional methods in some countries. | The area depends on agriculture for most of its income.
farming | agriculture COLLOCATIONS
to be involved / engaged / employed in farming / agriculture | to practise farming / agriculture заниматься сельским хозяйством: She will most probably be involved in agriculture, in subsistence farming of crops like rice. | They were engaged in agriculture and industry but they renounced trade. | At the beginning of the 1980s, about a third of the total labour force was employed in agriculture. | Seventy percent of the country's population practises subsistence agriculture.
intensive / sustainable / traditional / organic farming / agriculture: They said they didn't have strong views on intensive farming. | Our increase in intensive farming has brought with it an increase in outbreaks of food poisoning. | More intensive agriculture has led to increased concentrations of nitrate in groundwater in many areas. | The basic challenge for sustainable agriculture is to maximize the use of locally-available and renewable resources. | One battleground in the debate is the issue of whether biotechnology threatens sustainable agriculture. | Quietly, slowly and significantly, sustainable agriculture is sweeping the farming systems of the world. | The decline in revenue from traditional farming means that farmers must diversify. | If agreed by the Council of Ministers it will form the basis for support to the maintenance of traditional agriculture without intensification. | Some farmers are likely to achieve this by converting to organic farming.
subsistence farming / agriculture натуральное сельское хозяйство; примитивное сельское хозяйство: Much of the worldwide loss was the result of impoverished farmers being compelled to clear the land for subsistence agriculture. | By contrast, there was a general shift from subsistence agriculture to the production of cash crops and the provision of services. | The world which had been dominated by subsistence agriculture crumbled.
agricultural (adjective) relating to farming сельскохозяйственный; аграрный, земельный, земледельческий: The country's economy is mainly agricultural and depends on crops like coffee. | The land is only to be used for agricultural purposes. | Large families are more common in traditional agricultural societies than in cities. | The Saudi authorities have made agricultural development a central plank of policy to make the country less dependent on imports. | Relief agencies are stepping up efforts to provide food, shelter and agricultural equipment.
agricultural land: The world's supply of agricultural land is shrinking fast. | Good agricultural land is in short supply. | Chemical products were used liberally over agricultural land.
agricultural policy: Farmers have criticized the government's agricultural policy.
agricultural reform: Successful agricultural reform is also a sine qua non of Mexico's modernization.
agricultural productivity / efficiency продуктивность сельского хозяйства, производительность труда в сельском хозяйстве: Agricultural productivity remained low by comparison with advanced countries like the United States. | There are many ways to increase agricultural efficiency in the poorer areas of the world.
agricultural products / produce сельскохозяйственные продукты, сельскохозяйственная продукция: France is the world's second-biggest exporter of agricultural products. | There's a glut of agricultural products in Western Europe.
agricultural production сельскохозяйственное производство: The drought has severely disrupted agricultural production. | Exceptionally dry weather over the past year has cut agricultural production.
agricultural / farm subsidies субсидии на развитие сельского хозяйства: The European Community is at loggerheads with the rest of the world over its agricultural subsidies. | The US wants big cuts in European agricultural export subsidies, but this is meeting resistance. | A clash with America over farm subsidies left the Europeans and their common agricultural policy shaken but not stirred.
agricultural chemistry агрохимия
agricultural engineering агротехника
to farm [transitive; intransitive] to use land for growing crops or keeping animals заниматься сельским хозяйством; обрабатывать землю
to farm sth: They farmed some of the best land in Scotland. | His grandfather farmed 250 acres across the border in County Monaghan. | He farms sheep. | Their land is farmed very intensively. | The land has been farmed organically since 1995. | Apart from the small plots given to each member family for their house and garden, all the land is farmed collectively.
to farm: They've been farming in the area all their lives. | The family has farmed here for generations. | My family has farmed here since 1901. | The cossacks were given allotments of land and farmed there as the wooden fortifications gradually rotted away.
to cultivate [transitive] (1) to till | to work to prepare and use land for growing crops обрабатывать, возделывать: Farmers worked the fertile valleys. | He was left to work the farm alone.
to cultivate / till the land / field / soil: The land was too poor / rocky to cultivate. | Population growth is causing people to clear more woodland so that they can cultivate the land. | The tribe cultivated the land and grew the food. | Most of the world's fertile land is already being cultivated. | In agricultural societies, men tilled the land while women tended home and children. | The townspeople tilled the soil and produced most everything they ate. | Workers were singing as they tilled the rice paddy fields. | They were looking forward to tilling their own fields in a land of plenty.
cultivated land обрабатываемая земля: Today, we have only about two acres of cultivated land per person.
tilled field обработанное поле: freshly tilled fields
(2) (formal) to grow to plant and take care of a particular crop выращивать, культивировать; разводить: We cultivated maize and watermelons. | Gradually it was found more profitable to cultivate vines and olives rather than grain. | Rice is cultivated throughout the coastal regions. | Many people in other parts of the world grow crops for their own use. | Farmers grow only a few crops, while gatherers pick from a vast range of wild plants. | The villagers grow coffee and maize to sell in the market.
to fertilize [transitive] to add a natural or chemical substance to soil in order to help plants grow удобрять, обогащать (почву), вносить удобрение
to fertilize the soil / a field / a plant: The faeces contain nitrogen and it is that which fertilizes the desert soil. | When I do fertilize the plants you mention, I use a high-phosphorus fertilizer.
to irrigate [transitive] to supply land with water so that crops will grow орошать; поливать
to irrigate the soil / land / farm / area / region: A system of channels carries water down from the mountains to irrigate the soil. | This water goes first to generate hydroelectric power and then to irrigate the land. | The stored water is then used to irrigate nearby agricultural land. | None of the water from Lake Powell is used to irrigate the area. | In order to overcome the problem of an inadequate water supply, many parts of the arid and semi-arid regions have been irrigated.
irrigated land / field / farm / crop: All of the newly irrigated land has been allocated to Sri Lankan farmers and their families in plots of one hectare. | Large amounts of cotton are also grown in irrigated fields surrounding the town.
to harvest [transitive; intransitive] to gather a crop from the fields собирать / убирать / снимать урожай, жать: The group scatters to harvest the guavas. | The farmers are harvesting their crops. | Winter wheat is planted in the autumn and harvested in early summer.
cultivation [uncountable] the planting and growing of plants and crops обработка, возделывание; выращивание, культивирование; разведение: Shifting cultivation was still being practised in Czechoslovakia, for example, until the late 1970s at least. | Regularly, where intensive cultivation succeeds, civilized people in the Far East occupy only small areas. | Terraces for rice cultivation covered the hillsides. | Sugar cane cultivation is in decline on the island. | The ranch was used mainly for the cultivation of strawberries.
(to be / bring sth) under cultivation (to be / start to be) used for growing crops: These fields have been under cultivation for years. | Every inch of fertile land was under cultivation. | Even though the population expanded, there was no possibility of bringing ever-increasing amounts of land under cultivation. | Predicting how much more land can be brought under cultivation is complicated by two other factors.
irrigation [uncountable] орошение, ирригация; полив: a sophisticated irrigation system | major irrigation projects| The agricultural land is hilly and the irrigation poor.
harvest [uncountable; countable] (1) the act of gathering a crop from the fields сбор / уборка урожая, страда; жатва: The field was been ploughed up after the harvest.
(2) harvest time / season the time of year when a crop is gathered from the fields сезон сбора урожая, время жатвы, страдная пора: It rained for the potato harvest. | There was about 300 million tons of grain in the fields at the start of the harvest. | It was harvest time. | It was impossible to carry out the perambulations during the harvest season.
at harvest (time) во время сбора урожая / жатвы: The way the year is running we could have a drought at midwinter and snowdrops at harvest time. | It won't be long now till harvest (time). | Her chief festival, of course, came at the harvest time.
crop [countable] (1) a plant such as grain, fruit or vegetable that is grown by farmers and used as food сельскохозяйственная культура: The main crop is wheat and this is grown even on the very steep slopes. | The main crop in China is rice. | The main crops were oats and barley. | The wind and rain flattened the crops.
to plant a crop сажать сельскохозяйственную культуру: They're all out planting the crops today. | Rice farmers here still plant and harvest their crops by hand.
to grow a crop выращивать сельскохозяйственную культуру: With high-yield varieties of rice the farmers can grow two or three crops a year. | Most of the land is used for growing crops. | Enormous discipline would be necessary to run the irrigation systems necessary to grow crops. | There is enough rain in this region to provide grazing for cattle and good land to grow crops.
to produce a crop выращивать; заниматься производством сельскохозяйственной культуры: In autumn 1995, each produced a small crop of their designated variety. | Each year it produces a fine crop of fruit.| Why don't producer nations simply switch crops and either become more self-sufficient in food, or produce a different cash crop?
crop production производство сельскохозяйственной продукции: How can it benefit crop production? | Such measures inevitably incur substantial costs which in turn increases the cost of crop production. | The amount of new land available for crop production is extremely limited in almost every part of the world. | The higher concentration boosted crop production by 40 percent in cotton and by 10 percent in wheat.
to rotate crops чередовать культуры
crop rotation: To these ends, longer and new crop rotations can be introduced. | What crop rotation will suit the farm?
to spray crops (with sth) | to spray sth (on / on to a crop) опылять / опрыскивать культуру: Farmer Chris Slatter was spraying a crop of flax when he made the grim discovery. | If the food market expands, they reason, it could reduce the need to spray crops with harmful pesticides. | Most viruses used in pest control programmes have been sprayed directly on to crops.
to be in crop / out of crop to be / not be cultivated: The land is in / out of crop.
cash crop grown to be sold for profit товарная культура: Tobacco is the state's largest cash crop.
(2) harvest the amount of grain, fruit or vegetable that is produced in a season урожай: a crop of wheat / rice / potatoes | the wheat / corn / grain / potato / grape / rice crop / harvest | Indian farmers have doubled their output of cereal crops like wheat. | The US government says that this year's corn crop should be about 8 percent more than last year. | By the 1880s half the wheat harvest was being exported. | It was estimated that 20 percent of the grape harvest had been lost.
good / excellent / bumper / record / ample / abundant / bountiful / bounteous / rich crop / harvest a very large amount of grain, fruit or vegetable produced in a season хороший / большой / богатый / щедрый / небывалый / невиданный / обильный урожай: We had a good harvest this year. | An excellent rice harvest caused prices to plummet by 40 %. | Last year we had a bumper crop of strawberries. | Farmers have reported a bumper crop this year. | Plum growers are expecting a bumper harvest this year. | Wheat farmers have had a record crop this year.
poor / bad / scanty crop / harvest плохой / бедный / скудный урожай: Poor harvests increased food prices. | The unfairness lay in the fact that these very poor harvests were mainly the result of natural causes. | Then there was a long drought which produced a very poor harvest. | Millions of people are threatened with starvation as a result of drought and poor harvests. | But a succession of bad harvests has sent the price of this most popular bubbly soaring.
to bear / yield a crop / harvest приносить / давать урожай
to gather in / get in / harvest / reap a crop | to bring in / reap a harvest to collect crops from the field when they are ready собирать / убирать / снимать урожай, жать: Fruit growers are gathering in a bumper crop. | Be ready to harvest crops from April. | A good solution is to harvest the crop early in September, storing the tubers out of harms way.
to lose a crop / harvest: The rain was so bad this year that he lost the whole crop of barley. | And if the rain continues, some farmers may lose their entire crop. | It was during the floods in 1984 when lots of people lost their crops and there was no work for them.
crop yield урожайность: He pored over geography books in the Richmond library, searching for information on climate, soil conditions, and crop yields. | In 1922 it was not so easy to predict crop yields as it is today. | Plantations had an excellent year with increased crop yields and improved prices for its produce. | The project has enabled farmers to reduce environmental pollution whilst raising crop yields. | With cross-breeding, they improve crop yields and increase resistance to pests and disease.
crop failure неурожай, недород: The famine was caused by drought, which led to widespread crop failure. | That year, crop failure led to widespread famine. | In the Middle Ages, years of crop failure were always followed by terrible disease.
a crop fails случается неурожай: The maize crops have almost completely failed for several years running.
genetically modified | genetically engineered | GM (adjective) a genetically modified substance or crop has had its genetic structure changed in order to make it more suitable for a particular purpose, for example, so that they are not affected by particular diseases or harmful insects генетически модифицированный / измененный: genetically modified food / crops | Top supermarkets are to ban many genetically modified foods. | Many of us may be eating food containing GM ingredients without realizing it.
soil [uncountable; countable] the top layer of the earth in which plants grow почва, земля, грунт: sandy / chalky / clay / dry / soggy / swampy / waterlogged soil(s) | The bush grows well in a sandy soil. | Most herbs grow well in dry soil. | The dry rocky soil is suitable for planting vines.
to enrich the soil: This can be promoted by burning which removes woody tissue and locally enriches the soil.
fertile soil плодородная почва: We have the most fertile soil in Europe. | Agriculture flourished on the fertile soils of Kosovo and Metohija. | They do best in a deep, fertile soil that is well drained, but does not seriously dry out.
barren / poor soil бедная / бесплодная почва: The soil here is very poor.
virgin soil целинная почва, целина, новь
soil loss: Such studies may yield exaggerated estimates of total soil loss. | The central issue here is the assumptions about future agricultural technology which are made when assessing tolerable soil losses.
fertile (adjective) fertile land or soil is able to produce good crops плодородный: a fertile field / area / plain | fertile soil / land / farmland / ground | Farmers left the rocky hills of New England for the fertile plains of the Middle West. | The valley was fertile, and a good crop was a near certainty. | The plains are fertile in native plants.
barren (adjective) (1) barren land or soil is dry and plants cannot grow there малоплодородный, неплодородный, бесплодный: barren land / soil | Soon barren land will begin to show signs of fertility. | He also wants to use the water to irrigate barren desert land.
(2) desolate a barren place is dry and empty, with few plants growing пустынный, необитаемый, безжизненный; пустой; заброшенный: Intense heat created a completely barren landscape, almost like the moon. | The house stood in a bleak and desolate landscape.
fertility [uncountable] the ability of the land or soil to produce good crops плодородие: to improve the fertility of the soil / soil fertility | loss of soil fertility | Throughout the nineteenth century fertility in Britain remained high. | Synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are banned and soil fertility and pest control is achieved through crop rotation and mixed farming systems. | As well as contributing to declining soil fertility, such high sediment removal are causing problems with water supply by increasing reservoir siltation rates. | These differentials give us important clues about the motivation and causes of the fertility decline.
fertilizer [uncountable; countable] a natural or chemical substance added to soil in order to help plants grow удобрение: Bone meal and nitrates are common fertilizers. | The company said it will stop producing fertilizer in 1990 because of continued losses.
to use / apply / make use of / spread / work in a fertilizer | to put a fertilizer on one's land вносить / использовать удобрение; опрыскивать удобрением, разбрасывать удобрение: When I do fertilize the plants you mention, I use a high-phosphorus fertilizer. | I would apply a balanced fertilizer periodically. | There was greater specialization and more effective use was made of fertilizer. | Agriculturally, they had the structures necessary to mine fertilizers and annually spread them on their fields. | Work in a balanced fertilizer before planting. | I suppose such things were happy on our land because we never put chemical fertilizers on it.
to feed a crop with a fertilizer: All the soil does is hold the plants upright, while the crop is fed with artificial fertilizers.
application / use of a fertilizer: Paradoxically the ecological problems deriving from the application of artificial fertilizers are often equally complex and extensive. | An application of a balanced fertilizer once a month generally is adequate, but some gardeners apply diluted applications more often.| High levels of nitrate occur in Eastern England because of the heavy use of fertilizers.
artificial / chemical / natural / mineral / organic / liquid fertilizer: Controversy has also surrounded the long-term effects of artificial fertilizer on the soil structure. | Another useful salt is plain old chemical fertilizer. | The long-term dangers of land degradation from irrigation and chemical fertilizers are growing. | The colonial world can be hit by a shortage in chemical fertilizers.
pesticide [uncountable; countable] a chemical substance used to kill harmful insects, small animals, wild plants and other unwanted organisms that destroy crops пестицид, средство для борьбы с вредителями: the excessive use of pesticides | The destructive side-effects of pesticides are now well known. | Exporting fertilizers and pesticides to developing countries will help them increase their production. | Cloning produces large numbers of identical organisms for research purposes, such as the initial testing of new pesticides on plant species. | All foods are organically grown, except when foods with pesticide residues are used for testing. | Pesticide residues on crops and mercury in fish are examples of toxic substances that may be encountered in daily life.
herbicide | weed / plant killer | weedicide [uncountable; countable] a chemical substance used to kill weeds (= unwanted plants) that destroy crops гербицид: Hares are killed when licking fur with the herbicide. | Although there was no damage to the crop, the herbicide was almost totally ineffective in killing the weeds. | The plants carried an extra gene to make them resistant to a herbicide.
insecticide [uncountable; countable] a chemical substance used to kill insects that destroy crops инсектицид, средство от насекомых: But they began to develop resistance to the insecticide. | If you have a lot of plants and don't want to use any of the usual chemicals, try a biological insecticide. | Last year, insecticide efforts essentially failed. | The wood must be free of insecticides and herbicides. | In remote regions, the air is pure and the crops are free of poisonous insecticides.
pesticide | herbicide | insecticide COLLOCATIONS
to use / apply / make use of / spread / work in pesticide(s) / herbicide(s) / insecticide(s) применять пестициды / гербициды / инсектициды: We never use pesticides or insecticides and this is the wonderful result. | This is supposed to reduce the amount of herbicide used in spraying fields, but in practice the converse happens. | I built up my soil, added trace elements, made compost, never used herbicides or chemical insecticides. | Do not use any insecticide sprays in the house, or pesticide sprays in the garden. | Such flowers tend to grow in hedge bottoms, where they are vulnerable to the effects of carelessly applied herbicide. |
to spray / treat (one's crop / plant) with pesticide(s) / herbicide(s) / insecticide(s) | to spray pesticide(s) / herbicide(s) / insecticide(s) on one's crop / plant обрабатывать / опрыскивать пестицидами / гербицидами / инсектицидами: Spray the plants with insecticide. | Avoid areas that have been sprayed with insecticides. | Organically farmed crops are not sprayed with any chemical pesticides and are not treated with nitrogen, potassium or phosphate fertilisers. | Next year spray with a systemic insecticide.| The pesticides that farmers spray on their crops kill pests but they can also damage people's health. | About 70% of the cocoa acreage is treated with insecticide.
use / application of pesticide(s) / herbicide(s) / insecticide(s): Over the same period, pesticide use has decreased by 47 percent. | Fertilizer encourages weeds as well as crops to grow, so the increasing use of fertilizer promotes the increasing use of selective herbicides. | Treatment involves the application of insecticide by pressure spray in the form of pungent solvents or water-based emulsions or pastes. | Rivers have been polluted by chlorine, phenol and detergent, together with run-offs resulting from the over-application of pesticides on farmland.
treatment (of a crop / plant) with pesticide(s) / herbicide(s) / insecticide(s) обработка / опрыскивание пестицидами / гербицидами / инсектицидами: Give the tree a winter wash and after the blossom falls a treatment with a systemic insecticide.
pesticide / herbicide / insecticide level | levels of pesticide(s) / herbicide(s) / insecticide(s) уровень содержания пестицидов / гербицидов / инсектицидов: Pesticide levels in food are simply too difficult to calibrate. | It is claimed that the new levels of pesticide do not pose a risk to health.
to reduce / decrease // increase pesticide / herbicide / insecticide use / application: Attempts will be made to reduce pesticide use in water catchment areas.
to maintain (levels / standards of) pesticide / herbicide / insecticide use / application: In the short term it proposes increased monitoring to ensure that the highest standards of pesticide use are maintained.
harvester [countable] someone who gathers crops сборщик урожая, жнец: The harvesters stopped work, sat down and started to eat and drink.
combine (harvester) [countable] a machine for gathering crops уборочная машина, уборочный комбайн: Instead of driving a modern combine harvester, he's using a binder to cut the corn into sheaves. | I was saving 15 % roughly which is a lot on a combine harvester.
to erode (away) [transitive; intransitive] to gradually damage the surface of rock or land so that it begins to disappear, or to be gradually damaged in this way разрушать, размывать; выветривать; подвергаться эрозии, эродировать
to erode (away) sth: If the river is not controlled, it will erode its banks as well as the surrounding farm land. | The hard rains have eroded topsoil in the Midwest. | The cliffs are being constantly eroded by heavy seas. | Muddy heaps of soil eroded from fields are trapped in undergrowth. | It is possible that the beach gravels have been eroded away since their formation. | Many of the dark rocks stand on limestone pedestals, the surrounding rocks having been eroded away.
to erode (away): The cliffs are eroding several feet a year. | By 1980, they had all but totally eroded. | The rocks have gradually eroded away.
to weather [transitive; intransitive] to change in colour or form over a period of time because of the effects of sun, wind, rain or other weather conditions подвергать(ся) атмосферным влияниям / воздействиям, выветривать(ся)
to weather sth: Rock is weathered by the action of ice and changes in temperature. | This rock has been weathered and eroded. | Wind and sun weathered his face.
sth weathers: The stone weathers to a beautiful pale gold. | The brick has weathered to a lovely pinky-brown. | Unpainted wooden furniture weathers to a grey colour. | The paint on the outside walls has weathered badly.
erosion [uncountable] the process by which the surface of land or rock is gradually damaged by water, wind etc and begins to disappear эрозия, разрушение, размывание, размыв, смывание, выветривание, разъедание: Regulators say that although the erosion does not pose an immediate risk, they are concerned about its long-term safety implications. | And grazing too many animals on too little land leaves soil unprotected against wind or water erosion. | Rainfall is minimal and the land is infertile, marked by erosion and extreme dryness. | This shows that slope form and soil moisture status are particularly influential in determining erosion rates.
soil / land / wind erosion эрозия / выветривание / выдувание почвы, почвенная эрозия: Although the increase in rainfall would aid irrigation, it would add to the problems of soil erosion. | There are problems related to the complex and varying manner in which symptoms of soil erosion appear through time. | We infer that they accumulated during periods of accelerated soil erosion. | Somewhat softened by wind erosion, the surface none the less looked more like the lunar highlands than like anything on Earth.
coastal / marine erosion | the erosion of the coastline: A series of such oscillations, aided perhaps by marine erosion, is probably an important cause of island formation. | Finally, it must be pointed out that the recession of a coastline is not merely the result of marine erosion.
to cause / lead to / result in erosion: The external heat drives the atmosphere and the oceans and causes the erosion of mountains and the reduction of rock to sediment. | Acid rain has caused such severe erosion of the Sierra del Mar that the entire mountainside could slide down on to Cubatoa. | The storm dumped up to 18 inches of snow on the North Shore, but caused little flooding or erosion. | Trampling of vegetation is one of the most widespread environmentally degrading repercussions of recreation and can also lead to excessive soil erosion. | It is this which has resulted in accelerated erosion.
to be subject / prone to erosion: Possibly more than half the soils in the semi-arid regions are subject to severe erosion. | Accordingly these areas are heavily used and subject to severe environment erosion. | This leaves fertile soil unprotected and prone to erosion.
to suffer (from) erosion: Waxholme is on the coast and suffers badly from coastal erosion. | Any particular location may have collected sediment for part of the time, but suffered erosion the rest of the time.
to be worn down by erosion: The rocks have been worn down by erosion.
erosion occurs: The scale of measurement over which soil erosion occurs affects the measurement itself.
to combat / prevent erosion: The question arises as to why there is so little official action to combat soil erosion. | As their roots are strong and penetrating, they prevent erosion. | The government has enclosed some of the mountain streams in concrete banks to prevent land erosion. | The idea was to prevent erosion and enrich the soil. | They also harbour wildlife and help prevent soil erosion. | More trees are being planted for timber and to prevent soil erosion.
to reduce // increase erosion: Last year an attempt was made to improve the drainage to stop flooding and reduce erosion. | Constructing rows of turbines in strategic areas could reduce soil erosion and help to phase out the use of wood for fuel. | The techniques refer to new or modified agricultural practices to reduce soil degradation and erosion. | The result is a tendency to increase the amount of erosion on the coast.
erosion accelerates: Without the trees, soil erosion in the area accelerated rapidly. | As the volume increased, the erosion of the canyon accelerated and widened.
to degrade [transitive] to make a situation or the condition of something worse ухудшать, размывать, разрушать; деградировать: Erosion is degrading the land. | Every day the environment is further degraded by toxic wastes. | The dolphin's habitat is being rapidly degraded. | An area several times as large is suffering a decline in productivity as it is degraded by overuse.
degradation [uncountable] the process by which something changes to a worse condition деградация, эрозия, разрушение, ухудшение, размывание, выветривание: Even in advanced capitalist countries, the economic effect of degradation and erosion may not be negligible.
environmental degradation | (the) degradation of the environment: The report speaks of extensive environmental degradation caused by high population growth, rapid urbanization and fast industrialization. | I realized the data did not square with the theory that population growth causes resource depletion and environmental degradation. | In a few short but intense years we began to atone for centuries of environmental degradation.
land / soil degradation: There are serious problems of land degradation in some arid zones. | The next major phase of land degradation came after the abolition of slavery in 1838 and the rise of peasant agriculture. | Drought is the crux of the matter whether it is caused by or causes land degradation. | In this context, soil degradation exists but, taken as a whole, is unimportant. | The report notes that a combination of soil degradation and poor rainfall have increased food shortages and poverty.
to cause / lead to / result in degradation: It would wipe out farm profits, undermine rural employment and cause environmental degradation in East Anglia. | Many of these relations directly or indirectly affect land using decisions which lead to environmental degradation. | Ill-suited land-use and poor management can lead to environmental degradation with implications for present and future national economies.
to reduce // increase degradation: The techniques refer to new or modified agricultural practices to reduce soil degradation and erosion.
to deteriorate [intransitive] to become worse ухудшаться, становиться хуже; деградировать; разрушаться: Air quality is rapidly deteriorating in our cities.
deterioration [uncountable] ухудшение; деградация; разрушение; порча, повреждение: environmental / soil deterioration
deforestation | disafforestation [uncountable] the cutting or burning down of all the trees in an area; the destruction of forests by people вырубка леса, сведение лесов; обезлесение (местности): Deforestation has been shown to cause floods and drought. | Some parts of tropical America have seen over 70% deforestation. | As the pace of deforestation picked up, the area of land covered by dense forest declined considerably. | This was causing concern over a possible acceleration in deforestation in the region as a whole. | Last year, the rate of deforestation in the Amazon declined by almost 30 percent. | Of particular importance is the effect that deforestation has on tropical soils. | One percent of Brazil's total forest cover is being lost every year to deforestation.
to contribute to / lead to / result in deforestation способствовать обезлесению, приводить к обезлесению: Overgrazing by sheep and goats contributed to the deforestation. | Marsh explained how agricultural practices had led to deforestation, loss of wetlands, species extinction, and changes in weather patterns.
to suffer from deforestation: He said Africa was suffering badly from deforestation: for every ten trees cut down, only one was planted.
widespread / large-scale deforestation: The land is severely eroded as a result of widespread deforestation and intensive farming. | The authors also predict an increase in violent storms, fires, landslides and avalanches in the Alpine region as well as widespread deforestation. | Further large-scale deforestation is occurring in response to government-sanctioned development projects, many of which involve cash cropping and ranching.
afforestation the action or result of converting an area into a forest by planting trees or their seeds посадка леса, лесоразведение, облесение; лесонасаждение
to deforest | to disafforest [transitive – usually passive] to cut or burn down all the trees in an area; to destroy forests вырубать лес, производить вырубку леса / деревьев; обезлесить ( местность ): The 400,000 square kilometres of the Amazon basin have already been deforested. | The fires are likely to permanently deforest the land.
to afforest [transitive] to convert an area into a forest by planting trees or their seeds засадить лесом, превратить в лес, облесить
I. Sections: The environment, Wildlife, Environmental protection
1. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. экологическое бедствие
b. экологически вредный
c. непоправимый вред / ущерб окружающей среде
d. наносить непоправимый вред / ущерб
e. политика в области защиты окружающей среды
f. экологически чистый / безвредный
g. силы природы
h. вредный для окружающей среды
i. уменьшать воздействие чего-л. на окружающую среду
j. последствия для окружающей среды
k. сохранять экосистему
l. нарушать равновесие в природе
m. сохранять равновесие в природе
n. улучшать состояние окружающей среды
o. охранять окружающую среду
p. загрязнять / разрушать окружающую среду
q. осведомленность о состоянии окружающей среды
r. охрана окружающей среды
2. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. вид вымирает / исчезает
b. заносить животное в Красную книгу
c. вымирающий / исчезающий биологический вид
d. Партия зеленых
e. экологически чистая технология
f. представлять угрозу для живой природы
g. пышная / густая растительность
h. находиться под угрозой вымирания
i. сохранение живой природы
j. охрана естественной среды обитания
k. охраняемый биологический вид
l. установка для очистки сточных вод
n. кампания по улучшению состояния окружающей среды
o. находиться на грани вымирания
p. биологический вид
q. дикая природа; дикая местность
r. заповедник живой природы
3. Give synonyms for the following words and phrases.
to pollute / damage / harm the environment, to protect (the environment), to reduce (the impact of sth on the environment), to improve (the environment), to preserve (the balance of nature), to upset (the balance of nature), (environmental) effects, (environmental) disaster, (environmental) protection, environmentally / ecologically friendly, irreparable (environmental harm / damage), (to pollute sth) beyond recall, to be / pose a threat to wildlife, dense (vegetation), to be threatened with extinction (to be on) the verge (of extinction), sewage treatment facility, wildlife / nature sanctuary, (a species) becomes extinct, protection (of a habitat)
4. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
animals and plants that live or grow in natural conditions
so bad that it is impossible to change or bring the situation back to a previous condition
all the animals and plants in a particular area, and the way in which they are related to each other and to their environment
animals or plants which may soon no longer exist because there are very few now alive
the air, water, and land on Earth in which people, animals, and plants live and which can be harmed by man's activities
an area of land where people do not live or grow crops and where there are no buildings, especially because it is difficult to live there as a result of extremely cold or hot weather or bad earth
someone who is interested in or studies the environment and who tries to protect it from being damaged by human activities
a group of animals or plants whose members are similar and can breed together to produce young animals or plants
to start living a more simple life in which you do not use modern machines and eat fewer artificial or processed products
all animals and plants considered as a group in which a plant is eaten by an insect or animal, which is then eaten by another animal and so on
not harmful to the environment
5. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
a political party whose main aim is to protect the environment
a situation in which a particular kind of animal or plant stops existing
an area of land in which animals and plants, especially rare ones, are officially protected
to use very little of something such as energy, water, land, or other natural resources so that it is not wasted
designed to protect the environment or limit damage to the environment
to make something clean by removing dirty or harmful substances from it
the process of putting a special substance on or into something or use a chemical process in order to clean it, to protect it, or to give it special properties
the act of keeping natural things such as a rare animal or an old building safe from harm or destruction, by means of special laws when someone or something is protected
to remove pollution or waste from a place or an industrial process
the natural surroundings in which an animal normally lives or plant usually grows
6. Explain the meaning of the words and phrases listed below.
to go back to nature, freak of nature, food chain, balance of nature, environmental suicide, environmental implications, environmental impact, environmental awareness, environmental (advocacy) group, environmentally friendly, to pollute sth beyond recovery, wilderness, endangered species, extinct species, natural habitat, habitable, to be doomed to extinction, endangered species list, to drive a species into extinction
7. Explain the difference between the meanings of the following of words.
the environment – ecology, environmentalist – ecologist, endangered species – extinct species, inhabitable – uninhabitable, protection – conservation, purification – treatment
8. Match the words in List A with those in List B to form phrases.
e. to the environment
f. treatment facility
g. the ecological balance
i. harm to the environment
l. dies out
o. the pollution of the environment
p. as a protected species
q. to extinction
9. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
When people talk of going ….. ….. nature, do they really know what they are asking for?
The radiation leak has had a disastrous effect ….. the environment
Many modern farming methods are highly damaging ….. the environment.
Environmentalists are struggling to lessen the impact of human activity ….. the natural world.
A new type of plant could help clean ….. the environment.
Global ecological efforts can easily be ….. odds ….. local ecologies.
We are only one generation away from causing irreparable damage ….. the Earth's biosphere.
The railway track will have to be cleared ….. vegetation if it is to be used again.
This practice poses a threat ….. several species.
What is clear is that species are dying ….. at an unprecedented rate.
Suburban gardens can provide habitats ….. many forms of wildlife.
The condor was ….. grave danger ….. extinction.
Large numbers of rare and beautiful Alpine plants are threatened ….. extinction.
If it were as bad as its critics contend, our society would be teetering ….. the edge of extinction.
The species is doomed ….. extinction.
Many plant and animal species will probably be driven ….. extinction
The equipment needed to clean ….. the spill might not have arrived yet.
The atmosphere provides protection ….. the ultra violet light produced by the Sun.
10. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
to threaten, threat, disaster, awareness, impact, harmful, to enhance, damage, to upset, to do, to make, to pollute, consequence, environmental, ecosystem, forces of nature, to protect, to break, to be engaged in, species
Man ….. a constant struggle with nature.
Fishermen are always at the mercy of the ….. .
Changing weather patterns could be a ….. to the environment.
All of this stresses the need to ensure that future development must ….. rather than damage the environment.
Our reliance on cars is so ….. to the environment.
The guidelines introduce into local planning the concept of ….. the environment through sustainable development.
It moved people to a new level of environmental ….. and activism.
The popular debate about ….. issues has debased the meaning of the word ecology.
The rainforest is a self-supporting ….. .
These creatures ….. the delicate ecological balance in the lake.
It is likely that very severe environmental damage ….. if parts of this reserve were activated.
Its main task would be to ensure that the environmental ….. of military activities were kept to a minimum.
While addressing this economic question, how can we use natural gas to mitigate the environmental ….. of increased coal burning?
The most chilling exhibit space is a room that holds ….. that are extinct or endangered.
11. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
conservation area, extinct, to die out, to survive, environment, to threaten, irreversible, to improve, vegetation, to become extinct, environmentally friendly, wilderness, endangered, wildlife, habitat, environmental, to harm, clean
The subcommittee questioned industry representatives on the role companies could play in ….. the environment.
Ethical and ….. considerations are an important part of this innovative programme.
They represent products which have been singled out and improved to make them more ….. .
The damage to the environment is likely to be ….. .
The broken tanker has leaked thousands of tonnes of crude oil and threatens to destroy the ….. paradise of the Shetlands.
A deep path cut through the lush and noisy ….. .
Large areas of the jungle now ….. with destruction.
Conservationists are worried that some species could ….. altogether.
The legislation that exists to protect ….. species is often inadequate and lacks proper enforcement.
It is 250 years since the wolf ….. in Britain.
Few countries have as rich a diversity of ….. as South Africa.
That is what all pollution control is about – people paying to live in a cleaner ….. .
12. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
endangered species, to face, treatment, to drive, to treat, nature reserve, threatened, protected species, to clean up, preservation, to purify, conservation, clean-up, sewage works, survival, extinction
Their numbers became so depleted in this country that in 1969 they were placed on the ….. list.
Out of 329 parrot species, 30 now face ….. .
With a change in plant composition, many of the native animal species ….. to extinction.
The programme makes no mention of highly expensive tasks of ….. toxic waste dumps and military sites.
The rooms are fitted with systems that ….. the air and water.
It was many years before the city began ….. its sewage.
This law provides protection for ….. animals and plants.
The role and importance of attitudes to energy ….. are investigated in relation to comfort requirements.
Residents have called for a ….. campaign to keep their streets free from rubbish.
The water companies will have to improve the performance of their ….. or risk other claims.
Marine biologists are calling for Cardigan Bay to be created a marine ….. to protect the dolphins.
13. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Человек находится в постоянной борьбе с природой.
Люди в значительной степени находятся в зависимости от сил природы.
Какое влияние оказывает кислотный дождь на окружающую среду?
Деятельность человека наносит непоправимый ущерб окружающей среде.
Безответственность людей – одна из главных причин загрязнения окружающей среды.
Необходимо принять ряд законов, направленных на защиту окружающей среды.
Экологи делают все возможное для уменьшения отрицательного влияния промышленной деятельности человека на окружающую среду.
Они уверены, что применение высоких технологий поможет улучшить состояние окружающей среды.
Она читает курс лекций об экологии морского побережья.
Бурный экономический рост может оказать разрушительное воздействие на хрупкую, хорошо сбалансированную экологическую систему данного района.
В настоящее время человечество должно принять все необходимые меры для сохранения равновесия в природе.
Крупные плотины нарушают экологический баланс целых регионов.
Разрушение окружающей среды идет беспрецедентно быстрыми темпами.
Быстрый рост народонаселения может иметь непредсказуемые последствия для окружающей среды.
Глобальная экологическая катастрофа неизбежна.
Необходимо повысить уровень понимания проблем окружающей среды.
Этические и экологические соображения составляют неотъемлемую часть этой инновационной программы.
Некоторые группы защитников окружающей среды предложили объявить бойкот туристическому бизнесу на острове.
Правительство страны требует, чтобы компании производили только экологически чистые товары.
Все эти материалы являются экологически опасными.
На конференции будут обсуждаться вопросы сохранения живой природы.
14. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Впереди мы увидели остров, покрытый пышной растительностью.
Использование этих технологий представляет серьезную угрозу многим видам животных и растений.
Когда вымерли динозавры?
Ящерица считается исчезающим видом животного.
Все эти растения занесены в Красную книгу.
В этом районе встречаются останки вымерших видов животных.
Эти леса являются естественной средой обитания некоторых редких видов растений.
Необходимо принять срочные меры для того, чтобы предотвратить разрушение среды обитания этих вымирающих видов животных.
Человеческая деятельность в этом регионе может привести к исчезновению одного редкого вида животных.
Этот вид животных находится на грани вымирания.
Правительство обращает особое внимание на охрану и улучшение состояния окружающей среды.
Это устройство хорошо очищает воду.
Городские власти начали производить очистку сточных вод перед сбросом их в море.
Относится ли панда к охраняемым видам животных?
Нам надо обеспечить охрану и сохранение биологического разнообразия в природе.
В городе началась кампания по улучшению состояния окружающей среды.
Строящаяся станция очистки сточных вод должна соответствовать всем современным стандартам.
Вся эта территория представляет собой заповедник живой природы.
Парламент принял закон, который призван защитить эту нетронутую человеком местность / этот природный заповедник.
По их мнению, электромобиль является экологически чистым средством передвижения.
II. Sections: Pollution (General concepts, Emissions, Waste, Waste disposal and recycling, Depletion of the ozone layer)
1. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. хранение отходов
b. бытовые отходы, бытовой мусор
c. утечка химических отходов
d. производить уборку мусора
e. хоронить отходы
f. давать отходы
g. способствовать загрязнению окружающей среды
h. бороться с загрязнением окружающей среды
i. перерабатывать отходы
j. выхлопные / отработавшие газы
k. радиоактивные осадки
l. снижать уровень загрязнения окружающей среды
m. источник загрязнения (окружающей среды)
n. производить выброс токсичных отходов в атмосферу
o. вредные выбросы
p. сбрасывать отходы в море
q. снижение уровня загрязнения окружающей среды
r. кислотный дождь
s. устанавливать допустимые нормы загрязнения окружающей среды
t. подвергаться загрязнению
u. разлив нефти
2. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. потепление климата
b. озоновая дыра
e. неочищенные сточные воды
f. ящик для мусора
g. удаление / сброс сточных вод
h. парниковый эффект
i. (мусорная) свалка
j. избавляться от отходов
k. углекислый газ
l. сорить, мусорить
m. захоронение ядерных отходов
n. канализационная труба
o. станция по очистке сточных вод
p. место захоронения (отходов)
q. пустошь, пустырь
r. мусорный контейнер / бак
s. место захоронения / сброса
t. сбрасывать сточные воды в реку
u. очищать сточные воды
v. мусорщик, сборщик мусора
w. безвредный для озонного слоя
x. разрушать озоновый слой
3. Give synonyms for the following words and phrases.
to pollute, sewage, to cause (pollution), to be exposed to (pollution), to fight (pollution), to cut (pollution), a reduction in (pollution), source of pollution, to discharge (waste into the sea), exhaust fumes, to recycle (waste), household rubbish, raw (sewage), waste dump, dustbin, litter bin, sewage (treatment) works, refuse collector, dust cart, to deplete (the ozone layer)
4. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
waste gas or steam produced by an engine as it works
a person or organization that causes pollution
waste paper, cans etc that people have thrown away and left on the ground in a public place, making it untidy
to (cause to) accidentally flow out of a container
an amount of gas or other substance that is sent into the air
a substance used in chemistry or produced by a chemical process
strong, unpleasant and sometimes dangerous gas or smoke
unwanted materials or substances that are left after you have used something
(of a liquid or gas) to escape from a hole or crack in a pipe or container; (of a container or pipe) to allow liquid or gas to escape
a substance that makes air, water, soil etc dangerously dirty and not suitable for people to use
to send out a large amount of smoke, steam, flames etc, or to come out of something in large amounts
the process of making air, water, soil etc dangerously dirty and not suitable for people to use, or the state of being dangerously dirty
the act of sending out waste liquid, gas, smoke etc, or the substance that is sent out, especially when this has harmful effects
a pipe on a vehicle or machine through which waste gas or steam passes
5. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
not containing chemicals that cause pollution damaging the ozone layer
having been used before and then processed so that it can form a new product
a place where large quantities of things are stored or kept safe
an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere which is believed to cause the temperature of the Earth to rise
the process of treating used objects or materials so that they can be used again
a general increase in world temperatures caused by increased amounts of carbon dioxide around the Earth
someone who leaves paper, cans etc on the ground in a public place, making it untidy
to leave waste paper, cans etc on the ground in a public place, making it untidy
to get rid of something, especially something that is difficult to get rid of
liquid waste such as sewage, chemicals or waste from factories, usually flowing into the sea or rivers
to get rid of waste material by taking it somewhere and leaving it there
a place where large amounts of waste are taken and left, usually outside a town
a place where objects or materials are changed so that they can be used again
a place where waste is buried under the ground
6. Explain the meaning of the words and phrases listed below.
high-polluting industrial plant, to defile a river with sewage, to enforce pollution standards, spoliation, fallout, acid rain, contaminant, oil spill, litter lout, sewage farm, ozone hole
7. Explain the difference between the meanings of the following of words.
to pollute – to foul (up) – to defile, polluter – source of pollution, to emit – to discharge – to belch, to spill – to leak, fumes – emissions, rubbish – litter, sewage – effluent, repository – waste dump – landfill site, dustbin – litter bin, to dispose of waste – to bury waste
8. Group the following words according to whether they are used in British English or American English.
rubbish, garbage, trash, rubbish tip, garbage dump, dustbin, garbage can, trash can, dustbin liner, garbage bag, trash can liner, litter basket, litter lout, to tip, sewage works, sewage plant, sewage farm, refuse collector, dustman, dustbin man, garbage collector / man, dust cart, garbage truck
9. Match the words in List A with those in List B to form phrases.
e. pollution levels
h. of garbage
i. from a chimney
j. the ozone layer
l. by fumes
m. spent nuclear fuel
q. into the atmosphere
r. to radioactive fallout
u. the environment
10. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
Heavy industry pollutes our rivers ….. noxious chemicals.
The ground has been polluted ….. recall.
Three thousand factories and defence facilities are contaminated ….. radiation.
The seashore is fouled ….. ….. oil from the wrecked ship.
Studies have shown that not all individuals are equally exposed ..... pollution.
The region as a whole suffers ….. significant air pollution from ageing heavy industrial plants.
They are determined to fight ….. marine pollution.
And there is the paint they use which gives ….. really bad fumes.
Sewage is discharged directly ….. the sea.
The car belched ….. clouds of smoke.
Brown water spewed ….. the tap.
Factory chimneys spewed fumes ….. ….. the sky.
Oil is still spilling ….. the stricken ship.
Oxygen from the water is released ….. the atmosphere.
The Green Party have called for a substantial reduction ….. the emission of greenhouse gases by the UK.
Several residents of the area were overcome ….. toxic fumes.
Industrial waste leaked ….. the water supply.
The authorities are particularly concerned ….. discharges ….. nuclear power stations.
The oil which discharged ….. the sea seriously harmed a lot of birds and animals.
On Wednesday we cleared a beach and woodland ….. litter.
Too much waste has been dumped ….. the North Sea.
The streets were littered ….. rubbish.
Solid low-level waste will be disposed ….. deep underground.
11. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
decrease, rain, disposal, to contribute, leak, to emit, waste dump, to dump, to discharge, hotbed, polluted, to defile, fallout, to tackle, to litter, impact, increase, hot spot, to cause, pollutant, to pollute, to influence
It is believed the spill is continuing ….. the region.
Central London is the most ….. spot in Britain.
It's a shame that such a beautiful area ….. by a rubbish dump.
The report identified eight pollution ….. .
Litter disfigures the countryside and ….. to pollution, but this is just the tip of the environmental iceberg.
It is not unusual to find that countries adopt the best parts of both strategies in order ….. air pollution.
Recycling also helps control environmental pollution by reducing the need for ….. .
Our survey revealed a noise pollution ….. on the community that is not imagined.
The study linked the increase directly to the radioactive ….. from Chernobyl.
Many scientists blame the warming on industrial ….. that trap infrared heat in the atmosphere rather than letting it escape into space.
Hundreds of different types of hydrocarbons ….. from vehicle exhausts.
The defendants negligently ….. fuel oil into Sydney Harbour.
Delays were caused by the discovery of dangerous fuel ….. .
There is no site in the county for the ….. of hazardous waste.
The park ….. with bottles and cans after the concert.
An ….. in the amount of carbon dioxide is responsible for about half the total warming.
12. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
reprocessing, to leak, to recycle, fumes, oil spill, emission standards, to produce, sewage works, to drop, to curb, to cut, fossil fuel, effect, to release, waste, to dump, contribution, to belch, emission, to contaminate, to make, purification facility
Industrial sewage continues ….. our beaches.
Contaminated water ….. from the nuclear reactor.
The truck ….. black smoke.
The ….. in Alaska threatens ecological catastrophe.
Motor vehicles account for 72 percent of all harmful ….. .
Governments, airlines and passengers should take action …. global emissions.
This sets strict limits on emissions in an effort to reduce the country's ….. to global warming and acid rain.
The carbon deposit was thought to come from car exhaust ….. from a large car park close to the church.
This will help ….. pollution and save energy and give a valuable boost to the housing market.
Sulphur dioxide is one of several pollutants that ….. into the atmosphere by coal-fired power stations.
Nuclear power carries the risk of accidents and ….. radioactive waste which will pollute the environment for centuries.
They say it's irresponsible to store radioactive ….. where it can be a public danger and a safety risk.
The Japanese ….. more than half of their waste paper.
Over six million tonnes of oil ….. into the seas annually.
It has not yet been established that global warming is due to excessive combustion of ….. .
….. must ensure that effluent meets the required standards of cleanliness.
13. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
to leak, greenhouse effect, to pick up, treated, to spew, sewer, to make, to dump, effluent, to drop, to deplete, global warming, to spill, build-up, acid rain, raw, recycled, to dispose, destruction, to foul, recyclable, greenhouse
The oil spillage ….. several miles of beaches.
A tanker ….. oil off the coast of Scotland.
We need to cut ….. gas emissions by 60 %.
Millions of gallons of crude oil ….. into the sea, causing widespread shore damage as well.
Garbage collections ….. every Tuesday morning.
You can be fined £100 for ….. litter.
The factory secretly dumped millions of gallons of ….. sewage into the Ohio river.
Washington continues to challenge the scientific claim that ….. is in part caused by emissions of carbon dioxide.
Other provisions to provide incentives for states ….. of the waste remained intact.
The borough estimates that ….. waste amounts to 20,000 of the total 80,000 tonnes generated annually.
Anti-nuclear activists claim that a rocket explosion could ….. cancer-causing radioactivity into the atmosphere.
London owes much of its rat problems to the poorly maintained ….. systems.
These chemical reactions cause ozone ….. .
The Protocol does not cover all the chemicals that ….. the ozone layer.
The greenhouse effect is caused by the ….. of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Hydrocarbons also contribute to ….. and ozone formation.
14. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Многие пляжи в этом районе загрязнены сточными водами, которые сбрасываются неочищенными в море.
Центр города – наиболее экологически неблагоприятный / загрязненный район.
Токсичные промышленные отходы просочились в систему водоснабжения города.
Зараженная вода из ядерного реактора нанесла непоправимый ущерб окружающей среде.
Клубы черного дыма вырывались из заводских труб, оскверняя красивый пейзаж.
Все кандидаты в президенты страны обещали бороться с загрязнением окружающей среды.
Мировая общественность должна потребовать от членов ООН принятия мер по снижению уровня загрязнения окружающей среды.
Жители этой деревни подверглись воздействию радиоактивных осадков, образовавшихся во время проведения испытаний ядерного оружия.
Местное предприятие сбрасывает неочищенные химические отходы в близлежащее озеро.
При сжигании нефти выделяется ряд вредных веществ.
Темно-синий дым вырывался из выхлопной трубы автомобиля.
Выхлопные газы в больших городах способствуют появлению смога.
Резервуар-хранилище протекает, из-за чего страдает окружающая среда.
Из потерпевшего крушение танкера в залив вытекло большое количество нефти.
Собравшиеся в Киото лидеры 180 стран мира приняли решение ограничить / (резко) сократить выбросы экологически вредных газов в атмосферу.
Необходимо установить строгие ограничения на выброс в атмосферу парниковых газов.
Комиссия установила, что сброс неочищенных сточных вод произошел три дня назад.
Разлив нефти представляет серьезную опасность живой природе.
Взрыв произошел в результате утечки газа из трубы.
Великобритания дает до 10 миллионов тонн токсичных отходов в год.
15. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Необходимо найти место для захоронения радиоактивных отходов.
Экологи считают, что такие отходы надо перерабатывать, а не хранить под землей.
Лучший способ избавиться от бытового мусора – это отправить его на переработку.
Вывоз мусора производится ежедневно.
Если человек оставит мусор в общественном месте, он может быть оштрафован.
Мусорная свалка должна находиться на значительном расстоянии от города.
Их компания занимается изготовлением мусорных контейнеров и ящиков для мусора.
Он постоянно оставляет мусор в общественных местах.
Здесь мусор не оставлять.
Несколько десятилетий назад вредные химические отходы сбрасывались в море.
После концерта парк был завален бутылками и банками из-под пива.
В течение ближайшего столетия наша планета может превратиться в пустырь.
В результате землетрясения пострадали система водоснабжения и канализация.
Местные власти выдели деньги на строительство очистных сооружений.
Промышленная деятельность человека вызывает разрушение озонового слоя земли.
Углекислый газ относится к парниковым газам.
Парниковый эффект возникает в результате скопления углекислого газа в атмосфере Земли.
Многие ученые полагают, что нет прямой связи между выбросами в атмосферу углекислого газа и потеплением климата на Земле.
III. Sections: Resources, Exploitation of natural resources, Sources of energy
1. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. месторождение нефти
b. нефтяная скважина
c. углеводороды (уголь, нефть, газ)
d. достоверные запасы нефти
e. сырая / неочищенная нефть
f. запасы полезных ископаемых сокращаются / истощаются
g. добыча нефти, нефтедобыча
h. полезные ископаемые
i. неиспользуемые ресурсы
j. богатый полезными ископаемыми
k. угольная шахта, угольный карьер
l. хищнически эксплуатировать природные ресурсы
m. ископаемое топливо
n. использовать / потреблять уголь
o. найти нефть
p. угольная промышленность
q. добывать уголь
s. ограниченные ресурсы
t. добывать природные ресурсы
u. минеральные ресурсы
v. вероятные / прогнозные запасы
w. проводить разведочное бурение в поисках нефти
x. очищать нефть
y. природный газ
2. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. энергия ветра
b. израсходовать топливо
c. природные ресурсы иссякают
d. работать на электричестве
e. прекращать подачу электричества
f. возобновляемый источник энергии
g. отработанное ядерное топливо
h. энергетический кризис
i. искать нефть
j. невозобновляемый источник энергии
k. нефтяная вышка
l. альтернативный источник энергии
n. трубопровод разрывается
o. шахтер, горняк
p. поставлять энергию
q. солнечная энергия
r. безрассудно тратить энергию
s. сберегать / экономить энергию
t. производить энергию
u. геолог-разведчик, изыскатель
v. подавать / перекачивать по трубопроводу
w. нефтепромысловая платформа
x. производить поисково-разведочные работы
y. нехватка / дефицит топлива
z. энергия приливов
3. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. размещать в каком-л. месте
b. система электроснабжения
c. аварийное отключение электроэнергии
d. водохранилище, водоем
f. автозаправочная станция
g. электростанция на традиционных источниках энергии
h. вызывать нарушение в работе чего-л.
i. нарушать / отключать энергоснабжение
k. электростанция, работающая на угле
l. плотина гидроэлектростанции
m. вводить в действие электростанцию
n. геотермальная электростанция
o. атомная электростанция
p. тепловая электростанция
q. нефтеперегонный завод
r. неэтилированный бензин
t. плотину прорывает
u. перегораживать реку плотиной
4. Give synonyms for the following words and phrases.
oil, petrol, energy, power station, to be rich in natural resources, to develop natural resources, to deplete natural resources, limited resources, to produce coal, to hit oil, coal mine, prospecting, to carry out prospecting, to carry sth by pipeline, coal miner, to generate energy, to provide energy (for / to sb), to conserve energy, to waste energy, to run on electricity, unleaded petrol, filling station, coal-burning power station, to commission a power station, a dam bursts, power failure, to site sth in a particular place, to cause disruption (to / of sth)
5. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
a place from which coal is dug out of the ground
materials such as coal, oil etc in their natural state, before being treated in order to make things
to dig large holes in the ground in order to remove such a mineral as coal, gold, copper, tin, lead, diamonds
a thick dark smooth liquid from under the ground or the bottom of the sea which is used for making petrol, paraffin, and various chemical substances
a large structure on the land or in the sea, which has equipment for getting oil from under the ground or the bottom of the sea
to control and use the natural force or power of something
to examine an area of land or water, in order to find gold, silver, oil or another valuable substance
to become gradually less or smaller over a period of time until almost nothing remains
to reduce the amount of something that is present or available
a chemical substance that is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon, such as coal, oil, or gas
things that exist in nature and can be used by people, for example the land, water, forests, energy sources and minerals
a layer of a mineral, metal or another substance that is left in soil or rocks through a natural process
a fuel such as coal, oil, or gas which was underground from plant and animal remains millions of years ago
an area of land or sea under which there is oil
6. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
to place or build something in a particular place
a period of time when there is no electricity supply
a large structure in the sea, which has equipment for getting oil from under the bottom of the sea
a situation in which something, especially a system, process or event, is prevented from continuing in its usual way
a special wall built across a river or stream to stop the water from flowing, especially in order to make a lake or produce electricity
a substance such as coal, gas, oil, or petrol that can be burned to produce heat or energy
a system that is used to supply water, electricity, or gas
a building where electricity is produced to supply a large area
a factory where oil is made purer
a line of connecting pipes, often under the ground, used for sending gas, oil, water etc over long distances
a liquid obtained from petroleum that is used as fuel for cars and other vehicles
a form of energy that is carried by wires, cables etc, and is used to provide light or heat, to make machines, computers, televisions etc work
an artificial or natural lake where water is stored so that it can be supplied to the houses in an area
energy pertaining to the internal heat of the earth
7. Explain the meaning of the words and phrases listed below.
oil crisis, human resources, scarce natural resources, refined oil, prospector, energy efficiency, environmentally friendly energy source, unleaded fuel, conventional power station, hydroelectric power station, geothermal power station, to decommission a power station, water catchment area, renewable energy
8. Group the following words according to whether they are used in British English or American English.
coal pit, collier, petrol, gasoline, power station, power plant, power cut, power outage
9. Match the words in List A with those in List B to form phrases.
c. power station
d. by electricity
e. a river
f. natural resources
j. the power of the waves
l. in exploration
m. for oil
o. oil reserves
s. nuclear fuel
10. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles.
Angola was a country rich ….. natural resources.
People still mine ….. coal in this area.
As the number of people increases, more pollution is generated, more habitats are destroyed, and more natural resources are used ….. .
It would force industries to be more careful ….. natural resources.
Mining company employees made no attempt to inform local residents of what they were prospecting ….. .
The government is allowing the areas of inshore coastal waters to be explored ….. oil and gas.
Most of this local iron ore was mined ….. shallow pits
The exploration ….. new sources of energy is vital for the future of our planet.
Natural gas is transported ….. pipeline.
What do you push ….. the pipeline that makes you the most amount of money and provides the most benefit?
This occurs as the result of toxins that form as mechanical energy is converted ….. electrical energy.
They wanted to flood the valley to provide water and electricity ….. the city.
The machines run ….. electricity.
Higher taxes encourage people to economize ….. fuel.
The local people dammed ….. the river to make a lake for their water supply.
Storm damage blacked ….. much of the region.
11. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
scarce, to deplete, stockpile, to be rich, crisis, to dwindle, crude, economy, raw, fossil, material, reserves, deposit, to explore, field, to exploit, resource, to produce, industry, to harness
Some natural ….. , such as natural gas and fossil fuel, cannot be replaced.
We need to make sure that we ….. our resources as fully as possible.
If we continue ….. the Earth's natural resources, we will cause serious damage to the environment.
Cans are made of valuable ….. materials – aluminium, steel and tin which are rarely recycled.
….. fuels are in limited supply.
It remains lunacy ….. yet more coal to add to power stations' stockpiles.
The Government must be reminded that the average age of the labour force in the coal mining ….. is about 30 years.
A large tanker can carry several million tons of ….. oil.
The oil ….. alone could not have shattered the confidence which capitalists felt during most of the golden years.
The Gulf has 65 per cent of the world's oil ….. .
Can we understand and ….. the immense energy of the Sun?
Many of these countries ….. in organic and mineral resources.
Water supplies ….. to their lowest level in ten years.
Valuable new ….. of tin have been found in Bolivia.
12. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
to develop, rig, solar, energy source, to mine, deposit, miner, to generate, disruption, supplies, to deplete, pipeline, engineer, to discover, exploration, power, to prospect, destruction, manufacture, production
The oil fields ….. by a rapacious exploitation policy.
Do we aggressively ….. renewable resources?
We now know that ….. energy is an idea whose time has come.
By 1959, its wants took care of 60 percent of the world's oil ….. .
He ….. for minerals everywhere from the Gobi Desert to the Transvaal.
Lead ….. in this area for hundreds of years.
The government has announced the opening of the first tender for ….. on its continental shelf.
Francis McFarlane, 44, has not worked since he witnessed the oil ….. blaze which killed 164 workers in July 1988.
A further ….. from Urengoy was originally planned for 1986-90 but may be deferred because of the market situation.
The coal ….. throughout the Soviet Union went on strike.
The energy ….. by the windmill drives all the drainage pumps.
Millions of informed people are concerned about future energy ….. for Earth.
The strike caused widespread ….. to flight schedules.
At the time of the ban on nuclear ….. , demand was expected to rise by 1 percent a year.
13. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
to fulfil, to ship, to tap, non-renewable, shortage, to use up, source, spent, to power, to provide, to switch off, blackout, to explore, refinery, to cut off, to run, to identify, inexhaustible, to dam, to carry out
Central to the operation is a mile-deep well, dug originally ….. for oil.
Little mineral exploration ….. in the area which is poorly exposed except in coastal sections.
No further oil ….. through Lonrho's pipeline, causing the company loss of revenue.
Branch lines were arranged ….. mineral resources.
Oil ….. have brought on an energy crisis.
The production of renewable energy ….. should also be promoted through grants, soft loans and fiscal incentives.
This requires the development of alternative sources of energy that are either renewable or ….. .
But two reactors are still operating, ….. heating and electricity to Tomsk.
They threatened ….. gas and electricity to Moldava, of which the Dnestr region supplied almost 80 percent.
Even on the lake for instance, motorboats are not allowed and the hired boats ….. on electricity.
Berkeley has now become the first nuclear power station in Britain to have all its ….. fuel removed.
Several neighbourhoods in the San Francisco area experienced ….. last night.
Why do you think some people opposed the building of oil ….. near Milford Haven?
This reservoir was formed by ….. the River Blith.
14. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
wind, to burn, to black out, to squander, petroleum, non-renewable, dam, limited, power cut, to disrupt, to place, to burst, combustion, disruption, to flood, consumption, to locate, power plant, fuel, renewable
I am all for cutting carbon dioxide emissions, but that would be much more easily achieved by giving subsidies to ….. power, than with nuclear power.
The concern arises when a nuclear ….. is refuelled.
It has also promised not to build any new hydroelectric ….. , the source of the rest of the country's electricity.
The train struck a dam, which ….. , flooding a small town.
The power station ….. coal from the Ruhr region.
Storms caused ….. in hundreds of homes last night.
The leaded petrol market is shrinking so fast that some major ….. companies have discontinued refining leaded petrol.
The entire city ….. overnight.
Energy efficiency and ….. energy go hand in hand.
A heavy fall of snow ….. the city's transport system.
The company wants ….. the factory on land near the railway.
Should we continue to consume vast quantities of ….. fossil fuels?
The council has managed to reduce its overall energy ….. by 16 percent since 1979.
There was severe ….. to the gas, water and electricity supplies.
15. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Запасы полезных ископаемых на земле ограничены.
Жители развитых стран расходуют больше природных ресурсов, чем люди, живущие в развивающихся государствах.
Если исходить из разведанных запасов полезных ископаемых, то жителей земли через несколько десятков лет ждут тяжелые времена.
Прогнозные запасы полезных ископаемых намного превосходят разведанные и фактически используемые запасы.
Россия богата полезными ископаемыми.
Большая часть угля добывается в Сибири.
Люди слишком интенсивно занимаются разработкой невозобновляемых запасов полезных ископаемых.
Некоторые ученые полагают, что к середине нынешнего века запасы основных природных ресурсов на земле будут исчерпаны.
Руководители двух стран договорились о поставках сырья.
Экологи настаивают на переходе от использования углеводородов к широкому применению возобновляемых источников энергии.
Ожидается, что добыча нефти в стране вырастет на 5% в ближайшие два года.
Значительно выгоднее торговать не сырой, а очищенной нефтью.
Достоверных запасов нефти должно хватить лет на сорок.
Человечеству удалось овладеть силой ветра для производства электроэнергии.
Запасы природного газа быстро сокращаются.
В СССР было разведано такое количество месторождений нефти и газа, что нынешняя Россия до сих пор живет за счет их эксплуатации.
В настоящее время наши нефтяные компании практически не проводят разведку новых месторождений.
Их завод разрабатывает и производит оборудование для нефтяных вышек и нефтепромысловых платформ.
В следующем году будет проложен нефтепровод в Китай.
Большая часть природного газа перекачивается по трубопроводу.
16. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
В прошлом веке люди научились преобразовывать солнечную энергию в электроэнергию.
Эта компания производит электроэнергию и поставляет ею во все города региона.
Экологи возражают против использования атомной энергии в качестве альтернативы энергии, производимой на электростанциях с использованием традиционных видов топлива.
Что является реальной альтернативой использованию невозобновляемых источников энергии?
В прошлом месяце два раза отключали электричества.
Этот прибор работает на электричестве.
Отработанное ядерное топливо перерабатывается на специально создаваемых для этой цели предприятиях.
Люди должны научиться экономить электрическую энергию.
Они решили сэкономить на топливе.
В нашем регионе одна электростанция работает на угле, а две – на природном газе.
В следующем году одна атомная электростанция будет введена в действие и две – выведены из эксплуатации.
Когда прорвало плотину, было затоплено несколько населенных пунктов.
Они планируют построить плотину на этой реке.
Сильный шторм вызвал аварийное отключение электричества во всем городе.
Наш регион страдает от периодических аварий в энергосистеме.
Вредные химические вещества просочились в городскую систему водоснабжения.
Необходимо с особой тщательностью выбирать место для размещения атомной электростанции.
Сильная засуха подорвала сельскохозяйственное производство в регионе.
Снежная буря вызвала серьезные нарушения в работе воздушного транспорта.
IV. Sections: Natural disasters, Farming
1. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. паводковая вода
b. вызвать землетрясение
c. пережить землетрясение
d. разливаться (о реке)
e. землетрясение происходит
f. предвещать катастрофу
g. зарегистрировать землетрясение
h. попасть в беду
i. стихийное бедствие
j. наводнение приносит разрушение
k. страдать от засухи
l. предотвратить катастрофу
m. вызывать бедствие / катастрофу
n. идти к катастрофе
2. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. центр урагана
b. удар молнии
c. вспышка молнии
d. пойма; заливной луг
e. буря стихает
f. действующий вулкан
g. буря разражается / начинается
h. обвал, оползень
i. собирается буря
j. потухший вулкан
l. извержение вулкана
m. спящий вулкан
n. буря бушует
o. смерч, торнадо
3. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. посадка леса, лесоразведение
b. деградация почвы
c. генетически модифицированный
d. неурожай, недород
e. эрозия почвы
f. опылять / опрыскивать культуру
g. вырубка леса
h. сельское хозяйство
i. продуктивность сельского хозяйства
j. бедная / бесплодная почва
k. обрабатывать, возделывать землю
l. сезон сбора урожая
m. выращивать сельскохозяйственную культуру
o. приносить / давать урожай
p. производство сельскохозяйственной продукции
q. сажать сельскохозяйственную культуру
r. собирать урожай
s. субсидии на развитие сельского хозяйства
t. заниматься сельским хозяйством
u. вносить удобрение
v. плодородная почва
4. Give synonyms for the following words and phrases.
to spell (disaster), to be heading for (disaster), to experience (a disaster), to prevent (a disaster), to suffer (a drought), to trigger off (an earthquake), (an earthquake) hits, dormant (volcano), extinct (volcano), landslide, (a storm) brews, (a storm) breaks, whirlwind, (a storm) abates, flash (of lightning), stroke of lightning, flood plain, (agricultural) productivity, to cultivate (the land), to bear (a crop), (genetically) modified, (soil) deterioration
5. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
the top layer of the earth in which plants grow
a natural or chemical substance added to soil in order to help plants grow
to prepare and use land for growing crops
a sudden event such as a flood, storm, or accident which causes great damage or suffering
a very large amount of water that covers an area that is usually dry
the practice or business of growing crops or keeping animals on a farm
a large mass of snow, ice, and rocks that suddenly falls down the side of a mountain
an extremely strong wind that moves quickly with a circular movement, causing a lot of damage
a sudden shaking movement of the earth's surface that often causes a lot of damage
an area of flat land beside a river that is frequently flooded when the river becomes too full
a period of very bad weather when there is a lot of rain or snow, strong winds, and often thunder and lightning
the process by which the surface of land or rock is gradually damaged by water, wind etc and begins to disappear
an outbreak of a volcano
the cutting or burning down of all the trees in an area; the destruction of forests by people
a long period of dry weather when there is not enough water for plants and animals to live
a plant such as grain, fruit or vegetable that is grown by farmers and used as food
the act of gathering a crop from the fields
6. Match the words in List A with those in List B to form phrases.
d. an ecological catastrophe
f. one's banks
i. crops with harmful pesticides
j. a disaster
k. hits a city
p. for disaster
q. the land
7. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles.
Heavy and prolonged rain can spell disaster ….. many plants.
The economy seems to be moving ….. catastrophe.
The city has emergency plans for dealing ….. a major disaster.
Global warming could result ….. an environmental catastrophe.
But then the village is hit ….. a devastating drought.
The river flooded them ….. every few years.
The city continued to thrive until a massive earthquake razed it ….. the ground in 749 AD.
The storm has lasted a long time, it should soon blow ….. .
They are believed to have been caught ….. a storm without enough food or water.
Most of the population is employed ….. agriculture and fishing.
By the 1930s only two thirds of the island's arable land were ….. cultivation.
If the food market expands, it could reduce the need to spray crops ….. harmful pesticides.
All the soil does is hold the plants upright, while the crop is fed ….. artificial fertilizers.
The land is ….. crop.
About 70% of the cocoa acreage is treated ….. insecticide.
This leaves fertile soil unprotected and prone ….. erosion.
8. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
to grow, to hit, to cultivate, to break, to erupt, to overflow, to cause, harvest,to belch out, farming, to practise, calamity, to befall, to wipe out, to avert, farm
The flood was a ….. from which Bangladesh has never fully recovered.
The earthquake ….. an ecological disaster.
Are there no other ways of intervening in their environment ….. the catastrophe Walinsky describes?
Most of the land there is too poor ….. .
The 1987 hurricane was the worst natural disaster ….. England for decades.
Whole villages ….. by the floods.
Because of heavy rain, the river may ….. its banks.
A nearby volcano ….. violently, sending out a hail of molten rock and boiling mud.
In the evening the wind became stronger and soon a great storm ….. above us.
Seventy percent of the country's population ….. subsistence agriculture.
Yet it was clear that intensive ….. was not possible on the poor Pomeranian soil.
Farmers are reporting a bumper ….. this year.
9. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
barren, yield, to farm, to spell, fail, to prevent, failure, to threaten, to strike, catastrophe, to spray, degradation, to endanger, fertile, to gather in, substitute
The oil spill ….. an unparalleled ecological catastrophe.
The lack of rain could ….. disaster for farmers.
A powerful earthquake ….. the Italian island of Sicily early this morning.
Each side claims that its estimate of the chances of nuclear ….. is more accurate.
The Stamfords ….. this land for over a hundred years.
When all the crops safely ….. , the farmers can rest.
Pesticide use was reduced by 65 percent in the first year whilst crop ….. increased.
That year, crop ….. led to widespread famine.
Agriculture flourished on the ….. soils of Kosovo and Metohija.
The long-term dangers of land ….. from irrigation and chemical fertilizers are growing.
More trees are being planted for timber and ….. soil erosion.
Avoid areas that ….. with insecticides.
10. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
to raze, acid rain, to strike, erosion,to fall, drought, to contribute, crop, to confront, alternative, to erode, to befall, deforestation, to face, harvest
The Black Sea ….. ecological catastrophe as a result of pollution.
This is one of the worst natural disasters ever ….. the area.
The city ….. by an earthquake.
Twenty people were killed when storms ….. the Mid-West.
Most of the land is used for growing ….. .
High tides ….. the coast.
Although the increase in rainfall would aid irrigation, it would add to the problems of soil ….. .
Our scheme used ….. to chemical pesticides.
Poor farming methods ….. to increased soil erosion.
….. has been shown to cause floods and drought.
Then there was a long ….. which produced a very poor harvest.
11. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Наводнение стало настоящим бедствием для страны.
Разлив нефти угрожает беспрецедентной экологической катастрофой.
По мнению многих ученых, мир неумолимо движется к экологической катастрофе.
Мы должны сделать все необходимое для того, чтобы предотвратить всемирную экологическую катастрофу.
Этот ураган стал самым серьезным стихийным бедствием в истории маленького островного государства.
Сильная и продолжительная засуха поразила южные районы страны.
В результате наводнения были затоплены четыре деревни, расположенные на берегу водохранилища.
Наводнение вызвало серьезные разрушения в одном из районов страны.
Горная река вышла из берегов и затопила большую низменную часть региона.
На севере Перу произошло разрушительное землетрясение.
Последний раз извержение вулкана произошло пятьдесят лет назад.
В этой части страны находятся только спящие и потухшие вулканы.
Большой участок железной дороги был разрушен в результате схода лавины.
Возвращаясь домой, мы чувствовали, что собирается буря.
В полночь поднялась буря.
Неожиданно налетел ураган, который разрушил до основания небольшой город на побережье.
В развивающихся странах большой процент населения занят в сельском хозяйстве.
Засуха нанесла серьезный урон сельскохозяйственному производству.
12. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Его предки веками обрабатывали эту землю.
Им рекомендовали регулярно поливать поля и вносить в них удобрения.
Местное население занимается выращиванием овощей и фруктов.
В этой стране крестьяне до сих пор сажают и собирают рис вручную.
В этом регионе фермеры опрыскивают виноград опасными пестицидами.
Два года назад им удалось собрать рекордный урожай.
Принятые меры позволили фермерам снизить уровень загрязнения окружающей среды и в то же время повысить урожайность выращиваемых ими культур.
В этой стране – самые плодородные земли в Европе.
Весь регион превратился в бесплодную пустыню.
Спорным остается вопрос о влиянии искусственных удобрений на структуру почвы.
Нам необходимо свести к минимуму обработку почвы пестицидами и гербицидами.
Приливы размывают берег в районе недавно построенной гостиницы.
Следствием эрозии почвы является снижение урожайности.
Подобные действия всегда приводят к деградации земли.
Вырубка лесов является результатом интенсивной человеческой деятельности в регионе.
Половина почв в этом районе подвержена серьезной эрозии.