Краткий тематический словарь
для студентов университетов
Нижний Новгород 2006
Краткий тематический словарь. Политическая жизнь: Учебное пособие для студентов университетов. – Нижний Новгород: НГЛУ им. Н.А. Добролюбова, 2006. – 193 с.
Настоящая работа представляет собой лексический справочник по темам, изучаемым студентами на пятом курсе. Соответствующий словарный состав сгруппирован на основе тематического принципа. Каждая лексическая единица снабжена толкованием, переводом, иллюстративными примерами ее употребления в речи, а также минимально необходимой грамматической и стилистической информацией. Кроме того, в учебное пособие включены разнообразные упражнения, которые должны помочь студентам усвоить изучаемый ими словарный материал.
© С.И. Жолобов, 2006
People in politics
Politicians' positive qualities and attitudes
Politicians' negative qualities and attitudes
Forms of protest
Mudslinging in politics
Corrupt practices in politics
12.5. Influencing voters
18.1. Conduct of a meeting
19.2. Unification and disintegration
19.3. Promotion of peace
Sections: General concepts, Political power, People in politics, Politicians' positive qualities and attitudes, Politicians' negative qualities and attitudes, National attitudes
Sections: Political strife, Forms of protest, Mudslinging in politics, Corrupt practices in politics, Political manipulation
Sections: Legislative branch, Executive branch, Meetings
Sections: Electoral issues, Polling, Political parties, Political spectrum
Sections: International politics
1. General concepts
politics (1) [uncountable] [can be followed by a singular or plural verb (British English)] the ideas and activities involved in getting power in a country, or one of its constituent parts, or over a particular area of the world; the profession of being a politician политика; политическая жизнь / деятельность: local / national / internal / international politics | party / practical politics | She became quite active in student politics. | Margaret Thatcher made / left an unforgettable mark on British politics. | Politics sometimes has / have an unfortunate influence on character.
to be in / to be involved in politics заниматься политикой: She's been in politics for over twenty years. | She's deeply / heavily involved in local politics.
to go into / enter / to get involved in / to go in for politics уйти в политику, начать заниматься политикой: Smith went into / entered politics in his early twenties. | Most of the people questioned thought that unions should not get involved in party politics.
to retire from politics уйти из политику, бросить политику: Flynn retired from politics in 1986.
to discuss / talk (about) politics говорить о политике / политических событиях: How frequently do the students discuss politics? | We do not, by unspoken consent, talk politics when we meet.
to play politics to use politics for your own reasons, without caring about the effects on other people вести политическую игру: She accused the Prime Minister of playing politics with people's jobs. | Dole, to his credit, has repeatedly declined to play politics in the most sensitive diplomatic areas.
power politics the threat or use of military force to end an international disagreement политика с позиции силы: Woodrow Wilson hoped the League of Nations would replace power politics with international cooperation.
(2) [plural] someone's opinions about how a country, or one of its constituent parts, or a particular area of the world should be governed политические взгляды / убеждения: What are her politics? | What politics do you have? | I am without politics. | Her politics became more conservative as she grew older.
policy [countable; uncountable] a course of action that has been officially agreed and chosen by a political party, business, or other organization политика; политический курс, политическая линия; курс (действий), линия поведения, образ действий; стратегия, тактика: (a) domestic / internal / foreign policy | (a) company / economic / education / health / housing / industrial / monetary / social policy | (a) government / official / public policy | (a) national / regional policy | (a) defence / military / security policy | (a) wait-and-see / open-door policy | (a) long-term / long-range / short-term / short-range policy | a cautious / prudent / friendly / sound / wise / clear / clear-cut / conciliatory / firm / rigid / flexible / foolish / disastrous policy | a policy maker | to concentrate on policy issues | They believe that the European Community needs a common foreign and security policy.
policy on / regarding sth: There was no clear policy on this matter, only a series of apparently unrelated initiatives.
policy towards sth: What is US policy towards other countries?
policy of having the character of something: a policy of appeasement / neutrality / rearmament
to adopt / develop / formulate / establish / set a policy разрабатывать / формулировать политику: Their purpose is to influence government to adopt policies favourable to them. | Some local political parties are also appointing working groups to develop election policies. | The government has undertaken to formulate new anti-racist policies.
to introduce a policy: The policy has caused fierce controversy ever since it was introduced.
to pursue / implement / carry out / operate / adhere to / follow a policy проводить политику, следовать политическим курсом: The new government is expected to pursue a vigorous environmental policy. | The parties produce manifestos and when elected in a majority seek to implement their policies. | He cannot listen to those who, however well-intentioned, say we should operate an open-door policy.
political (1) relating to the government or public affairs of a country or its relations with other countries политический; государственный: political sympathies / reasons / propaganda / freedom / stability | a political leader / opponent | the country’s political structure / system | a political party | The UN is seeking a political solution rather than a military one.
(2) interested in or active in politics интересующийся / занимающийся политикой: Most students these days aren’t very political.
political animal (informal) someone who is extremely interested in politics: I'm not really a political animal.
political football [singular] (esp. BrE) a difficult problem which opposing politicians argue about or which each side deals with in a way that will bring them advantage: It is unfortunate that education has become something of a political football.
to politicize [transitive] (1) to make a subject or a situation more political придавать политический характер, политизировать; рассматривать с политической точки зрения: The Olympic Games should not be politicized. | The whole issue has become increasingly politicized. | It is highly unlikely that any formal moves will be made to politicize senior civil service appointments.
(2) to make someone become more involved in political activities политизировать: There was an attempt to politicize the police. | He became politicised during his years in prison.
2. Political power
power (1) [uncountable] the ability or right to control people or events власть: the enormous economic power of the United States | disproportionate power | power-hungry politicians | We all felt that the chairperson had too much power. | He was motivated by greed, envy, and the lust for power.
to have / exercise / wield power (over sb / sth) иметь всласть, обладать властью: He had absolute / considerable / enormous power over his staff. | Unelected civil servants exercise / wield a great deal of power.
to use power пользоваться властью, использовать власть: I now feel that people who have power should use that power to help others.
(2) [uncountable] the position of having political control of a country or government власть: the government / party in power | The Labour Party returned to power after thirteen years.
to be in / hold power быть / находиться у власти: He was in power for five years. | On past records, most waverers go for the challenger rather than the one who holds power.
to share power (with sb) делить власть (с кем-л.): A central issue is whether two independent executives can share power effectively. | Some civilians are upset at the prospect of sharing power with the armed forces, even in an advisory capacity.
to hand over power to sb передавать власть: He decided to hand over power to his nephew.
to come to / come into / get into / rise to power прийти к власти: De Gaulle came to power in 1958. | If the Social Democrats got into power, they would change the whole system of local government.
to assume / take / gain / get power взять власть: He assumed power in a bloody coup in 1990. | The communists took power in 1948. | Bandaranaike used Sinhalese chauvinism to gain power, but found he could not control it.
to seize power захватить власть: They seized power in a military coup. | The army seized power after five days of anti-government demonstrations.
to stay in power оставаться у власти: Most important, the party knows it must improve the country's living standards if it is to stay in power. | Mrs Thatcher would win the election and she would probably stay in power for ever.
to lose power потерять власть, лишиться власти: They lost power in the last election.
to remove / displace sb from power смещать, увольнять, отправлять в отставку, освобождать / отстранять от должности / обязанностей: Congress could remove the President from power.
power struggle a fierce, unpleasant, or violent competition for power борьба за власть: There was a power struggle between the Prime Minister and his Chancellor. | A power struggle developed between the president and the generals.
(3) [uncountable] the ability to influence people or give them strong feelings власть, влияние; мощь: the immense power of television | We were stunned by the power of his speech.
(4) [countable; uncountable] the right or authority to do something полномочие, право: The plan aims to strengthen governmental powers. | China has threatened to use its veto power in the Security Council.
to have (the) power (to do sth): Does the President have more power than the Prime Minister? | The chairperson has the power of veto on all decisions.
to give sb (the) power(s) to do sth: The police have been given special powers to help them in the fight against terrorism. | The legislation also would give judges the power to increase sentences for juveniles, boosting the maximum detention period to 10 years.
to exercise / wield power(s): Under the dictatorship, the army was allowed to exercise vast powers.
to abuse (one's) power to deliberately use your authority for the wrong purpose or for your own advantage злоупотреблять властью; превышать свои полномочия: Local officials were found to be abusing their power.
to delegate / devolve power (to sb / sth) to give part of your authority to someone in a lower position than you делегировать / передавать полномочия; уполномочивать: To delegate power and to grant independence are two very different things. | The goal of the welfare bill is to devolve power and responsibility to the states.
office [countable; uncountable] a position of authority and responsibility in a government or other organization пост, должность: (an) appointive / elective / high / public office | the office of President
to run for / stand for / seek office to try to be elected претендовать на пост / должность; баллотироваться / выставлять свою кандидатуру (на должность / пост): Bob plans to run for office next year. | I have no desire to seek public office.
to elect sb to office избрать на пост / должность: Bush was elected to the office of President in 2000.
to take / assume office to begin to work in a position вступить в должность, приступать к исполнению служебных обязанностей: The President takes office two months after the election. | No matter who takes office as president next January, the legitimacy of his election will be in doubt.
to hold office (as sth) to have a particular position; to work in a position занимать пост / должность, быть у власти: A president should hold office six years, with no re-election. | She had previously held office as Minister of Education.
(to be) in / out of office to be governing / not governing a country (быть / находиться) у власти: The socialist party has been in office / out of office for almost ten years. | His decision to resign after 30 years in office came as a great shock.
to resign (from) / leave office уйти с поста / должности: He resigned from office. | He resigned his office but was retained on the council. | He might have left office with his reputation intact.
to stay / continue in office to go on working in a position оставаться на посту / в должности: Hayward has expressed his willingness to continue in office.
to remove / displace sb from office to force someone to leave the job смещать, увольнять, отправлять в отставку, освобождать от должности / обязанностей: Congress could remove the President from office.
the throne the position and power of being a king or queen королевская / царская власть: an heir to the throne
(to be) on the throne (сидеть) на троне, царствовать: Queen Victoria was on the throne at that time.
to come to / succeed to / accede to / ascend / mount the throne вступить на престол: Elizabeth II ascended / came to the throne when her father died. | When he succeeded to / acceded the throne in 1625, Buckingham became his chief minister.
to seize / take the throne захватить / узурпировать престол / трон: Given the apparent strength of Gloucester's position, it is difficult to argue that he was panicked into seizing the throne. | When the Empress Irene took the Eastern throne, Rome refused to recognise her authority.
to be next in line to the throne to be the person who will become king or queen when the present ruler dies: Charles is next in line to the throne
term of / in office the time someone spends working in an important job in government срок пребывания в должности, срок полномочий: It was always clear that Schmidt's third term in office would prove a difficult one.
balance of power a situation in which political or military strength is shared evenly политическое / военное равновесие: the balance of power between management and unions
to hold / maintain / preserve the balance of power to be able to make either side more powerful than the other by supporting them поддерживать / сохранять политическое равновесие: In a hung parliament the centre parties hold the balance of power. | The liberals hoped to hold the balance of power in the new administration. | He believed that liberty was best preserved by maintaining the balance implicit in the guiding legal principles of the constitution. | The President urged the Premier to preserve the existing balance of power in arms and geography.
interest [countable; usually plural, uncountable] an advantage or benefit to someone or something интерес, заинтересованность; выгода, польза, преимущество: We've got to balance economic interests and environmental interests. | Agricultural and environmental interests have both been influential in water policy.
to protect / defend / look after / safeguard sb's interests защищать чьи-л. интересы: All he cares about is protecting his own interests. | The regulations were introduced in order to safeguard the interests of local fishing communities.
to advance / further / promote / pursue sb's interests продвигать / преследовать интересы, содействовать чьим-л. интересам: The President should be doing more to advance U.S. interests abroad. | The Mountain View-based software company said that MacDonald left to pursue personal interests. | Therefore, once he has left, the employee is allowed to pursue his own interests.
to act in / against sb's interests действовать в чьих-л. интересах / против чьих-л. интересов: Did those directors act in the best interests of their club? | The social worker would try to get her to see she's was acting against the boy's interests.
to serve sb's interest(s) служить чьим-л. интересам: Class origins are less important than the objective function of serving the interests of the ruling class.
to be in / serve the national / public interest to be good or necessary for the safety or success of a country and its people служить государственным / национальным / общественным интересам: The 1916 Senate hearings produced no debate on the question of whether concern about leprosy was in the national interest. | Publication of the documents is not in the public interest. | I believe it is in the public interest that these facts are made known. | Mr Sulzberger thinks this serves the public interest. | You try to serve a public interest.
to be in sb's (best / own) interest(s) (to do something) to be the best thing for someone быть в чьих-л. интересах: The court decided that it was in the girl's best interests to remain with her grandparents. | It's in their own interests to cooperate.
to vest (formal) (1) [transitive] to give someone the official right to do or own something давать права / полномочия, наделять / облекать правами / полномочиями
to vest / rest sth in sb: Civil rights, equal opportunity and Great Society legislation in the 1960s also vested more power in the federal government. | In most countries the right to make new laws is vested in the people's representatives. | The nation rests too much power in the President.
to vest sb with sth: He has been vested with the power / authority to implement whatever changes he sees fit. | The mass media have been vested with significant power as social and political agents in modern developed societies.
(2) [intransitive] to belong by right to a person or a group принадлежать (о правах, власти): This power has always vested in the Church.
to rest with sb / sth | to reside in / within sb / sth [intransitive] to be the responsibility of someone возлагать ответственность; ответственность лежит на ком-л.: The final decision rests with the President. | It rests with the court to prove the prisoner's guilt. | Executive power resides in the President. | In keeping with the emphasis on parliamentarianism there was the idea that party power should reside within the parliamentary leadership alone.
to impeach [transitive] to formally accuse an important public official of a serious crime relating to their job, especially in the USA возбуждать дело об отстранении от должности; предъявлять обвинение в преступлении / правонарушении: Congress voted to impeach the President, but he resigned before any action was taken. | The House Judiciary Committee voted that President Nixon should be impeached.
to abdicate (the throne / from the throne) [transitive; intransitive] to give up the position and power of being king or queen отрекаться (от царствования / власти / престола): The king has abdicated (the throne) / has abdicated (from the throne). | King Alfonso XIII abdicated in favour of his eldest son.
to renounce [transitive] (formal) (1) to publicly say that you want to give up a right, title, position etc отрекаться; отказываться: Edward renounced his claim to the French throne. | The only course left to Nixon was to renounce the presidency.
(2) to publicly say or show that you no longer believe in something, or will no longer behave in a particular way отказываться: to renounce one's faith / religion | to renounce the world | No progress will be made until the terrorists renounce violence. | Writers and artists were called upon to renounce all bourgeois values.
to overthrow [transitive] (1) to bring down | to overturn | to topple to remove a leader or government from power, especially by force свергать: Rebels were already making plans to overthrow the government. | He accused his opponents of wanting to overturn the government. | He and his supporters stormed parliament in May and toppled the elected government.
(2) to overturn to get rid of the rules, ideas, or systems of a society низвергать, ниспровергать, уничтожать: The revolution overthrew basic standards of morality. | It was a society where all the old values were overturned.
to depose [transitive] (1) to remove someone from a position of authority or importance смещать, увольнять, отправлять в отставку, освобождать от должности / обязанностей; лишать власти: the deposed president | Moreau was deposed in a military coup and fled to the US. | Margaret Thatcher was deposed as leader of the British Conservative Party in 1991.
(2) to dethrone to remove a king or queen from power свергать с престола: King Charles I was dethroned / deposed from the English throne in 1646. | The deposed king will set up a government in exile.
to step / stand down / aside [intransitive] to leave an official position or job, especially so that someone else can take your place уходить в отставку; оставить пост / должность; отказаться от поста / должности: I feel that when there are so many better people for the chairmanship, I should stand down / aside. | Morris should step aside until the investigation is completed. | The manager announced he is stepping aside. | It's time he stood aside and let a more qualified person do the job.
to step / stand down / aside (as sth / from sth): He stepped down as White House chief of staff in 1994. | He was obliged to stand down as a Parliamentary candidate. | He was forced to step down from his post.
to step / stand down / aside in favour of sb: He is unwilling to step aside in favour of a younger person. | The trade secretary has been asked to stand aside in favour of her deputy.
impeachment [uncountable; countable] the process of formally accusing a public official of committing a serious crime relating to their job, especially in the USA обвинение и привлечение к суду, импичмент: Richard Nixon was forced to resign the presidency in 1974 to avoid impeachment. | If his action proves to be unconstitutional, that would be grounds for impeachment.
overthrow [uncountable] the defeat and removal from power of a leader or government, especially by force свержение: the overthrow of Mussolini / the monarchy / the military regime | The public felt a great relief at the overthrow of an oppressive and unpopular regime. | The organisation was dedicated to the overthrow of capitalism.
abdication [uncountable; countable] отречение (от царствования / власти / престола)
renunciation [countable; uncountable] (formal) (1) a statement in which you publicly say that you want to give up a right, title, position etc отречение; отказ: his renunciation of power | the renunciation of territory in the Mediterranean
(2) a statement in which you publicly say that you do not believe in something or support something отказ: renunciation of war | The agreement depends on their renunciation of violence. | The talks were dependent on a renunciation of terrorism / terrorist tactics.
(3) self-denial the act of not allowing yourself certain pleasures for moral or religious reasons самоотречение: Gandhi exemplified the virtues of renunciation, asceticism and restraint.
coup (d'état) | takeover [countable] an occasion when a group of people takes control of a country, usually by means of military force (государственный) переворот; захват власти: a bloodless / bloody coup | the 1996 coup against General Abacha | Haiti's first elected president was deposed in a violent military coup.
to plot a coup готовить (государственный) переворот
to stage / launch / mount / wage a coup (against sb) организовать / осуществить (государственный) переворот: A band of young disillusioned officers staged a coup. | Seif says he spent most of last year coaxing his father into transforming his 35-year-old revolution, which Gaddafi has led since he waged a military coup in 1969.
to lead a coup возглавить (государственный) переворот: He led a successful coup against the government of Iraq.
to attempt a coup совершить попытку (государственного) переворота
coup attempt | attempted coup попытка (государственного) переворота: a coup attempt by junior officers | The coup attempt was followed by police brutality, executions, and torture. | He was jailed for his part in the attempted coup.
failed / abortive coup (attempt) неудавшийся (государственный) переворот: He evaded capture after the failed coup. | It was the worst violence Moscow had seen since the failed coup of August 1991.
3. People in politics
politician [countable] someone who works in politics, especially an elected member of a government or law-making organization политик; государственный деятель; политикан: a local / national politician | an opposition politician | Many right-wing politicians opposed the treaty. | A lot of opposition politicians have recently been arrested.
statesman | stateswoman [countable] a political or government leader, especially one who is respected as being wise, honourable, and fair государственный / политический деятель; политик: European statesmen are meeting in Paris today to discuss the crisis in the Middle East. | Hamilton is a great statesman and political thinker.
elder statesman / stateswoman [countable] a respected leader, who usually no longer has an active job but who still has influence because of their wide experience in politics or government старейший государственный деятель, политический старейшина: He is one of the country's elder statesmen.
hack [countable] (1) an unimportant junior politician or official who does boring work for a political party and is not respected мелкий политик: The meeting was attended by the usual old party hacks. | Before the election Davies was considered just a political hack.
(2) scribbler a journalist or writer who lacks imagination and who does a lot of low quality work, especially writing newspaper articles литературный поденщик; (наемный) писака, бумагомаратель, щелкопер: the hacks who write TV movies | hack journalism | A Sunday newspaper hack uncovered the story. | Political scribblers were usually better value than politicians, most of them being irreverent and much better informed.
elite [countable] a group of people who have a lot of power and influence because they have money, knowledge, or special элита; цвет / сливки общества: a political / social / economic / educated / intellectual / legal elite | a small privileged elite | a member of the elite | The President has been accused of developing policies in favour of a small elite. | A powerful and corrupt elite has bled this country dry.
ruling elite правящая элита: a struggle for power within the ruling elite | The ruling elite have resisted all attempts at reform.
clique [countable] a small group of people who think they are special and do not let other people join them клика: a ruling clique of officials | A small clique of right-wingers controls local affairs.
statesmanship [uncountable] the skill and activities of a statesman искусство управлять государством; искусное управление государственными делами: to practise statesmanship | He praised the two leaders warmly for their statesmanship.
statesmanlike having or showing the qualities of a statesman государственный; подобающий государственному деятелю: his statesmanlike handling of the crisis | a statesmanlike speech | But Clinton settled on Gore, the statesmanlike senator from Tennessee. | Mr Putin adopted a statesmanlike stance until he was asked a hostile question about the war.
4. Politicians' positive qualities and attitudes
great (adjective) famous, powerful, important, or influential as one of a particular type великий, значительный: a great politician / leader | a great military power
distinguished (adjective) successful, respected, and admired by many people выдающийся, знаменитый, известный, прославленный; высокопоставленный: a distinguished politician | a long and distinguished career in the diplomatic service
leading (adjective) main, most important, or most successful ведущий, главный; выдающийся, передовой; руководящий: leading members of the government | the leading industrial nations | News bulletins concentrated heavily on the speeches and activities of leading politicians, particularly the president.
prominent (adjective) very well known and important выдающийся, знаменитый, известный: a prominent Democrat | The order was given by a prominent member of the government. | Others had been advisers to prominent politicians.
influential (adjective) having a lot of influence and therefore changing the way people think and behave влиятельный, важный, обладающий властью / влиянием: He is one of the most influential figures in the government / the national legislature. | Though he holds no official post, he is seen as the most influential politician in the state.
to be influential in doing sth: He was influential in shaping economic policy.
respected (adjective) admired by many people for your qualities or achievements уважаемый; почтенный: highly / well / widely / greatly respected | Once the scheme was adopted, comments were sought from certain nationally respected leaders. | She is a well respected member of the international community. | He is very well respected in the business world.
respectable (adjective) considered to be socially acceptable because of your good character, appearance or behaviour почтенный, представительный; респектабельный; приличный, заслуживающий уважения: highly / perfectly / very respectable | a respectable citizen | hard-working, respectable people
wise (adjective) possessing or showing the ability to make good judgments, based on a deep understanding and experience of life мудрый, умудренный; благоразумный, разумный, знающий: Was it Thomas More who said that the wise man learns from the experience of others?
astute (adjective) able to understand situations or behaviour very well and very quickly, especially so that you can get an advantage for yourself умный, мудрый, проницательный, сообразительный; хитроумный, хитрый, лукавый, коварный: an astute politician | his astute handling of the situation | She was politically astute.
shrewd (adjective) able to judge people and situations very well and make good decisions проницательный, прозорливый, сообразительный; умный, рассудительный: She is a shrewd politician who wants to avoid offending the electorate unnecessarily.
far-sighted (adjective) far-sighted people, ideas, or plans are wise because they show an understanding of what will happen in the future дальновидный, предусмотрительный, прозорливый; проницательный: a far-sighted politician | far-sighted investments | The White House has welcomed the Chinese decision and described it as a far-sighted, significant step.
careful (adjective) giving a lot of attention to what you are doing so that you do not do anything wrong and avoid problems старательный, аккуратный; внимательный, тщательный; осторожный, осмотрительный
cautious (adjective) careful to avoid danger or risks осторожный, осмотрительный, предусмотрительный
discreet (adjective) careful about what you say or do, so that you do not offend, upset, or embarrass people or tell secrets здравомыслящий, рассудительный, разумный, благоразумный; предусмотрительный, осмотрительный, осторожный, действующий с оглядкой; неболтливый, сдержанный: Chambers was discreet about the affair.
staunch [only before noun] | steadfast (literary) | stalwart (adjective) giving strong loyal support to another person, organization, belief etc верный, стойкий, непреклонный, непоколебимый, преданный: a staunch / steadfast / stalwart ally / advocate / conservative / critic / defender / friend / opponent / supporter | The US has been a staunch ally of ours for many years now. | Malta's steadfast defence from 1940-43 played an important part in the course of the war. | She has been a stalwart supporter of the party for many years.
to be / remain steadfast (in sth): They remained steadfast in their refusal to release the terrorists. | He was steadfast and articulate in support of the Equal Rights Amendment.
stalwart [countable] someone who is very loyal to a particular organization or set of ideas, and works hard for them поборник, последователь, стойкий приверженец: His free-trade policies aroused suspicion among Tory stalwarts. | However, if policies are changed, party stalwarts will complain that traditional principles are being forgotten.
incorruptible | incorrupt (adjective) too honest to be persuaded to do illegal or immoral things неподкупный, честный; неразвращенный, неиспорченный: A good judge must be incorruptible. | Most politicians genuinely believe they are incorruptible.
fair (adjective) treating everyone in a way that is right, equal, or reasonable справедливый; беспристрастный, непредубежденный, объективный; честный, порядочный, добросовестный: The new government has promised to hold free and fair elections. | | Any human being should be entitled to a fair trial.
just (adjective) morally right or supported by a good reason справедливый; правомерный, заслуженный: a just peace / settlement / war | a just society | Henry sincerely believed that he was fighting a just war. | The rebels believe they are fighting for a just cause. | Charlemagne was respected as a just ruler.
fairness [uncountable] the quality of being fair справедливость; беспристрастность, непредубежденность, объективность; честность, порядочность, добросовестность: The ban on media reporting during the election has made some people question the fairness of the election. | The judge has a record of fairness and non-discrimination.
justice [uncountable] the quality of being just справедливость; правомерность: economic / social / political / racial justice | the struggle for freedom and justice | He only wants freedom, justice and equality. | An outraged public demanded swift justice and retribution. | There's no justice in the world when people can be made to suffer like that. | Campaigners are convinced of the justice of their cause.
disinterested (adjective) able to judge a situation fairly because you are not concerned with gaining any personal advantage from it бескорыстный, незаинтересованный; непредубежденный, беспристрастный; неэгоистичный: a disinterested observer / witness | a disinterested judgment | a piece of disinterested advice | The current sole superpower is far from being a disinterested observer. | Scientists can be expected to be impartial and disinterested. | His action was not altogether disinterested.
objective | impartial | unbiased (adjective) based on real facts and not influenced by personal beliefs, opinions, or feelings; not supporting any of the sides involved in an argument, and therefore able to give a fair opinion or piece of advice объективный, беспристрастный, непредвзятый, непредубежденный; справедливый: purely / totally / completely objective / impartial / unbiased | an objective / impartial / unbiased assessment / measurement / description / report / record | an objective / impartial / unbiased observer | impartial / unbiased advice | an unbiased opinion | I believe that a journalist should be completely objective. | A trial must be fair and impartial. | The best solution would be a re-vote in Florida under the supervision of unbiased observers.
objectivity | impartiality [uncountable] the ability to make decisions based on real facts rather than your own personal beliefs, opinions, or feelings объективность, беспристрастность, беспристрастие; справедливость: The poll, whose objectivity is open to question, gave the party a 39% share of the vote. | Surely true objectivity in a critic is impossible. | It's easy to lose your objectivity when you're in love. | to demonstrate / display / show impartiality (in sth) | a justice system lacking impartiality by democratic standards | The state must ensure the independence and impartiality of the justice system.
detached (adjective) not reacting to or becoming involved in something in an emotional way бесстрастный, невозмутимый; беспристрастный, объективный; независимый: You'll never be a good lawyer until you learn to be more detached. | Throughout the novel, the story is seen through the eyes of a detached observer.
detachment [uncountable] the state of not reacting to or being involved in something in an emotional way бесстрастность, невозмутимость; беспристрастность, объективность; отчужденность, отстраненность, независимость: Affluent people tend to look upon illiteracy with comfortable detachment. | She observed them arguing with a sense of detachment.
tolerant (adjective) willing to accept other people's beliefs, way of life etc without criticizing or punishing them, even if you disagree with them терпимый, относящийся терпимо, толерантный: a tolerant community / society | Mansfield rightly concludes that most Arabs would like to live in a more tolerant society under efficient modern governments.
tolerant of / towards sth / sb: The present government is even less tolerant of dissent / different points of view. | On the continent people are more tolerant of children in public places. | You should try to be more tolerant towards other people.
tolerance [uncountable] the attitude of someone who is willing to accept other people's beliefs, way of life etc without criticizing or punishing them, even if you disagree with them терпимость, толерантность: political / racial / religious tolerance | This period in history is not noted for its religious tolerance.
tolerance of / towards / for sb / sth: tolerance towards religious minorities | It has just published a table listing 48 countries and their tolerance of economic corruption in trade deals.
to show / demonstrate / display / have tolerance (of / towards / for sb / sth) проявлять терпимость: The government is beginning to show more tolerance of / towards opposition groups. | Margaret Thatcher had no tolerance for jokes of any kind, believing them to be a waste of time.
to develop tolerance (of / towards / for sb / sth) развивать терпимость: Some members of the party would like to see it develop a greater tolerance of / towards contrary points of view.
articulate (adjective) able to talk easily and effectively about things, especially difficult subjects; writing or speech that is articulate is very clear and easy to understand even if the subject is difficult четко выражающий свои мысли; ясный, отчетливый, четко сформулированный: a highly articulate speaker | You have to be articulate to be good at debating. | She gave a witty, entertaining and articulate speech.
eloquent | (adjective) able to express your ideas and opinions well, especially in a way that influences people красноречивый, умеющий красиво говорить, обладающий красноречием; яркий, убедительный, выразительный: to be eloquent about sth | to keep / maintain an eloquent silence | She was an eloquent speaker, able to move and inspire audiences. | Few will forget his eloquent defence of individual freedom. | He gave an eloquent speech after dinner.
eloquence [uncountable] красноречие; ораторское искусство: I wish I'd had the eloquence of Helmut Schmidt.
self-denial [uncountable] the practice of not doing or having the things you enjoy for moral or religious reasons самоотречение, самопожертвование: to practise / exercise self-denial to help the children | an unprecedented act of self-denial | But in our society the self-denial of which we speak has a moral dimension which is not strongly recognised in all civilisations.
self-denying (adjective) refusing to do or have the things you enjoy for moral or religious reasons отказывающий себе во многом: They belong to an older, more self-denying generation.
5. Politicians' negative qualities and attitudes
disgraced (adjective) a disgraced person is one whose bad behaviour has caused them to lose the approval and respect of the public or of people in authority опозоренный; дискредитированный; скомпрометированный: a disgraced politician
dishonest | crooked (adjective) (informal) not honest, and so deceiving or cheating people непорядочный; нечестный, бесчестный; мошеннический: a dishonest / crooked lawyer / politician / police officer | a dishonest / crooked way of making money | dishonest / crooked deals | to be dishonest with sb | to be dishonest in / about sth | They admitted that there were dishonest officers in the police force. | She knows her party is vulnerable to any hint of being kind to crooked capitalists.
tricky | crafty (adjective) clever and likely to deceive people хитрый, хитроумный, ловкий, лукавый; коварный
thick-skinned (adjective) not easily offended or upset by other people's criticism or insults толстокожий: She supposed you had to be pretty thick-skinned to be a Member of Parliament. | You do need to be thick-skinned to survive as a politician here.
thin-skinned (adjective) too easily offended or upset by other people's criticism or insults легкоранимый, обидчивый, тонкокожий: Some fear he is too thin-skinned to survive the rough-and-tumble of a presidential campaign.
arrogant | self-important | supercilious (formal) | haughty (adjective) behaving in an unpleasant or rude way because you think you are more important than other people (used to show disapproval) высокомерный, надменный, презрительный, заносчивый, важничающий; самоуверенный, самонадеянный, с большим самомнением, преувеличивающий свои возможности: an arrogant / supercilious / haughty attitude / manner | self-important officials
careless (adjective) not thinking or concerned about something легкомысленный, несерьезный; беззаботный; беспечный: an administration that is careless of / about press freedom
indiscreet (adjective) careless about what you say or do, so that you offend, upset, or embarrass people or tell secrets неблагоразумный, неосмотрительный, неосторожный; опрометчивый несдержанный: In an indiscreet moment, the president let his genuine opinions be known.
reckless | rash (adjective) not thinking about the possible bad or dangerous results of your actions беспечный, безответственный, бездумный, неосторожный; необдуманный, безрассудный; опрометчивый, стремительный, поспешный: a reckless disregard for human life | a rash decision / promise | We want our leaders to be tough, but not reckless. | Mr Major is making no rash promises.
glib | smooth-talking (adjective) speaking easily and confidently but without thinking carefully (used to show disapproval) бойкий, говорливый, речистый: glib politicians
tongue-tied (adjective) unable to talk in a relaxed way because you feel nervous or embarrassed косноязычный; невнятный, невразумительный; лишившийся дара речи: Outside the courtroom, Kevin is a tongue-tied lunkhead.
wishy-washy (informal) lacking in firm and clear ideas, principles or noticeable qualities of any type, and being unable to decide what they want (used to show disapproval) безликий, бледный, невыразительный; немощный, слабосильный: Politically they're neither right-wing nor left – just a bunch of wishy-washy pseudo-liberals. | Brown is criticized for being wishy-washy on political reform.
fickle likely to change your opinion or feelings about people or things suddenly and without a good reason, so that you cannot depend on them (used to show disapproval) непостоянный, переменчивый; ненадежный, неустойчивый: fickle fortune | the fickle public | Teenagers are fickle and switch brands frequently.
fickleness [uncountable] непостоянство, изменчивость, переменчивость; ненадежность, неустойчивость: the fickleness of businessmen and politicians | the fickleness of fame
notorious | infamous well known for being bad or evil печально известный, позорный, постыдный; пресловутый; бесчестный, позорящий, отъявленный; имеющий дурную репутацию, пользующийся дурной славой: notorious cases of human rights abuses | a judge notorious / infamous for his cruelty and corruption | the infamous massacre of Indians at Wounded Knee | He was a member of the regime's infamous secret police.
notoriety | infamy [uncountable] the state of being evil or well known for evil things; a reputation for something bad дурная слава; позор, стыд, низость, подлость; постыдное / бесчестное поведение; скандальная репутация: In a bid for public notoriety, the bomber criticized the news blackout of his campaign. | For the relatives of those who had died in the war, the final infamy was the pardoning of the draft-dodgers.
to achieve / earn (sb) / gain / win notoriety (for sth / doing sth): He achieved notoriety as chief counsel to President Nixon in the Watergate break-in. | The regime gained notoriety for its harsh treatment of political prisoners.
evil | vile | wicked immoral, cruel, or very unpleasant низкий, подлый, дурной, злонамеренный, зловредный; мерзкий, ужасный; вредный, губительный, пагубный, гибельный; низкий; порочный, развратный: an evil dictator responsible for the deaths of millions | his evil deeds / machinations | evil racist propaganda | the country's most evil terrorists | the vile practice of bribery | This vile policy of ethnic cleansing must be stopped. | She described the shooting as a wicked attack.
bossy | dictatorial | domineering | overbearing | peremptory (formal) having a strong tendency to control other people without taking their feelings into consideration (used to show disapproval) властный, деспотичный, повелительный, безапелляционный, диктаторский, властолюбивый; не допускающий возражений; высокомерный: The Ministry of Trade was yesterday accused of being dictatorial in its plans for a new motorway in Kent. | And then the great leader must have a domineering personality. | Strident, overbearing leadership is inadvisable in this political culture. | She was highly critical of the insensitive and peremptory way in which the cases had been handled.
slavish | servile | submissive | subservient too willing to obey someone without question подобострастный, раболепный, рабский, холопский, покорный, послушный, смиренный; подчиненный, зависимый: He was able to manipulate their slavish willingness to serve in the name of patriotism. | The cruel king and his servile courtiers entered the room. | That is not to say that Parliament was subservient. | The government was accused of being subservient to the interests of the pro-Europe campaigners.
spineless lacking courage and determination, and the willingness to take risks (used to show disapproval) слабохарактерный, мягкотелый, безвольный: a bunch of spineless do-gooders / politicians | The President has been accused of being spineless in the face of naked aggression.
mercenary | venal (formal) only interested in the money you may be able to get from a situation, and not caring about whether your actions are right or wrong or about the effect of your actions on other people (used to show disapproval) корыстный, торгашеский; продажный, коррумпированный: a mercenary attitude | a venal tyrant / ruler / regime | Sponsors were criticized for their mercenary attitude towards the Olympic games. | The law courts are venal and can take decades to decide a case.
corrupt | corruptible (1) using your power in a dishonest or illegal way in order to get an advantage for yourself продажный, коррумпированный; бесчестный: corrupt / corruptible judges / politicians / officials / police officers | to weed out (= to get rid of) corrupt practices | Corrupt judges have taken millions of dollars in bribes. | Politics has become a corrupt, big-money game. | Perhaps some systems of government are more corruptible than others.
(2) morally bad безнравственный, испорченный, порочный, растленный: a corrupt society
unfair not treating everyone in a way that is right, equal, or reasonable несправедливый; пристрастный, предубежденный, необъективный; непорядочный, нечестный недобросовестный: The press has been accused of unfair coverage of the recent elections. | The liberal press was said to be unjust, unfair and unpatriotic and deserved to be closed down. | Some have been sentenced to long prison terms after unfair trials. | The present welfare system is grossly unfair.
unjust not morally right or not supported by a good reason несправедливый; неправомерный, незаслуженный: an unjust society | an unjust and pointless war | an unjust accusation / sentence / verdict | Most people agreed that the poll tax was fundamentally unjust. | He spent 25 years campaigning against racist and unjust immigration laws.
unfairness [uncountable] несправедливость; предубежденность, необъективность; нечестность, непорядочность, недобросовестность; зло: the unfairness of laws | What about the unfairness of life?
injustice [uncountable and countable] несправедливость; правомерность: economic / social / political / racial injustice | an act of gross injustice | the injustice of terrorism / slavery | innumerable injustices against the black population | The left says that evil results from social injustice. | They'll continue to fight injustice. | The sight of people suffering arouses a deep sense of injustice in her.
to bias sb / sth (against sb / sth) [transitive] to support or oppose a particular person or thing in an unfair way by allowing personal opinions and feelings to influence your judgment оказывать влияние / давление, настраивать, склонять: The government used newspapers and the radio to bias the opinions of the people. | The judge ruled that the information should be withheld on the grounds that it would bias the jury against the accused.
to prejudice (sb against sth) [transitive] to influence someone so that they have an unfair or unreasonable opinion about someone or something создавать предвзятое мнение, предубеждать; настраивать против кого-л.: His comments may have prejudiced the voters against her. | There was concern that reports in the media would prejudice the jury.
subjective | partial | biased / biased | one-sided based on and influenced by personal beliefs, opinions, or feelings; supporting any of the sides involved in an argument, and therefore unable to give a fair opinion or piece of advice субъективный, индивидуальный, личный, присущий только данному человеку; предубежденный, предвзятый, пристрастный, тенденциозный; необъективный, несправедливый: In the final analysis a judgement on the political stability of most countries must be highly subjective. | The term ideology refers to a set of ideas which present only a partial view of reality. | The system is so biased that many citizens simply do not register to vote. | The newspapers gave a very biased report of the meeting. | Newspapers often give a very one-sided account of political events. | They blamed their defeat on the media's one-sided reporting of the election campaign. | I'm amazed the paper would print such one-sided views.
to be biased against sb / sth: news reporting that was heavily / strongly biased against the government | Roughly four-fifths of Sun readers believed the paper was biased against the Labour party.
to be biased towards / in favour of sb / sth | to be partial towards / to sb / sth: Most newspapers are heavily / strongly biased towards / in favour of one political party or the other. | A newspaper criticized the president's proposal, saying that it was partial to Israel.
prejudiced (against / about sb / sth) having an unreasonable dislike and distrust of a particular group of people or things, or a preference for one group of people or things over another (used to show disapproval) необъективный, предвзятый, пристрастный, предубежденный, тенденциозный, проникнутый предубеждённостью / предвзятостью: prejudiced views / attitudes | an outdated and prejudiced set of laws | Even today Southern states are seen as being more racially prejudiced than other states. | He denied being prejudiced against black people. | The campaign is designed to make people less prejudiced about AIDS.
slanted supporting a particular person or thing in an unfair way by allowing personal opinions and feelings to influence your judgment (used to show disapproval) предубежденный, предвзятый, пристрастный, тенденциозный; необъективный, несправедливый: Slanted media coverage is increasing public support for the war. | The station was criticized for its slanted reporting of news events.
to be slanted towards / in favour of sb / sth: The survey was heavily slanted towards the ruling party. | Her arguments are clearly slanted in favour of capital punishment, in spite of her religious convictions.
subjectivity | partiality | one-sidedness [uncountable] the ability to make decisions based on your own personal beliefs, opinions, or feelings rather than on real facts субъективность, субъективизм; пристрастность, несправедливость, необъективность: the problem of partiality in news reporting | There's always an element of subjectivity in decision-making. | The minister is criticized for his one-sidedness and partiality.
bias [uncountable; countable – usually singular] a tendency to support or oppose a particular person or thing in an unfair way by allowing personal opinions and feelings to influence your judgment пристрастие, пристрастность, предубеждение, предвзятость, необъективность; предрассудок: deep-rooted / strong bias | a discussion about political bias in the press | Conservatives say the press has a liberal bias. | Some newspapers have a subtle rather than a very strong and obvious bias. | There were fierce attacks on the BBC for alleged political bias. | The ownership and biases of the media have been an issue of continuing interest to analysts.
bias against sb / sth: It's clear that the company has a bias against women and minorities.
bias towards / in favour sb / sth: They show a clear bias towards the problems and prospects of developing countries. | There has always been a slight bias towards / in favour of employing arts graduates in the company.
to show (a) bias: Reporters must be impartial and not show political bias.
to eliminate / eradicate / root out bias разрушить / искоренить / преодолеть предубеждение / необъективность / предрассудок
without bias: The two sides called upon the police to act without political bias.
prejudice [uncountable; countable] an unreasonable dislike and distrust of a particular group of people or things, or a preference for one group of people or things over another (used to show disapproval) предубеждение, предвзятое мнение; предрассудок: victims of class / cultural / race / racial / religious / sexual prejudice | Laws against racial prejudice must be strictly enforced. | The prejudice runs / goes deep and we need to understand the fears behind it.
prejudice against / about sb / sth предубеждение / предвзятое мнение / предрассудок против кого-л. / чего-л.: Prejudice against black people is common in many parts of America. | The three-year project is designed to overcome prejudice about the construction industry.
to have / feel (a) prejudice иметь предубеждение / предвзятое мнение / предрассудок: Is there any person or persons against whom you feel a real or active prejudice?
to face / suffer prejudice сталкиваться / встречаться с предубеждением / предвзятым мнением / предрассудком: Women still face prejudice in the workplace. | In the past they say they've suffered prejudice and poor support.
to arouse / stir up prejudice вызывать предубеждение, формировать предвзятое мнение
to break down / dispel / eliminate / eradicate / root out / overcome prejudice(s) разрушить / искоренить / преодолеть предубеждение / предвзятое мнение / предрассудок: It takes a long time to break down / dispel / overcome prejudices. | We've been working hard to overcome prejudice against women in politics.
to fight against prejudice бороться с предубеждением / предвзятым мнением / предрассудком: For years he has fought against prejudice and racial hatred.
without prejudice беспристрастно: He said he hoped the Swiss authorities would investigate the case thoroughly and without prejudice.
deep / deep-rooted / deep-seated / ingrained / strong prejudice сильное / глубокое / устойчивое предубеждение, устойчивый предрассудок: All these attitudes are based on deep-seated prejudice and cause conflict. | There was a deep-rooted racial prejudice long before the two countries went to war.
slant [countable; usually singular] a particular way of writing about or thinking about a subject that shows strong support for a particular opinion or set of ideas; a point of view (sometimes prejudiced or biased) when considering something; a particular viewpoint, opinion, attitude, or perspective точка / угол зрения, мнение, отношение; подход; тенденция: a different / fresh / new slant | Several readers objected to the article's strong Republican slant. | The political slant at Focus can be described as centre-right.
(to have / get) a slant on sth: Each article has a slightly different slant on the situation. | They got a new slant on the political situation.
to provide a particular slant (on sth) | to put a particular slant on sth | to give a particular slant to sth: The report provides a new slant on important environmental issues. | Recent events have put a new slant on the President's earlier comments. | They give a slant to every single news item that's put on the air.
leaning [countable] a tendency to prefer or agree with a particular set of beliefs, opinions etc склонность
(to have) a leaning / leanings towards sth: He had a strong leaning towards traditional values. | His early leanings towards socialism were evident in articles he wrote under a pseudonym from 1885 to 1889 for the Manchester Examiner.
(to have) / (with) political / socialist / communist / religious / feminist leanings: I don't know what his political leanings are. | Fran has Communist leanings. | Those leaders will be asked to seek out potential minority voters with Republican leanings. | Chaplin was certainly a humanitarian with strong socialist leanings at a time when to appear even remotely pink was begging for trouble.
intolerant (adjective) unwilling to accept other people's beliefs, way of life etc without criticizing or punishing them, even if you disagree with them нетерпимый, относящийся нетерпимо, фанатичный: a intolerant community / society | This ban is a sad reflection of an intolerant society. | The police chief has been accused of being intolerant and ignorant.
intolerant of sth / sb: The argument led to charges that the national organization is intolerant of dissent. | She can be very intolerant of students who don't understand what she's talking about.
self-righteous showing that you are very proud of your own moral behaviour, attitudes, or beliefs, especially in a way that annoys other people (used to show disapproval) самодовольный, самоуверенный; фарисейский, лицемерный: We have to learn tolerance, to look at our behaviour and to stop being self-righteous. | He doubted her policies and the self-righteous way in which they were promoted.
intolerance (adjective) the attitude of someone who is unwilling to accept other people's beliefs, way of life etc without criticizing or punishing them, even if you disagree with them нетерпимость: political / racial / religious intolerance | Religious intolerance has always been a major cause of war. | Many of our friends' lives have been shattered by intolerance, persecution and torture.
intolerance of sth / sb: his intolerance of any opinion other than his own
to show / demonstrate / display / have intolerance (of sb / sth) проявлять нетерпимость
to stir up intolerance against возбуждать нетерпимость против кого-л. / чего-л.: The party was accused of stirring up a climate of fear and intolerance.
6. National attitudes
nationalist (adjective) trying to achieve political independence for a particular nation национально-освободительный: Nationalist candidates managed to win only one seat in the elections. | The newspaper has campaigned vigorously for the nationalist cause. | The crisis has set off a wave of nationalist feelings in Quebec.
nationalistic | nationalist | chauvinistic | chauvinist | jingoistic believing that your own nation is better than any other nation, and having no respect for people from other countries (used to show disapproval) националистический, шовинистический, ура-патриотический: They were encouraging nationalistic sentiment among the students. | As nationalistic feelings grew, life became increasingly difficult for immigrants. | In others Communist apparatchiks remade themselves as nationalist autocrats, and stifled democracy in its crib. | Political life has been infected by growing nationalist sentiment. | The crowd was enthusiastically singing chauvinistic songs.
nationalist [countable] (1) someone who is involved in trying to achieve political independence for a particular nation борец за независимость своей родины: Indian nationalists finally won independence for their country in 1947.
(2) chauvinist | jingoist | jingo someone who believes that their nation is better than any other nation and who has no respect for people from other countries (used to show disapproval) националист, приверженец национализма, шовинист, ура-патриот: His father was a nationalist during the civil war. | Religious chauvinists have been the main cause of trouble in the province. | He was a confirmed jingoist and would frequently speak about the dangers of Britain forming closer ties with the rest of Europe.
nationalism [uncountable] (1) the desire by a group of people of the same race, origin, language etc to form an independent country патриотизм, стремление к национальной независимости; национализм: The rising tide of Slovak nationalism may also help the party to win representation in parliament.
(2) chauvinism | jingoism the belief that your own nation is better than any other nation; excessive patriotism (used to show disapproval) национализм, шовинизм, ура-патриотизм: to foster nationalism | the rise of nationalism in Eastern Europe | Under his leadership, a strong sense of nationalism emerged. | Bandaranaike used Sinhalese chauvinism to gain power. | Only the most narrow jingoism can allow us to deny this.
extreme / fierce / rampant nationalism крайний национализм: The leaders discussed the danger posed by an upsurge of extreme nationalism. | This kind of fierce nationalism is a powerful and potentially volatile force.
xenophobia [uncountable] a strong fear and dislike of people from other countries and cultures ксенофобия, ненависть к иностранцам и всему иностранному: In an atmosphere of growing xenophobia many foreigners were deported or even imprisoned. | We ourselves were unaware of the dimensions of this new xenophobia.
xenophobic showing strong dislike or fear of people from other countries and cultures ненавидящий иностранцев: The party is right-wing and xenophobic. | Xenophobic nationalism is on the rise in some West European countries.
xenophobe [countable] a person who strongly dislikes or fears people from other countries and cultures ксенофоб
deep-rooted | deep-seated | (deeply) ingrained (in sth) | deeply rooted / embedded (in sth) (adjective) a deep-rooted / deep-seated / embedded / ingrained feeling, belief, idea, habit etc is so strong in a person or society and it has existed for so long that it is very difficult to change or destroy it глубоко укоренившийся: Even recent liberalisation has failed to dispel deep-seated suspicions that discrimination still lurks beneath the surface. | Many people in the community have a deep-seated distrust of the police. | Such ingrained prejudices cannot be corrected easily. | These traditions were deeply rooted in local custom. | I think that hatred of the other is deeply embedded in our society.
7. Political strife
debate | controversy [countable; uncountable] a serious discussion of a particular subject, especially about a public policy or a moral issue, that often continues for a long time and in which people express different opinions обсуждение, дискуссия, дебаты, полемика, прения, разногласия; спор; ссора: How we proceed from here is a matter for debate. | The election ended in controversy, with allegations of widespread vote-rigging. | The proposals to reduce the strength of the army have been the subject of much controversy.
national / public / widespread debate: Education is the current focus of public debate.
fierce / heated / intense / lively / spirited debate: The proposals provoked a fierce debate. | The new drug has become the subject of heated debate within the medical profession. | This matter has been the subject of intense public debate in recent weeks. | There has been intense debate over political union.
debate over / about / on sth: There has been widespread public debate over the introduction of genetically modified food. | Much of the friction stemmed from a debate about which technology to use. | First, there must be a continuing and lively debate on ethical matters to ensure that ethical guidance is kept up-to-date.
debate among sb: There has been a lot of debate among scholars about this.
bitter / fierce / furious / heated / lively // great / considerable controversy: The murder of anti-Soviet activists abroad would stir up fierce controversy at home.
controversy over / about / on / surrounding sth: Prior to the recent controversy over the transfer of arms, little international attention was devoted to Sierra Leone. | Television and media have come under increasing pressure from the government not to publicize controversies about military and security matters. | The 1980s saw another twist in the controversy surrounding the structure of local government.
controversy among sb / between sb (and sb) / with sb: Whether that will arouse great controversy among any but the most convinced monarchists is doubtful. | It is often suggested that the succession issue was a major source of controversy between Whigs and Tories.
(a) controversy surrounds sth: Controversy surrounds the TV show, which many consider to be racist, sexist, and homophobic.
to defuse a controversy сгладить / смягчить разногласия: Though angry, both sides quickly sought to defuse the controversy.
debate | controversy COLLOCATIONS
current / continuing / ongoing debate / controversy: The current education debate also seems to be pushing for a return to traditional teaching methods. | Those on the other side of this ongoing debate fare little better.
to arouse / cause / create / generate / provoke / stir (up) / spark (off) / touch off / produce / incite / ignite / fuel / give rise to (a) debate / controversy вызывать дискуссию / разногласия / полемику: This idea sparked off a debate that still continues. | His approach has incited even more intense debate among Democrats. | The policy has caused fierce / heated controversy ever since it was introduced. | The proposed cuts have caused considerable controversy. | The judges' decision provoked controversy.
(a) debate / controversy arises // intensifies дискуссия / полемика возникает / начинается // усиливается: Controversy arose over the use of the chemicals on fruit and vegetables. | Debate about how to reform the railways has intensified.
a debate / controversy goes on / rages (on) (about sth): An intense debate is going on within the Israeli government. | So the debate is still raging about how to account for these startling developments.
to engage in a debate / controversy участвовать / принимать участие в обсуждении / дискуссии / полемике: Very few environmentalists would choose to engage in a debate about the extent to which they had either succeeded or sold out.
to settle a debate / controversy разрешить разногласия: On some issues he gave details of steps to settle the debate.
to be the subject of much / some debate / controversy: Her books have been the subject of much debate. | For these reasons, the precise extent of the social cost of monopoly remains a subject of continuing controversy. | Accordingly, they have been the subject of intensive research and fierce controversy.
debatable | controversial | moot | contentious | to be / remain open to debate / question causing a lot of discussion or disagreement, because people have different opinions about the subject being discussed спорный, сомнительный, дискуссионный, вызывающий спор, являющийся предметом спора: The claim that aid is the answer to Third World poverty is then highly debatable. | The changes are bound to be controversial. | As a practical matter, the wisdom of tax-cutting is open to debate. | But whether Republicans want to cooperate is open to question.
controversial figure: The president's wife was a powerful and controversial figure. | Maxwell soon became a controversial figure in the world of big business.
moot point / question: Whether these controls will really reduce violent crime is a moot point.
deeply controversial: There is broad agreement that some limits to inflammatory speech must be defined – but where to set those limits and what to do with those who overstep them is still deeply controversial.
debatable | controversial | contentious COLLOCATIONS
highly / very / extremely debatable / controversial / contentious: Whether or not the government was right to arrest the protesters is an extremely debatable point. | The ambassadorial nominations were highly controversial at the time. | Sex education in schools remains a highly contentious issue.
debatable | controversial | contentious COLLOCATIONS
debatable / controversial / contentious decision / idea / issue / law / legislation / measure / matter / plan / point / proposal / question / subject / topic / area / speech / assertion / claim / view / policy: It is an inherently debatable and changeable idea. | Immigration is a controversial issue in many countries. | The controversial legislation has not yet been officially approved by Parliament. | Needless to say, the use of offshore centres is never far from being a controversial matter. | Logging on public lands is a contentious issue.
debatable | open to debate / question | moot COLLOCATIONS
it is debatable // open to debate / question // a moot point / question whether… : It is debatable whether nuclear weapons actually prevent war. | It is open to debate whether the new government is any better than the old one. | Nevertheless, it is still open to question whether these arrangements are an adequate substitute for parliamentary scrutiny. | It's a moot point whether this is censorship.
to divide | to split [transitive] to be the cause of disagreement between people, especially within a group, organization, or country вызывать разногласия; расходиться во мнениях
an issue / matter / point / subject / question divides / splits people / opinion / a party: The issue of cloning has sharply divided voters. | We need to examine the issues that bind and divide this country. | There is hardly a figure in public life who so divides public opinion as Woodhead. | It was feared that the issue would split the church. | The welfare bill split the Democratic Party.
people / opinion(s) are / is divided / split (on / over / about / as to an issue / matter / point / subject / question): The party is divided on / over the issue of capital punishment. | The two sides remained divided on the issue of nuclear weapons. | Public opinion, as measured in the polls, was deeply divided. | Opinions are divided on the question. | The party is split over the issue of immigration. | The administration is split on the issue of nuclear disarmament. | Cabinet and scientific opinion is split over the issue.
people are divided in opinion as to… : We were all divided in opinion as to what was coming.
to be deeply / sharply / bitterly divided / split: By then, the Republicans were deeply divided on the utility of continuing the fight. | However opinion on this was sharply divided among scientists. | Voters are bitterly divided over the issue of gun control. | The government appears deeply split on this issue. | Scientists were deeply split on the uses to which the discoveries of atomic physics were being put.
divided / split nation / party: This is a divided nation, where the fault-lines are fresh, sharp and deep. | Wilson now found himself leading a weak and divided party.
rift | split [countable] a serious disagreement between two people or groups разрыв, разлад; размолвка
rift / split in / within sth: He has warned that the serious rifts within the country could lead to civil war. | The argument could lead to a damaging split in the party. | The tax issue has caused a split in / within the government. | This is due in part to splits within the alternative movement.
rift / split between / with sb: Party officials have denied that there is any rift between ministers. | The interview reflected a growing rift between the President and the government. | The government denied there had been a rift with the UN. | There is a widening split between senior managers and the rest of the workforce.
rift / split over sth: Today's announcement could lead to a further rift over public spending. | The union is desperate to avoid a split over this issue. | There is anxiety about the growing split over foreign policy.
to cause / trigger (off) / lead to a rift: The arguments finally caused a rift between the two countries that has not yet healed. | Buchanan's jump to the Reform party triggered a split within its ranks. | The new policy has led to a split in the armed forces.
a rift develops a serious disagreement starts: After the war a serious rift developed between the two former allies. | Crucially, a rift developed between a local strike leadership and the trade union's national officials.
to heal a rift to end a serious disagreement: He set out to heal the rifts in the party. | The meeting was called in an effort to heal the rift between the two presidents. | Peace talks were held to try to heal the growing rift between the two sides.
a rift heals / mends: The rift between the two countries never healed. | It took a good five years for the rift within the party to mend.
position | stance | stand | line [countable] an opinion about an important issue, especially the official opinion of a government, a political party, or someone in authority взгляд, позиция, точка зрения; отношение: an official / unofficial position / stance / stand | a firm / radical / strong / untenable / weak position / stance / stand | a firm / resolute / strong position / stance / stand | an uncompromising stance on nuclear disarmament | The administration should reconsider its position. | I can't agree with the government's line on immigration.
position / stand / line on sth | stance on / towards sth: We have made our position on disarmament perfectly clear. | It's the Republicans' conservative stand on social and environmental issues. | Several Labour MPs disagree with their party's line on taxation. | What is your stance on environmental issues?
stance against sth: a strong stance against abortion
to take / adopt a position / stand (on sth) / (that…) | to take / adopt a stance (on / towards sth) / (that…): Do you expect the government to take a position one way or another on this legislation? | They took the position that further resistance would be useless. | They took a resolute stand on the issue of tax reform. | The President adopted / took a tough stance on terrorism. | We need to take a more positive stance towards globalization.
to take a line (on sth) / (with sb / sth): The Home Secretary, David Blunkett, took a firm / hard / tough line, saying that he would not tolerate wanton destruction and violence. | The school takes a very firm / hard / tough line on drugs. | Environmental groups took a very tough line with the industry. | The courts should take a tougher line with sex offenders.
to criticize [transitive; intransitive] | to be critical to express disapproval of someone or something, or to talk about their faults критиковать, порицать, хулить, осуждать, относиться отрицательно:
to criticize: He does nothing but criticize and complain all the time.
to criticize sb / sth (harshly / heavily / severely / sharply / strongly / widely): The regime has been harshly criticized for serious human rights violations. | Yet the president is sharply / strongly criticized for convening a national forum to discuss our racial divisions. | The new law has been widely criticized.
to be (highly / strongly / very) critical (of sb / sth): Many economists are critical of the government's economic policies. | Four years ago Clinton was highly / strongly / very critical of federal policies implemented by George Bush.
to criticize sb / sth for sth / for doing sth: Doctors have criticized the government for failing to invest enough in the health service. | The report strongly criticizes the police for failing to deal with the problem quickly.
to criticize sb / sth as…: The President criticized the proposal as expensive and impractical.
to blame [transitive] to say or think that someone or something is responsible for something bad обвинять, возлагать вину, винить; порицать, осуждать, критиковать
to blame sb / sth for sth: The commission is expected to blame the army for many of the atrocities. | Democrats have blamed Republicans for the failure to reach an agreement.
to blame sth on sb: The police blamed the explosion on terrorists.
to be to blame (for sth): The policy is partly to blame for causing the worst unemployment in Europe.
to lash [transitive; intransitive] | to lambast / lambaste | to slam | to slate (BrE) (informal) [transitive] to criticize someone or something severely or angrily, especially in a newspaper article or speech (резко) критиковать, ругать, бичевать, разносить в пух и прах; высмеивать
to lash / lambast / slam / slate sb / sth (for sth / doing sth) / (with sth): Democrats lashed Republican plans, calling them extreme. | Democrats lambasted the President's budget plan for being 'inadequate'. | He lashed Lucien mercilessly with harsh words. | Britain has been slammed by the United Nations for having one of the worst race relations records in the world. | The article has been slammed by critics.
to lash into sb / sth (for sth / doing sth): The speakers lashed into the government. | The report lashes into police commanders for failing to act on intelligence information.
to lash sb as…: One politician lashed Bush as being the president of the wealthy.
to lash back (at sb / sth) отвечать на критику: He didn't lash back. | Gallins lashed back at those who accused him of corruption.
to lash out (at sb / sth) to suddenly speak angrily to someone or criticize someone angrily подвергнуть критике; наброситься (на кого-л.) с критикой: The people applaud politely when speakers lash out at Government.
to accuse [transitive] to say that someone is guilty of a crime or of doing something bad обвинять
to accuse sb (of sth / doing sth): They're accusing me without any proof. | Protesters angrily accused the police of violence and intimidation. | Human rights lawyers have accused the police of beating Murkett to death.
to stand accused of sth to be officially accused of a serious offence быть обвиненным в чем-л.: The government stands accused of eroding freedom of speech.
to charge [transitive] (1) to state officially that someone is guilty of a crime предъявлять обвинение, обвинять
to charge sb (with sth / doing sth): Twelve people involved in the demonstration have been arrested and charged. | The police have charged him with murder.
(2) (formal) to say publicly that you think someone has done something wrong обвинять
to charge sb / sth with sth / doing sth: The report charges cars with being responsible for half of the century's air pollution problems.
to charge that…: Labour's Bryan Gould charged that Mr Mellor acted improperly.
to allege [transitive] (formal) to say that something is true or that someone has done something wrong, although this has not been proved утверждать; (голословно) обвинять; заявлять
to allege sth: He published numerous articles alleging abuses by the secret police.
to allege (that)…: The prosecution alleged that the man had been responsible for an act of terrorism. | The defence alleges that Jones was beaten up while in police custody.
it is alleged that…: It was alleged that policemen had accepted bribes.
to be alleged to be / do sth: The water is alleged to be polluted with mercury. | The new missiles are alleged to be capable of travelling enormous distances.
criticism [countable; uncountable] written or spoken remarks that express your disapproval or bad opinion of someone or something критика: adverse / fierce / harsh / outspoken / severe / sharp / strong / widespread criticism | a valid / fair criticism | the storm of criticism that followed his announcement | There is growing criticism of the President's decision.
to express / voice criticism критиковать, выражать / высказывать критическое отношение (к чему-л.), высказывать критические замечания: To express constructive criticism and voice well researched concerns is of course healthy and legitimate. | The criticism that the English do not truly care about their children was often voiced.
to level criticism at / against sb /sth | to direct criticism at sb / sth | to make criticisms of / about sb / sth критиковать, направлять критику против кого-л.: Even Mrs Thatcher levelled criticism at the lack of privacy. | If he wished to attack bias as such he should have directed his criticism at the press rather than television. | The report makes many criticisms of / about the nation's prison system.
to launch into criticism to suddenly start criticizing sb / sth обрушиться с критикой на кого-л. / что-л.: Nelson launched into a blistering criticism of greedy lawyers.
to take / accept criticism принимать критику: Many employees find it hard to take even mild criticism. | Government seems to have accepted that criticism.
to attract / draw / face / come in for / come under / meet with / receive criticism подвергаться критике: The government's economic strategy has attracted a lot of criticism. | Her decision drew strong criticism from environmental groups, nuclear non-proliferation activists and some members of Congress. | But Yeltsin faced new criticism from his political rivals. | The Government also came in for strong criticism. | This policy repeatedly came under strong criticism on Capitol Hill. | Gerald Ratner received much criticism and there were calls for his resignation.
to provoke / touch off criticism вызывать критику: His actions provoked severe criticism from civil rights groups. | Her allegations have touched off widespread criticism of Albert Hale in the Navajo Nation.
to deflect criticism отвергать / отводить / парировать критику: The newly appointed finance minister is expected to deflect opposition criticism over the housing lender bailout.
to respond to criticism отвечать на критику: I hope that the Minister of State will respond positively to my criticisms.
open to criticism if someone or something is open to criticism, there are good reasons for criticizing them вызывающий споры; спорный: The general is open to criticism for his handling of the war. | Current reforms in the legal system may be open to criticism.
constructive criticism criticism that is intended to be helpful конструктивная критика: We always welcome constructive criticism. | We try to give students constructive criticism.
blame [uncountable] responsibility for a mistake or for something bad вина; ответственность
to get the blame (for sth) быть обвиненным (в чем-л.): I always get the blame for his mistakes!
to put / place / lay / pin / fix the blame on sb | to attach the blame to sb | to lay the blame at sb's door возлагать ответственность на кого-л.: The president put the blame squarely on his opponent. | Subsequent investigations placed the blame squarely on city officials. | Farmers have laid the blame for their problems entirely on EU policies. | Many observers pin the blame on the army, whose all-powerful generals are seeing their grip weaken. | No blame can be attached to the government for the incident.
the blame lies with / rests with / falls on / attaches to sb ответственность лежит на ком-л. / ложится на кого-л.: In my opinion, the blame lies with the police. | The blame fell on all of them.
to share the blame (for sth) разделить ответственность: With Prince Philip, she has to share the blame for the disastrous decade which has engulfed the royals.
to shift the blame (on) to sb (else) перекладывать ответственность: It was a blatant attempt to shift the blame for the crime on to the victim.
to bear the blame (for sth) нести ответственность: Some of the blame for the miscarriage of justice must be borne by the solicitors.
to take / accept / shoulder the blame (for sth) взять на себя вину / ответственность: Until recently, lower military officials had taken the blame for the estimated 3,000 people who were murdered or went missing. | He accepts the blame for that defeat.
accusation | charge (formal) [countable] a statement saying that someone is guilty of a crime or of doing something wrong обвинение: a damaging / grave / serious accusation | a baseless / groundless / unfounded accusation | a false / unjust / sweeping / wild accusation
accusation / charge of sth обвинение в чем-л.: There have been further accusations of corruption. | The procedures the doctor followed laid him open to charges of negligence.
accusation / charge against sb обвинение (против) кого-л.: A spokesman said the accusations against Mr Fallon would be investigated.
accusation / charge that…: They rejected the charge that they had put undue pressure on the Prime Minister.
to make / bring an accusation / charge (against sb) | to level an accusation / charge against / at sb обвинять кого-л., выдвинуть обвинение против кого-л.: Several accusations were made against the government. | He brought an accusation of theft against Smith. | Accusations of fraud have been levelled at the town council. | A number of accusations have been levelled against Hutchinson by his former colleagues.
to respond to an accusation / charge отвечать на обвинение: How do you respond to these charges of racism?
to deny / reject an accusation / charge отвергать обвинение: Pickens has denied the bribery accusations. | He denied the accusation that he had accepted bribes. | He has rejected all the accusations and said he did not want to ask the president for pardon. | The leadership rejected charges that it was insensitive to the plight of the unemployed.
to refute an accusation / charge опровергать обвинение
to face an accusation / charge быть обвиненным (в чем-л.): His administration now faces accusations of corruption. | The school is facing accusations of racism.
allegation [countable; usually plural] a statement that someone has done something wrong or illegal, but that has not been proved (голословное) утверждение / заявление;: a serious allegation | a false / unproved / unsubstantiated / unsupported / vague allegation | A committee will investigate allegations of racial discrimination. | There have been allegations in the press that the fire was started deliberately.
allegation of sth (against sb) голословное обвинение (кого-л. / против кого-л.) в чем-л.: There were allegations of corruption in the police department. | He complained that he lacked the resources to investigate all the allegations of corruption against government officials.
allegation about sth утверждение относительно кого-л. / чего-л.: The book contains shocking allegations about the senator's private life.
allegation that…: There were numerous allegations that the election had been fixed.
to make an allegation (against / about sb / sth) | to level / launch an allegation against / at sb / sth | to raise an allegation of sth (голословно) обвинять кого-л.; выдвинуть (голословное) обвинение против кого-л.: The newspaper made several allegations, none of which turned out to be true. | During the 1980s several newspaper articles made allegations of corruption against the bank. | When interviewed by complaints department officers he made similar allegations about fabrication of admissions. | Serious allegations were levelled against the minister. | Previously the coup allegations have been launched against the manner by which Bush obtained the presidency. | Almost before the final votes were tallied, international election monitors raised allegations of widespread fraud.
to drop / retract / withdraw an allegation брать свои слова обратно: The hon. Gentleman should withdraw his allegation.
to respond to an allegation отвечать на (голословное) обвинение / заявление
to deny / dismiss an allegation отвергать (голословное) обвинение / заявление: The president and party leaders have denied that allegation. | They deny allegations that torture and ill-treatment are widespread. | The resistance movement dismissed the allegations. | Microsoft dismissed the allegations as unfounded.
to refute an allegation опровергать (голословное) обвинение: Forensic evidence to support or refute allegations proved the exception not the rule.
to face an allegation быть (голословно) обвиненным (в чем-л.): She is facing new allegations of involvement in murder.
baseless (formal) | groundless | unfounded not based on facts, evidence, or good reasons (used to show disapproval) беспочвенный, безосновательный, необоснованный, пустой, голословный, неосновательный: baseless / unfounded accusations / allegations / charges / claims / concerns / fears / worries / suspicions / rumours / reports | Baseless allegations have been made and these need to be refuted. | The charges against him are groundless. | Suspicions of a government cover-up are entirely unfounded.
alleged [only before noun] (formal) claimed to be true, although this has not been proved предполагаемый; сомнительный, мнимый; утверждаемый (обычно голословно): an alleged offence / crime / incident | an alleged criminal / victim | It took 15 years for the alleged criminals to prove their innocence. | The alleged victim made the complaint at a police station in York.
allegedly (formal) used when reporting something that people say is true, although it has not been proved будто бы, якобы; по утверждению, как утверждают (обычно голословно): The second incident allegedly occurred in the spring of 1992.
8. Forms of protest
cause [countable] a socially valuable principle, belief, aim, or idea which is strongly supported by some people, for example in politics (благое) дело: a good / just / worthwhile / worthy cause | a lost cause | the cause of peace / justice | her lifelong devotion to the cause of women's rights | a Nationalist / Republican cause | Campaigners hope that people will be sympathetic to their cause. | Our cause is just, and we are prepared to give our lives for it. | These rebels felt they had a cause.
to advance // champion // fight for / in // further // promote a cause бороться за (благое) дело, способствовать (благому) делу: He has always championed the cause of justice. | They are fighting for a cause – the liberation of their people.
demonstration [countable] an event at which a large group of people meet to protest against or to support something in public демонстрация: a pro-democracy / (pro-)independence / peace demonstration | Police opened fire on a peaceful demonstration.
to provoke / spark (off) / trigger (off) / touch off a demonstration становиться причиной демонстрации, провоцировать демонстрацию: The proposals sparked mass demonstrations. | This sparked violent demonstrations outside the base.
protest [countable; uncountable] (1) something that you do to show publicly that you think that something is wrong and unfair, for example taking part in big public meetings, refusing to work, or refusing to buy a company's products акция протеста: The protests were mostly peaceful. | There were protests about waste dumping, and the steady leaking of Windscale. | However public protests are also gathering momentum as people realize that shrimp farming seems to be a recipe for disaster. | Recent street protests have drawn only a few thousand demonstrators, fewer than in last December.
to have a protest: They were just having a peaceful protest, sitting there and linking arms: no threats or fear of violence.
to mount a protest предпринять / организовать акцию протеста: Angela Phillips was planning to mount street protests against the sending of their menfolk into war zones.
to be / get involved in (a) protest: Despite this, the independent unions continued to call for strikes and became increasingly involved in political protest.
(2) [countable; uncountable] a strong complaint expressing disagreement, disapproval or opposition протест, возражение; апелляция, опротестование; несогласие, разногласие: A storm of public protest followed.
protest against sth: Many observers see the demonstrations as a protest against the government.
in protest (at / against / about sth) в знак протеста (против чего-л.): Blacks moved in protest, demanding establishment of a police precinct in Harlem. | The four major opposition parties reportedly decided to boycott the elections in protest at alleged unfair election conditions. | Conservation groups have united in protest against the planned new road. | Rail workers rally in London in protest about privatization plans.
without protest без возражений: He accepted his punishment without protest.
to make / enter / file / lodge / register a protest (against sth / with sb) заявить протест: The organization has made / entered / filed / registered a formal protest against the nuclear testing. | We lodged a strong protest with their government.
to express / voice a protest выразить протест
to cause / provoke / raise / spark (off) / trigger (off) / touch off a (storm of) protest вызвать волну протеста: The programme caused / raised a storm of protest. | The leaks provoked angry protests from citizens and environmentalists. | The move sparked violent protests among students, parents and teachers.
rally [countable] a large public meeting, especially one that is held outdoors to support a political idea, protest etc митинг; съезд, слет: a campaign / election rally | a peace / political / public / pro-democracy rally | But my first attendance at a political rally changed my childhood habits right away, at least briefly.
to address a rally выступать на митинге: He was shot dead while addressing an election rally.
demonstration | protest | rally COLLOCATIONS
demonstration / protest against sth: There were a number of demonstrations against the new tax. | A student protest against education loans took place three years later in central London.
peaceful / violent demonstration / protest / rally: There was a large but peaceful demonstration outside the US Embassy. | Three people died yesterday in violent street protests.
mass / massive demonstration / protest / rally: Meanwhile the opposition threatened to resume mass demonstrations if an acceptable political agreement was not reached. | A massive pro-independence demonstration soon turned into a riot. | There were mass protests in the capital, Manila. | The mass rally now became a powerful expression of national feeling.
to hold / stage / organize a demonstration / protest / rally организовывать / устраивать демонстрацию / акцию протеста / митинг: The students are holding a demonstration to protest against the increase in their fees. | Supporters staged a demonstration outside the US embassy. | A small group of demonstrators staged a peaceful protest outside the UN Headquarters. | The opposition defied curfews and continued to organize rallies and strikes to press for his resignation.
a demonstration / protest / rally takes place / occurs: Thus in July 1981 a violent demonstration took place in Kano against a particular policy of the Governor. | In July 1986 violent demonstrations occurred at Yarmuk University in which thousands were arrested.
to take part in / participate in / attend / join a demonstration / protest / rally: Over 3,000 people took part in a demonstration against the dumping of nuclear waste at sea. | As many as 400,000 people participated in a peaceful demonstration in Srinagar. | He was attending a Liberal rally in the city. | The bulk of the crowd had joined the Orthodox antigovernment rally.
to lead a demonstration / protest / rally возглавить демонстрацию / акцию протеста / митинг: Instead, the centre-right opposition coalition that is leading the street demonstrations is demanding early elections. | He taught mathematics at Sonoma State University and led protests against higher student fees. | Molly led a rally near Detroit, Michigan.
to ban a demonstration / protest / rally запретить проведение демонстрации / акции протеста / митинга: One proposed change would return to the police the power to ban peaceful demonstrations, while another would sharply limit privacy rights. | Interior Ministry officials have said that they cannot guarantee safety for protesters, so public protests will be banned indefinitely. | But he has already tried to curb political opposition, suspending both houses of parliament and banning political rallies.
to break up / disperse a demonstration / protest / rally разогнать демонстрацию / акцию протеста / митинг: Riot police used tear gas and truncheons this afternoon to break up a demonstration by students.
a demonstration / protest / rally disperses участники демонстрации / акции протеста / митинга расходятся
outcry [countable – usually singular; uncountable] an angry protest by a lot of ordinary people шумный (общественный) протест; справедливый гнев: a public / national / international outcry | Despite an outcry, the university refused to change its admission policies. | A massive public outcry followed the revelations of ballot-rigging.
outcry against / about / over sth: The public outcry against the executions made little difference. | One waits for an outcry about such abuses from honest attorneys. | There was a widespread outcry over the increase in fuel tax.
outcry from sb: There was public outcry from those opposed to abortion.
to cause / provoke / spark (off) / trigger (off) an outcry (from sb / against sth): The closure of the local hospital has caused a huge public outcry. | The release from prison of two of the terrorists has provoked a public outcry. | That bid sparked a public outcry. | The accident triggered a public outcry.
strike [uncountable; countable] a period of time when people deliberately stop working because of a disagreement about pay, working conditions etc забастовка, стачка: a miners' / teachers' strike | a train / tube / dock strike | A wave of strikes swept the country.
protest strike забастовка протеста: The Conference was met by a protest strike in Moscow and the Bolsheviks boycotted the proceedings.
general strike всеобщая забастовка
strike by sb: a six-week strike by railway workers
strike over / against / in protest at / over sth: a strike over pay cuts | a national strike against mine closures | The strikes are in protest at the planned introduction of performance-related pay.
strike action стачечная борьба: Hospital workers voted in favour of strike action.
to threaten a strike угрожать забастовкой: Students and unions threatened a general strike.
to call for a strike призывать к забастовке / проведению забастовки: Some miners are calling for a nationwide strike in support of their sacked colleagues.
to call // organize / stage a strike объявлять // организовывать забастовку: The trade union federations called a general strike to protest at working conditions. | He staged a hunger strike in support / pursuit of the demand for a Constitutional Assembly.
to begin / launch a strike начинать забастовку: French air traffic controllers have begun a three-day strike in a dispute over pay. | A strike by transport workers was launched on August 12th.
to be (out) on strike бастовать: There were frequent power cuts when the electricity workers were out on strike.
to go on / come out on strike объявлять / выходить на забастовку: Teachers went on strike last week to demand job security. | The government didn't expect teachers to come out on strike in support of the miners.
to lead a strike возглавлять забастовку: He was a trade union official, once leading a strike of railway workers in 1989.
to call off a strike отменять / прекращать забастовку: They refused to obey the court's order to call off the strike.
to settle a strike удовлетворить требования бастующих, разрешить трудовой конфликт
to end a strike прекратить забастовку: Producers of commercials resisted, but granted some concessions to end the strike.
to break (up) a strike подавлять забастовку: The Prime Minister was determined to break the strike.
hunger strike [uncountable; countable] a situation in which someone refuses to eat for a long time in order to protest about something голодная забастовка, голодовка: During a hunger strike she asked to go to Confession. | He has begun a hunger strike in protest over political violence in Karachi.
demonstrator | protester / protestor [countable] someone who takes part in a demonstration демонстрант, участник демонстрации / акции протеста: angry / peaceful demonstrators / protesters | anti-war / anti-abortion demonstrators / protesters | student demonstrators / protesters | Thirteen demonstrators were killed when soldiers opened fire on the crowd. | They claimed to be victims of political persecution following the military crackdown on student protesters.
to disperse demonstrators / protesters разогнать демонстрантов / участников акции протеста: Troops were deployed to disperse the protesters, several of whom were charged with assault.
demonstrators / protesters disperse демонстранты / участники акции протеста расходятся: One resident said the student protesters dispersed peacefully.
campaigner [countable] a person who takes part in organized activities which are intended to change something in society участник кампании: She's a campaigner for Friends of the Earth.
activist [countable] someone who takes part in activities that are intended to achieve political or social change, especially someone who is a member of an organization активист, борец: a political / party / labour / conservative / democratic / republican / social / trade union / civil rights / animal rights / environmental / student / community activist | activist groups | environmental activists | He was known to be a political activist, but as far as we know had no record of violence.
to protest [intransitive; transitive] to come together to publicly express disapproval or opposition to something протестовать, возражать; заявлять протест, выражать несогласие
to protest: When the army took power, huge crowds gathered in the capital to protest.
to protest against / at / about / over sth: Workers are protesting against high unemployment and inflation. | They're protesting at the government's proposals to allow private firms to tender for prison work. | The trade unions and the left are protesting about a drop in real pay and the prospect of mass unemployment.
to protest sth (AmE): Students protested the decision.
to strike [intransitive] to deliberately stop working because of a disagreement about pay, working conditions etc бастовать; объявлять забастовку: The government agreed not to sack any of the striking workers.
to strike: Democratization has brought workers the right to strike and join a trade union.
to strike for sth: We're striking for a reduction in the working week and improved safety standards.
to strike over sth: Car workers were threatening to strike over the job losses.
9. Mudslinging in politics
(public) image [countable; uncountable] the way that someone or something is thought of by other people имидж, репутация, престиж, образ, лицо: The President's advisers said it would be bad for his image to be photographed with union leaders. | The Prime Minister knows that his personal image is his greatest political asset.
to build (up) / create / cultivate an image создавать имидж / образ / репутацию: Armstrong is working hard to build his public image. | Over the last year he had worked hard to create an image for himself and it was paying off. | He has cultivated the image of an elder statesman. | She has cultivated an image as a tough negotiator. | The company has been successful in cultivating a very professional image.
to improve an image (with sb) улучшать имидж / образ / репутацию: The party is seeking to improve its image with female voters. | The aim is to improve the public image of the police. | The World Bank is finding it difficult to improve its image.
to project / present / convey / promote an image иметь имидж / образ / репутацию: He is trying to project a more dignified, statesmanlike image in this election year. | I have to do what I can to project a positive image. | They present an image of themselves as experts in this area. | And it may even pay better, both in promoting a positive public image and in attracting employees.
to maintain an image поддерживать имидж / образ / репутацию: Since I started working in this company, I have tried to maintain the image of a winner.
to tarnish / hurt / blacken an image испортить / запятнать имидж / репутацию / образ: It is not the opposition that is tarnishing the image of the regime. | The scandal has badly hurt her image as an honest politician.
image building создание имиджа / образа / репутации
reputation [countable] the opinion that people have about someone or something because of what has happened in the past репутация: an enviable / excellent / fine / good / impeccable / spotless / unblemished / unsullied / untarnished reputation | a tainted / tarnished / unenviable reputation | a local / national / international / worldwide reputation
to have / enjoy / hold a reputation иметь репутацию: The judge has a reputation for being fair. | The company has a worldwide reputation for quality. | The university has an international reputation as a centre of excellence. | Each of these artists enjoys a firm reputation in this country but wider international success has been elusive.
to acquire / establish / earn / gain / win / build (up) / develop a reputation приобретать / завоевывать / создавать репутацию: He acquired / established / earned / gained a reputation in political circles as an eloquent speaker. | She won a reputation as a reformer as energy minister. | He built up a reputation as a tough businessman. | Entering Congress as a New Dealer in 1937, he had built (up) a reputation as a supreme operator in congressional politics. | As prosecutor, she developed a reputation as a tough and compassionate legal administrator.
to enhance a reputation улучшать репутацию: Throughout most of those countries the universal view is that Britain should do more to enhance its reputation through the fund.
to blacken / blemish / compromise / damage / destroy / harm / ruin / soil / spoil / sully / tarnish a reputation испортить / запятнать / опорочить / подмочить репутацию: The scandal blackened / blemished / damaged / sullied his reputation. | The stories ruined his reputation. | That slander tarnished the senator's reputation. | His reputation was destroyed when he was caught stealing some money. | Failure here would not only make it much more difficult for the United States to promote democratic reform in the Arab world or slow terrorist recruitment, but would damage its reputation everywhere.
to live up to a reputation оправдывать свою репутацию: Even so-called tax havens may fail to live up to their privileged reputation.
one's reputation suffers (from sth): The EU's reputation has suffered in the past because the use and transfer of powers has appeared to be a one-way street.
to hurl / sling / throw mud at sb to say insulting or unfair things about someone, especially to try to damage their reputation обливать / поливать грязью: He was slinging mud at his opponent.
to stir up mud (informal) to make unpleasant facts known: Stirring up mud is the politician's favourite method of destroying his opponent.
to smear [transitive] to try to damage someone's reputation by telling lies about them дискредитировать; порочить, бесчестить, позорить: This is a cynical attempt to smear a political rival. | Carter refused to take part in an attempt to smear his campaign opponent. | She decided to sue for libel after the newspaper smeared her private life.
to blacken [transitive] to say unpleasant things about someone in order to make other people have a bad opinion of them чернить, клеветать: to blacken sb's character / image / name / reputation | He accused him of knowingly spreading falsehoods in an effort to blacken my character. | They're trying to blacken our name.
to denigrate [transitive] to say things to make someone or something seem less important or good порочить, чернить, клеветать, наговаривать, оговаривать: They denigrate their own country. | You shouldn't denigrate people just because they have different beliefs from you.
to be / go / sound negative (about / over sb / sth) to consider only the bad qualities of a situation, person etc and not the good ones отзываться недоброжелательно / негативно: Turnout collapsed (as it did in London when the party machines 'went negative' all over Red Ken) and the senator sneaked home. | He rarely sounded so negative about the president. | The portrayal of working women in the media tends to be very negative.
to defile [transitive] (formal) to spoil something important, pure, or holy осквернять, оскорблять, портить; разлагать, развращать: The soldiers deliberately defiled all the holy places. | These disgusting videos defile and corrupt the minds of the young.
to slander | to traduce (formal) [transitive] to say something about someone that is not true and is likely to damage their reputation клеветать (в устной форме); порочить репутацию: He slandered his political opponent. | My character was traduced by Captain Hawkins.
to libel [transitive] to write something about someone that is not true and is likely to damage their reputation клеветать (в письменной форме / в печати); писать пасквили; дискредитировать: The newspaper which libelled him had already offered compensation.
to defame | to vilify [transitive] (formal) to say or write something about someone that is not true and is likely to damage their reputation клеветать, порочить, наговаривать, оговаривать, позорить, поносить, бесчестить, чернить, очернить: He complained that the article defamed him. | Religious leaders say the novel defames Islam. | He was vilified by the press as a monster of perversity.
mud-slinging | mudslinging [uncountable] the practice of publicly saying insulting or unfair things about someone in order to harm their reputation клевета, обливание / поливание грязью: There has been a lot of political mudslinging in the battle for votes. | Haze says he is angry about the mudslinging in the campaign.
smear [countable] an accusation which is unpleasant, unreasonable or unlikely to be true and which is made publicly with the intention of damaging a person's reputation необоснованное обвинение; клеветническое / дискредитирующее замечание: The prime minister has dismissed the allegations as smears and innuendoes.
denigration [uncountable] клевета, диффамация: the denigration of minorities in this country
slander (1) traducement [uncountable; countable] a false spoken statement about someone which damages their reputation (устная) клевета, злословие, клеветнические измышления: cruel / vicious / vile slander | to commit slander | to spread / disseminate slander | to subject sb to slander | Korea has been a target of threats and slanders from the major western powers. | She regarded his comment as a slander on her good reputation.
(2) [uncountable] the crime of saying something about someone that is not true and is likely to damage their reputation (устная) клевета, клевета (в устной форме): to bring a slander action against sb | Courts in some states treat slander and libel differently. | He is being sued for slander.
libel (1) [uncountable; countable] a false written statement about someone which damages their reputation клевета (в печати), диффамация; пасквиль: to commit libel | to spread / disseminate libel | to publish a libel against sb | to subject sb to libel | If the jury decided there was a libel, it would have to consider its effect on Miss Smith's position. | The book is a libel on human nature.
(2) [uncountable] the crime of writing something about someone that is not true and is likely to damage their reputation клевета (в печати), диффамация: to bring a libel action against sb | He sued the newspaper for libel.
defamation | vilification [uncountable] (formal) the act or crime of saying or writing something about someone that is not true and is likely to damage their reputation клевета; диффамация; поношение: to commit defamation / vilification | to subject sb to defamation / vilification | He sued (the newspaper) for defamation of character. | Clare did not deserve the vilification she had been subjected to.
slanderous containing or using slander клеветнический; порочащий, очерняющий, позорящий, дискредитирующий; распространяющий клевету, занимающийся злословием: a slanderous accusation / allegation / comment / expression / remark | a slanderous person | Herr Kohler wanted an explanation for what he described as 'slanderous' remarks. | The truth can often be slanderous if it is put in certain ways.
libellous containing or using libel клеветнический; порочащий, очерняющий, позорящий, дискредитирующий; распространяющий клевету, занимающийся злословием: libellous gossip | a libellous accusation / report / periodical | a libellous person | He claimed the articles were libellous and damaging to his reputation.
defamatory containing defamation клеветнический; порочащий, очерняющий, позорящий, дискредитирующий: a defamatory remark / statement | He claims the remarks were highly defamatory. | The article was highly defamatory.
mudslinger [countable] клеветник
slanderer | traducer [countable] a person who says something about someone that is not true and is likely to damage their reputation клеветник
libeller [countable] a person who writes something about someone that is not true and is likely to damage their reputation клеветник, очернитель, пасквилянт, автор пасквиля
10. Corrupt practices in politics
to corrupt [transitive; intransitive] to encourage someone to start doing dishonest, illegal, or immoral things развращать, разлагать, портить; подкупать, давать взятку: Excessive campaign spending is corrupting the American political system. | The study claimed that violence on television corrupts the minds of children. | They say power / money corrupts.
to blackmail [transitive] (1) to use threats to force a person or government to do what you want шантажировать
to blackmail sb (with sth) (into sth / doing sth): The government insisted that it would not be blackmailed by violence / the rebels. | Someone was trying to blackmail him with pictures of him and his mistress. | We will not be blackmailed into silence. | The FBI blackmailed her into informing on the other members of the gang.
(2) to extort to make someone give you money or do what you want by threatening to tell people embarrassing information about them вымогать деньги, совершать вымогательство
to extort sth (from sb): Corrupt government officials were extorting money from him. | Rebels extorted money from local villagers.
to bribe [transitive] to give money or presents to someone, especially a public official, so that they will help you by doing something dishonest or illegal предлагать / давать взятку, подкупать
to bribe sb (with / by sth): He bribed immigration officials and entered the country illegally. | Prisoners bribed guards with cigarettes. | I never knew a judge who was bribed by raw money.
to bribe sb to do sth / into ( doing) sth: They tried to bribe the judge to find their brother not guilty. | They bribed him into collusion. | Judges are bribed into making decisions favourable to drug traffickers.
corruption [uncountable] (1) dishonest, illegal, or immoral behaviour, especially by people in positions of power продажность, коррумпированность; коррупция; порочность, развращенность, разложение (моральное): political / official / public corruption | The country's government has been accused of corruption and abuse of power. | Political corruption is widespread throughout the country.
to tackle corruption бороться с коррупцией: The Socialists say they will tackle corruption by introducing a new law on party financing.
to expose corruption раскрывать / разоблачать коррупцию: It comprehends probes into departments of the Federal Government to expose corruption, inefficiency or waste.
to eliminate / eradicate / root out / stop corruption искоренить / вырвать с корнем / ликвидировать / уничтожить коррупцию: This measure was intended to eliminate / eradicate corruption. | The new president has promised to root out high level corruption. | They were determined to stop widespread corruption.
(2) the process of corrupting someone or something развращение, разложение: The play is about the gradual corruption of a scientist.
blackmail [uncountable] (1) the use of threats to force a person or government to do what you want шантаж: Bates got a 5-year jail sentence for blackmail. | This is a move that immediately suggests a preliminary to political blackmail.
to commit / practise blackmail использовать / применять шантаж
(2) extortion the crime of making someone give you money or do what you want by threatening to tell people embarrassing information about them вымогательство: Barrett was in court, facing a charge of blackmail. | He was found guilty of obtaining the money by extortion.
bribery [uncountable] the crime of giving money or presents to someone, especially a public official, so that they will help you by doing something dishonest or illegal взяточничество, подкуп, дача / получение взятки: There was widespread / wholesale bribery and corruption in the police department. | He was arrested on suspicion of accepting bribery. | The drug bosses were using bribery to stay out of jail.
bribe [countable] money or a present given to someone, especially a public official, so that they will help you by doing something dishonest or illegal взятка: They paid millions in bribes to tax officials in order to avoid investigation.
to offer / give / pay (sb) a bribe предлагать / давать взятку: He offered me a cash bribe to help him secure the contract. | Some companies paid bribes for the award of contracts.
to accept / take / receive a bribe (from sb) брать / принимать взятку: The judge admitted that he had accepted / taken / received bribes (from wealthy businessmen).
blackmailer [countable] (1) a person who uses threats to force a person or government to do what you want шантажист
(2) extortionist | extortioner a person who makes someone give you money or do what you want by threatening to tell people embarrassing information about them вымогатель
to sell out [transitive; intransitive] (informal) to change your beliefs or principles, especially in order to get more money or some other advantage (used to show disapproval) предать; стать предателем, продаться
to sell sb / sth out: The country has sold out its principles in yielding to the demands of a small but powerful group. | French farmers feel they've been sold out by their government in the negotiations.
to sell out: Many of the radicals of the 1960s sold out – they became accountants and salesmen. | The young in particular see him as a man who will not sell out or be debased by the compromises of politics.
to sell out to sb / sth: The officer was charged with selling out to the enemy.
to compromise | to betray [transitive] to do something which is against your principles and which therefore seems dishonest or shameful компрометировать, дискредитировать, подрывать
to compromise / betray beliefs / ideas / ideals / principles / values: Traditional supporters are accusing the party of compromising its principles. | He tried to make money without compromising his moral values.
to compromise a reputation: If we back down on this issue, our reputation will be compromised.
to compromise yourself / your position: His political career ended when he compromised himself by accepting bribes.
sell-out | sellout [singular] (informal) (1) a situation in which someone has not done what they promised to do or were expected to do by the people who trusted them (used to show disapproval) измена, предательство: Anti-nuclear campaigners are calling the president's acceptance of nuclear testing a complete sell-out. | His decision to become a Socialist candidate at Sunday's election was simply a sell-out.
(2) someone who has not done what they promised to do or who is not loyal to their friends or supporters, especially in order to become more popular, richer etc (used to show disapproval) изменник, предатель; ренегат: Many black students regarded him as a sellout.
compromising proving that you have done something morally wrong or embarrassing, or making it seem as if you have done so компрометирующий, дискредитирующий, позорящий: a compromising position / situation | a compromising letter / photograph / picture | A large number of compromising letters / photographs / pictures fell into the hands of Tsarist investigators.
11. Political manipulation
to manipulate [transitive] to make someone think and behave exactly as you want them to, by skilfully deceiving or influencing them манипулировать, управлять, воздействовать, влиять; действовать в личных (корыстных) интересах, ловко использовать в собственных целях; подтасовывать, подделывать (факты / цифры)
to manipulate sb /sth: Students were outraged that someone could use their newspaper to manipulate them. | He accused the environmentalists of trying to manipulate public opinion in their favour. | Throughout her career she has very successfully manipulated the media.
to manipulate sb into (doing) sth / to do sth: The thought that any parent would manipulate their child into seeking fame just appalled me.
to provoke [transitive] (1) to cause a reaction or feeling, especially a negative one вызывать, возбуждать, способствовать; провоцировать
to provoke sth: to provoke a demonstration / protest / outcry / (a storm of) criticism | to provoke a reaction / response | to provoke anger / outrage / hostility | to provoke debate / discussion | The proposal provoked widespread criticism. | The MP's speech has provoked a furious reaction. | The destruction of the mosque has provoked anger throughout the Muslim world.
to provoke someone into (doing) something / to do sth: They provoked viewers into consideration about the state of the nation. | She hopes her editorial will provoke readers into thinking seriously about the issue.
(2) to make or try to make someone angry, especially deliberately раздражать, сердить, бесить, приводить в ярость; провоцировать: You don't care if you provoke people.
to incite | to instigate | to stir [transitive] to deliberately encourage people to be violent or commit crimes by making them angry or excited подстрекать, провоцировать; возбуждать, раздувать; вызывать
to incite / instigate sth: His approach has incited even more intense debate among Democrats. | They were charged with inciting racial hatred. | A foreign government was accused of having instigated the bloodshed.
to incite / instigate / stir sb to sth: The newspaper published a few inflammatory articles that incited people to violence and hatred. | They instigated the students to riot. | It doesn't take much to stir the students to violence.
to incite sb to do sth: Republicans have complained that Democrats are using Social Security scare tactics to incite seniors groups and others to oppose the constitutional amendment.
to egg sb on to encourage someone to do something, especially something that they do not want to do or should not do подстрекать, провоцировать, науськивать: This may be what some of those egging the freedom fighters on want to happen.
to stir sth up to deliberately try to cause arguments or bad feelings between people раздувать (ссору); вызывать отрицательные чувства / эмоции: He said senior government officials / the opposition were trying to stir up ethnic tension / racial hatred / trouble / feelings of dissatisfaction among the voters. | His series of articles on party leaders has stirred up a great deal of public controversy.
manipulation [uncountable; countable] behaviour that influences someone or controls something in an unfair or dishonest way манипуляция, манипулирование; махинация, подтасовка подделка: The opposition party claims the president returned to power through political manipulation. | There's been so much media manipulation of the facts that nobody knows the truth of the matter.
provocation [uncountable; countable] something that makes someone angry or upset, or is intended to to cause such a reaction вызов; подстрекательство; провокация: The Deputy Commander has condemned this weekend's protest as deliberate provocation. | The attack was an act of provocation by opponents of the peace process.
incitement [uncountable; singular] something that encourages people to be violent or commit crimes, or the deliberate act of encouraging violence or crime подстрекательство: (an) incitement to religious hatred / riot / murder | By publishing the book they were guilty of incitement to racial hatred.
machinations [plural] (formal) secret, complicated, clever, and often unfair methods used to obtain power or control (used to show disapproval) махинации, интриги, происки, козни: Despite a commitment to more open government, the public are still being kept in the dark about the inner machinations of the Cabinet. | It would be a mistake to ascribe this sensitivity purely to the propaganda and machinations of the Communists.
instigator [countable] подстрекатель, зачинщик; инициатор: He was accused of being the main instigator of the coup.
instigator of war | warmonger поджигатель войны
manipulator [countable] someone who is good at getting what they want by skilfully controlling or deceiving other people махинатор: Research has shown that so-called Machiavellians can be effective manipulators of other people. | She was, said the judge, a ruthless and scheming manipulator.
provocative intended to start arguments between people or to make people angry or upset провокационный; вызывающий; раздражающий: a provocative comment / remark / question / statement / speech | a provocative act by a terrorist group | In a deliberately provocative speech, she criticized the whole system of government. | The minister's provocative remarks were widely reported in the press.
backstairs | backroom (adjective) | backstage (adjective; adverb) secret and usually dishonest or illegal; in private закулисный, кулуарный, тайный, скрытый, секретный; за кулисами: backstairs / backroom / backstage influence / political deals / negotiations / talks | They have been calling the Presidency decision a backroom deal. | The organizers say it's a fair contest but who knows what goes on backstage?
to cater / provide for sb / sth to give a particular type of people something they want or need, especially something unusual or special удовлетворять (требования / прихоти); угождать, баловать; приспосабливаться (к вкусам / запросам потребителей); принимать что-л. во внимание: Politicians should learn to cater for / provide for (the opinions of ) the man in the street.
to pander / cater to sb / sth to give someone anything they want in order to please them, even if it seems unacceptable, unreasonable or unnecessary, usually in order to get some personal advantage (used to show disapproval) потворствовать, попустительствовать, потакать: The government was accused of pandering to racial prejudice. | He said the government had pandered to the terrorists for too long. | Many television plays pander to the public keenness for tasteless violence. | This legislation simply caters to racism.
to connive at / in sth to ignore behaviour or an activity that is wrong, or do nothing to stop it, so that you seem to approve of it (used to show disapproval) потворствовать, попустительствовать, потакать; смотреть сквозь пальцы, молчаливо допускать: He would not be the first politician to connive at a shady business deal. | He called for checks to discover whether corrupt officials are being bribed to connive in shoddy construction.
connivance [uncountable] the act of conniving потворство, попустительство, потакание; молчаливое одобрение / поддержка; игнорирование: Their appalling treatment of opposition candidates could only have happened with the connivance of the political authorities. | They could not have carried out the terrorist attack without the connivance of the police.
populist (adjective) claiming to represent the interests and opinions of ordinary people, rather than those of rich or very highly educated people популистский: a populist leadership / campaign | populist rhetoric | Edwards is seen as a populist Democrat. | In the ensuing campaign, their supporters exploited populist rhetoric on the war.
populist [countable] someone who claims to represent the interests and opinions of ordinary people, rather than those of rich or very highly educated people (often applied to someone with demagogic tendencies) популист: a political party dominated by populists
populism [uncountable] politics based on an appeal to popular sentiments or fears популизм: a wave of populism | an artful blend of nationalism and economic populism
12. Electoral issues
to nominate [transitive] to officially suggest someone for an election, job, position or honour выставлять / выдвигать / предлагать кандидата (для участия в выборах / на должность)
to nominate sb: Under party rules each candidate has to be nominated by 55 Labour MPs.
to nominate sb for sth: They nominated him for the presidency. | By now it was clear that Bush was going to be nominated for President. | The Democrats nominated Andrew Jackson for a second term.
to nominate sb as sth: He's been nominated by the Green Party as their candidate in the next election.
to nominate sb to do sth: Lee was the first Chinese American nominated to head the Civil Rights Division. | I nominate John to represent us at the meeting.
nomination [uncountable; countable] the act of officially suggesting someone for an election, job, position or honour выдвижение / предложение кандидата (для участия в выборах / для назначения на должность); номинация: The Bush network is looming large in the race for the nomination.
presidential / vice presidential nomination | nomination for (the post of / office of) president / vice president / the presidency / prime minister / the premiership / governor выдвижение на пост президента / вице-президента / премьер-министра / губернатора: Gore had lost his bid for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1988. | Who will get the Republican nomination for president?
to seek the nomination | to campaign for the nomination бороться за выдвижение в качестве кандидата: Powell announced he would not seek the Republican nomination. | Dole campaigned for the Republican presidential nomination.
to get / win / gain / earn (sb) / obtain / secure / capture the nomination (for sth) добиться выдвижения в качестве кандидата: He got / won / earned / obtained the presidential nomination. | A candidate needs 996 delegates to win the Republican presidential nomination. | Governor Clinton struggled to gain the Democratic nomination. | The Senate majority leader already holds more than one-third of the delegates needed to secure the Republican presidential nomination.
to accept the nomination согласиться / дать согласие на выдвижение в качестве кандидата: Clinton will accept the Democratic nomination for a second-term.
to approve / confirm one's nomination утверждать выдвижение кандидата: All the committee’s nominations were approved. | The Senate Tuesday confirmed his nomination by 100-0.
to lose the nomination (to sb) проиграть борьбу за выдвижение в качестве кандидата: By alienating his natural backers, Rockefeller lost the 1964 nomination to Goldwater.
to withdraw one's nomination снять свою кандидатуру: He withdrew his nomination less than twelve hours later.
candidate | nominee [countable] someone who has been suggested or being considered for an election, job, position or honour кандидат (выдвинутый на выборах / предложенный на должность); претендент; соискатель; кандидатура: One candidate must receive a majority of the vote. | The Democratic nominee was more specific on the issue of illegal immigration.
successful / victorious candidate избранный / победивший кандидат
defeated / unsuccessful candidate проигравший кандидат
party candidate кандидат от какой-л. партии
candidate / nominee for election кандидат на выборах
presidential / vice presidential / parliamentary candidate / nominee | candidate / nominee for (the post / office of) president / vice president / the presidency / prime minister / the premiership / governor кандидат на должность президента / вице-президента / премьер-министра / губернатора / в парламент: He is a candidate for the office of Governor. | He is mentioned as a possible vice presidential nominee for 1996.
Conservative / Tory / Labour / Liberal / Liberal Democrat / Democratic / Republican candidate / nominee кандидат от Консервативной / Лейбористской / Либеральной / Либерально-демократической / Демократической / Республиканской партии: I made my mark against the Conservative candidate. . | The Democratic candidate is still leading in the polls.
independent candidate / nominee независимый кандидат: Independent presidential candidates would be able to stand. | He gained 19 percent of the vote as an independent presidential candidate in 1992.
to elect / choose / select / pick a candidate / nominee | to choose / select sb as one's candidate / nominee : In order to be elected, a constituency candidate needs only a plurality of the votes cast. | In the 1975 election voters chose four independent candidates for the council. | He might have been selected as a Conservative candidate. | John Taylor was selected as a Tory candidate.
to approve / endorse a candidate / nominee утвердить / поддержать / одобрить кандидатуру: And it is partly because of the way in which cabinet nominees are approved.
to offer / announce / declare oneself as a candidate выдвинуть / выставить / предложить свою кандидатуру; зарегистрироваться в качестве кандидата: He did not offer himself as a candidate in the approaching elections. | Anybody who wants to be an MP must declare himself or herself as a candidate in one of these constituencies.
to put up | to put forward | to field | to go to the polls [transitive; intransitive] to suggest someone or oneself as a suitable candidate to take part in an election выставлять / выдвигать чью-л. / свою кандидатуру на выборах, предлагать кого-л. в качестве кандидата, баллотироваться
to put up / put forward / field a candidate (for sth): Each party is allowed to put up one candidate. | Several people have been put forward for the chairmanship. | It fielded four candidates who averaged just under 10 percent where they stood.
to put sb / oneself up / forward (as a candidate) (for sth): I was put up for the committee. | They are putting him up as a candidate in the next elections. | Do you intend to put yourself up (for the empty seat in the House)? | Is Chris willing to be put up for election? | She has decided to put herself forward as a candidate.
to put up for sth / as a candidate Do you really intend to put up for that seat? | He put up as a candidate.
to go to the polls: In June 1983, Margaret Thatcher went to the polls for the second time.
candidacy | candidature (esp. BrE) [uncountable; countable] the fact that someone is a candidate in an election кандидатура; кандидат: The local party supported her candidacy for the post of chairman.
presidential / parliamentary candidacy | candidacy for (the post of / office of) president / the presidency кандидатура на пост президента / в парламент: Gore assiduously cultivated his eventual presidential candidacy.
to announce / declare / file one's candidacy (for election) выдвинуть / выставить / предложить свою кандидатуру; зарегистрироваться в качестве кандидата: He has officially announced his candidacy for the presidential election. | He has declared his candidacy for the post.
to withdraw one's candidacy | to send in one's withdrawal from the candidacy снимать свою кандидатуру: She later withdrew her candidacy.
to approve / endorse one's candidacy утвердить / поддержать / одобрить кандидатуру: He endorsed the presidential candidacy of Ronald Reagan.
opponent [countable] someone who is competing against you and who belongs to a different party or who have different aims or policies противник, оппонент: a political opponent | a leading / main / chief opponent | He is admired even by his political opponents. | During the primary elections, McCain was Bush's leading opponent. | Reed is an outspoken opponent of the death penalty.
to run (esp. AmE) | to stand (BrE) [intransitive] to take part in an election as a candidate участвовать в выборах, избираться; баллотироваться, выставлять / выдвигать / предлагать свою кандидатуру на выборах, баллотироваться
to run / stand: Mrs Thatcher wanted to run a fourth time. | Some ardent supporters were urging him to stand.
to stand / run for election (to parliament) | to stand / run at / in an election / by-election | to stand / run in an area / seat участвовать в выборах / дополнительных выборах, избираться; баллотироваться, выставлять / выдвигать / предлагать свою кандидатуру на выборах / дополнительных выборах: She was one of the first women to stand for election to parliament. | He will run for election this fall. | He has not yet announced whether he will stand in the election. | She's not intending to stand at the next election. | None of the three Conservative candidates standing in the area for the first time was elected. | Women are running in nearly all the contested seats in Los Angeles.
to run / stand for office / president / the presidency / governor / mayor / parliament / a city council / a town / a seat участвовать в выборах, избираться; баллотироваться, выставлять / выдвигать / предлагать свою кандидатуру (в парламент / на пост / должность): Jackson announced his intention to run for President. | More people are running for the city council. | Do you intend to stand for this town in the next election? | Three women with the same name are standing for this seat.
to run / stand for re-election / a second term баллотироваться / выставлять / выдвигать / предлагать свою кандидатуру на новый срок: He's going to run for re-election. | Salinas is running for a second term as President. | The president has announced she does not intend to stand for re-election.
to stand as a candidate (at / in an election / for an area) участвовать в выборах / избираться в качестве кандидата / в избирательном округе / на место / на пост / на должность: | Age alone will not preclude him from standing as a candidate. | He stood as a candidate in / at the first post-war election in 1996. | She stood as the candidate for Hackney East.
to run / stand against sb соперничать с кем-л. на выборах: You are running against some worthy opponents. | His margin over the conservative candidates standing against him was not of much consequence.
to elect [transitive; often passive] to choose someone by voting so that they represent you or hold an official position избирать, выбирать (голосованием)
to re-elect [transitive] to elect someone again переизбирать, избирать вновь
to elect | to re-elect COLLOCATIONS
to elect / re-elect a president / vice president / governor / mayor / chairman / leader / member / government / council: The people of the Philippines have voted to elect a new president. | Every nation should have a right to elect their own government. | The president will pursue lower taxes if he is re-elected.
to elect / re-elect sb (as) president / vice president / governor / mayor/ chairman / leader / member: Ronald Reagan was first elected President in 1980. | Ken Livingstone was elected mayor of London in May 2000. | The country elected him as president in the first contested election in its history. | He was re-elected as party leader.
to elect / re-elect sb to (a) parliament / a legislature / a council / a committee / a governorship: He was elected to parliament by a large majority. | Brock was elected to the state legislature. | No new members were elected to the party central committee. | He was elected to a US state governorship.
to elect / re-elect sb to do sth: She was elected to represent us / to tackle poverty. | The group elected one of its members to be their spokesperson.
to elect / re-elect sb for a term: The President is elected for a five-year term by universal adult suffrage. | The chairman and treasurer have both been re-elected for another year.
to return [transitive; often passive] (BrE) to elect someone to a political position, especially to represent you in parliament избирать, выбирать (в законодательный орган)
to return sb: Only 96 Conservative MPs were returned at the last election.
to return sb to (a) parliament / a legislature / office: The voters returned her to parliament last year. | It seems unlikely that the President will be returned to office.
to return sb as a member of parliament / MP: At the last election she was again returned as MP for Brighton.
elect (adjective) elected to an important position, but not yet given that position officially избранный
president-elect | governor-elect | prime minister-elect someone who has been elected as a new president / governor / prime minister, but who has not yet officially started the job избранный, но еще не вступивший в должность президент / губернатор / премьер-министр: The President-elect is preparing to take office in January.
election (1) [countable] an occasion when people vote to choose someone for a political or official position выборы: The final election results will be announced on Friday.
election to / for sth выборы в какой-л. орган: Elections to the European parliament are due in May. | She is standing for the first time in elections for the National Assembly.
general election an election in which all the voters in a country elect the government всеобщие выборы
national / local / municipal election выборы в общенациональные / федеральные / местные / муниципальные органы власти, общенациональные / местные / муниципальные выборы: Even for the last remaining superpower, domestic issues, not foreign matters, dominate national elections. | At the municipal elections, twenty communities voted for the proposition.
presidential / gubernatorial / mayoral election выборы президента / губернатора / мэра, президентские / губернаторские выборы: The next presidential election is due in two years.
parliamentary / congressional election выборы в парламент / конгресс: But he would vote for the official Labour candidate in a parliamentary election. | Congressional elections are by universal and compulsory adult suffrage.
legislative elections / races elections for electing people to a legislative body выборы в законодательный орган / законодательное собрание: At the legislative elections the party advocated a strongly right-wing economic programme. | The 1996 legislative races turned out to be particularly important.
early election досрочные выборы (в парламент)
mid-term / off-year election промежуточные выборы; выборы, не совпадающие с президентскими выборами и выборами в конгресс
primary elections | primaries предварительные выборы
hotly contested / close election напряженные выборы; выборы, на которых разрыв между кандидатами незначительный
(2) [singular] the fact of being elected to an official position избрание: With the election of a new leader, the country became relatively stable. | One third of the committee comes up for election every year.
election to sth избрание в какой-л. орган: Her election to the Senate was welcome news.
election as sth избрание в качестве кого-л.: His election as President will mean changes in foreign policy.
to run for / stand for / seek election (to sth) участвовать в выборах (с целью одержать победу)
to win election to sth победить на выборах в какой-л. орган власти: In Illinois, the Democrat candidate is the favourite to win election to the Senate.
re-election [uncountable; countable] when someone is elected again to the same position переизбрание, повторное избрание (на должность): His re-election campaign is floundering.
to run for / stand for / seek re-election участвовать в выборах с целью быть избранным на новый срок: She's running / standing for re-election. | Barnes is seeking re-election.
by-election | bye-election [countable] (esp. BrE) a special election to replace a politician who has left parliament or died дополнительные выборы: He returned to Parliament after his by-election victory in Kensington and Chelsea last November.
election | by-election COLLOCATIONS
at / in an election / by-election на выборах / дополнительных выборах: Taxation will be one of the major issues at the next general election. | We have gained four local council seats in by-elections in Essex recently.
to call an election / a by-election объявить выборы / дополнительные выборы, объявить о проведении выборов / дополнительных выборах: The government may decide to call an election early.
to schedule / fix an election / by-election for a particular date | to appoint / fix / set a date for an election / by-election | an election / by-election is due (to take place) in / on… назначить выборы / дополнительные выборы (на определенное время, определенную дату): The elections are scheduled for mid-June. | Under this pressure the government set an election date of 18 March 1990. | Elections to the European parliament are due in May.
to hold an election / by-election | an election / by-election is held / takes place проводить выборы / дополнительные выборы: South Africa held its first multi-racial elections in 1994. Local government elections will be held / take place in May.| Elections will be held / take place on 14 February.
to win / carry an election / by-election победить на выборах / дополнительных выборах: The Labour Party won the 2001 election by a huge majority. | I was fortunate enough to win a by-election in the constituency of Worcester.
to lose an election / by-election проиграть на выборах / дополнительных выборах: If the Tories lose every by-election, the odds will change.
to fight / contest an election / by-election участвовать в выборах / дополнительных выборах; бороться на выборах / дополнительных выборах: He will be fighting local elections next May. | The parties formed an alliance to contest the legislative elections.
to disrupt an election / by-election сорвать выборы / дополнительные выборы
election / electoral commission [countable] избирательная комиссия: The election commission might postpone the election until these questions are clarified. | The remainder of the votes were declared invalid, the election commission said. | Results were cancelled by the electoral commission in both places.
elective (formal) an elective position is one that someone holds because people have voted for them выборный
elective office / seat выборная должность; выборное место: The presidency is an elective office. | The council also reviews candidates for elective office. | the 34 elective seats in the National Assembly
to hold (an) elective office занимать выборную должность: Most of them hold an elective office. | Buchanan has never held elective office.
to fill an elective office заполнять выборную должность: There are approximately one million elective offices to be filled.
electoral [only before noun] relating to elections and voting избирательный, выборный: Reports of the electoral death of the Conservatives were exaggerated.
electoral district избирательный округ: Yeltsin won majorities in more than 80 of the 88 electoral districts.
electoral law: The opposition parties criticized different aspects of the electoral law.
electoral reform: The government are promising electoral reform within five years.
electoral system: Electoral systems vary from country to country. | Our electoral system strongly favours two-party government. | He became president in 1999 under a new electoral system.
electoral register / roll / list список / реестр избирателей: to draw up an electoral register / roll / list | Is this one of the reasons why one million people are missing off the electoral register? | They cannot have their names on the electoral roll and, as a result, cannot vote.
electoral victory / success: After his electoral victory, Smith was appointed environment minister. | This was the first of her many electoral successes.
electoral defeat: It was the party's fourth electoral defeat.
electoral mandate наказ избирателей
elector [countable] someone who has the right to vote in a political election избиратель; лицо, имеющее право голоса: Elections limit Parliament because they give power to electors who ignorantly demand ever more state intervention. | Over 36% of electors did not vote at all.
voter [countable] someone who has the right to vote in a political election, or who votes in a particular election избиратель; лицо, имеющее право голоса; участник голосования, голосующий: Voters overwhelmingly rejected the far right in the May elections. | Only 40% of eligible voters participated in the last election. | Voters went to the polls today to elect a new president.
voter apathy a situation in which a lot of people who have the right to vote do not vote: Voter apathy is especially high among young people.
electorate [countable; usually singular] all the people in a country or area who have the right to vote электорат, избиратели, контингент избирателей, избирательный корпус: The present voting system distorts the wishes of the electorate. | A majority of the electorate oppose the law. | Research has shown that thirty percent of the electorate have still not decided how they will vote.
bid | run [countable; usually singular] an attempt to achieve or obtain something; an attempt to win an election попытка, стремление; попытка победить на выборах: Her bid for re-election was unsuccessful. | Lavell has not ruled out a run for the state senate seat.
to make / mount a bid for sth | to prepare a run for sth предпринимать попытку победить на выборах: The party now feels the time is right to make a bid for power. | Do you think he'd be willing to mount another bid for the presidency? | He is preparing a / his run for the presidency.
ticket [usually singular] (1) (esp. AmE) slate (AmE) | party('s) list a list of the people supported by a particular political party in an election (партийный) список кандидатов (на выборах), избирательный (партийный) список: to split a ticket | He withdrew his name from the Democratic ticket. | The leadership want to present a single slate of candidates to be approved in an open vote. | At a congress of the pro-Kremlin United Russia party, he graciously agreed to head its party list at the general election in December.
on a particular ticket от какой-л. партии, по списку какой-л. партии: Bush ran for president on the Republican ticket. | He was running against his opponents on an independent ticket. | He plans to remain on the Republican ticket for the November election.
(2) (BrE) the ideas that a political party supports in an election платформа политической партии (с которой она выступает на парламентских выборах): He fought the election on an openly racist ticket. | He first ran for president on a far-left ticket. | It's a ticket that was designed to appeal to suburban and small town voters.
suffrage [uncountable] | franchise [singular; uncountable] the legal right to vote in national elections право голоса, избирательное право, право участвовать в выборах; голосование: Popular suffrage meant that rival factions would shout for their own candidate. | The franchise is made uniform throughout the country.
to give / extend / grant / provide / introduce suffrage / the franchise предоставить право голоса, наделить избирательным правом, вводить избирательное право: Women are given the franchise on the same basis as men. | The franchise was later extended to any person over 18 years old. | The constitution provided broad electoral franchise.
to win the franchise (for sb) завоевать избирательное право, добиться избирательного права: In 1918 the suffragists won the franchise for UK women over the age of 29.
to exercise one's franchise пользоваться правом голоса
direct suffrage / franchise прямое избирательное право
equal suffrage / franchise равное избирательное право
universal suffrage / franchise всеобщее избирательное право: the principle / introduction of universal suffrage / franchise | All elections are by universal adult suffrage. | The President would be elected on the basis of / by universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot for a five-year term. | It was also the year of the first presidential election held under universal suffrage.
female / women's suffrage избирательное право для женщин: She was a strong advocate of women's suffrage.
term (in / of office) [countable] a fixed period of time during which a politician or other official holds their job; a period of time between two elections during which a particular party or government is in power срок полномочий: He hopes to visit China during his second term in office. | Throughout his first term in office there was a series of battles between his political appointees and career bureaucrats.
term (in / of office) as president / vice president / governor / mayor / chairman / member of parliament: He recently completed a two-year term as chairman.
to elect / re-elect sb to / for a term (in / of office) избирать на какой-л. срок: The president hopes to be elected to / for a second term of / in office. | General Herrera was elected to a third term of office as President.
to win a term (in / of office) быть избранным на какой-л. срок: Felipe Gonzalez won a fourth term of office in Spain's election.
to serve (for) a term (in / of office) занимать выборную должность: Only Ronald Reagan has served two full terms. | But he promised to serve for only one term, and refuses to go back on his word.
a term (in / of office) ends / expires / runs out срок полномочий истекает: Her term of office ends in September. | The Government's term of office expires at the end of the year.
presidency [countable] (1) the job of being president президентство; председательство: the race for the presidency | Mr Clinton began his presidency wanting to do it all. | Overall, the presidency of Gerald Ford was not a success.
to run / stand for / seek the presidency участвовать в выборах на пост президента / в президентских выборах, выставлять / выдвигать / предлагать свою кандидатуру на пост президента; претендовать на / бороться за пост президента: He has announced that he is running for the presidency. | Twenty candidates have said they will stand for the presidency. After winning the election, Clinton instead sought the presidency.
to elect sb to the presidency выбирать кого-л. президентом: Roosevelt was elected four times to the presidency of the US.
to win / take the presidency быть избранным президентом, стать президентом: She won the presidency by a wide margin. | No Republican has won the presidency without winning Ohio.
to assume the presidency вступать в должность президента: He also predicted that even if Aristide won he would not be permitted to assume the presidency.
to lose the presidency (to sb) лишиться должности президента; уступить пост президента кому-л.: The former Yugoslav president, Slobodan Milosevic, has appeared on television for the first time since he lost the presidency.
to resign the / one's presidency подавать в отставку с поста президента: He resigned his presidency one year and seven months into his second term.
(2) the period of time for which a person is president срок полномочий президента, президентский срок: She has promised improvements during her presidency. | During his presidency he undertook a great initiative towards world peace. | That was the policy during the Reagan and Bush presidencies. | But the picture he paints of foreign policy-making under the Reagan presidency is disquieting. | Truman's popularity fell to the lowest point of his presidency.
seat [countable] a position as an elected member of a parliament, committee, council, board, court etc должность, место, пост (в выборных органах): the Senate seat for Colorado
seat in a parliament: a seat in the National Assembly | The Green Party won 4 seats in the new parliament.
seat on a board / committee / council: a permanent seat on the UN Security Council | Independent candidates won the majority of seats on the local council. | Promotion means a seat on the board of directors.
to hold / have / keep / retain a seat иметь / сохранять место: Republicans, at the moment, hold 41 seats while Democrats have 37. | Mr Adams is expected to keep his seat.
to win / gain / secure a seat завоевать / получить место: Tories won 419 seats in the last elections. | In this second round the candidate with most votes would win the constituency seat provided that participation was above 25 percent. | He predicts that his party will gain at least 12 seats.
to fill a seat заполнить место: The Senate seats were all filled by completely free balloting.
to lose a seat потерять место: He is expected to lose his seat on the council in next month's elections.
to fight / contest a seat бороться за место: He subsequently fought and held his parliamentary seat against his former party. | He unsuccessfully contested parliamentary seats in 1929 and 1931.
constituency [countable] (1) (BrE) an area of a country that elects a representative to a parliament, or the people who live and vote in a particular area избирательный округ: a rural / urban constituency | constituency boundaries | It is time that he visited his constituency and had a look around. | The Minister will be pleased to know that unemployment in my constituency fell by 41 last month.
(2) a section of society that supports or is likely to support a politician or a political party избиратели, электорат: Students have never been the constituency of any single party. | Mr Jackson had a natural constituency among American blacks. | In France, farmers are a powerful political constituency.
to inaugurate sb (as president / governor / mayor) [transitive] to introduce a new person into an important job, such as that of president, by holding a special ceremony (торжественно) вводить в должность: The new President will be inaugurated in January. | In 1959 De Gaulle was inaugurated as First President of the Republic. | The new Assembly was due to be inaugurated on June 1.
inauguration [uncountable; countable] (торжественное) вступление в должность, инаугурация: the inauguration of the new Governor | an inauguration ceremony | his long inauguration speech
to rig / fix [transitive] to arrange or influence something such as an election in a dishonest way in order to produce a particular result подтасовывать / фальсифицировать результаты (выборов), фальсифицировать (выборы)
to rig / fix an election / by-election / the vote / the ballot / the election results: Some international observers claim the election was rigged / fixed. | Previous elections in the country have been rigged by the ruling party. | There was no rigging of the election and no attempt by the hard-liners to reverse the results after the vote. | The senator resigned after accusations that the vote had been rigged.
ballot / vote rigging / fixing / fraud [uncountable] the practice of cheating in an election by producing a false record of the number of votes подтасовка / фальсификация результатов голосования: Rumours of ballot-rigging discouraged many from voting. | The poll was widely discredited after allegations of ballot rigging / vote fixing. | The EU decided to tighten its sanctions against those in his government it blames for the ballot fraud.
to vote [intransitive; transitive] to show by marking a paper, raising your hand etc which person you want to elect or whether you support a particular plan голосовать: voting irregularities | to tamper with voting lists | The minimum voting age is lowered to eighteen.
to vote: In 1918 British women got the right to vote. | They voted by a show of hands. | All adults enjoy the right to vote in free general elections. | Participation is measured using voter turnout, or the percentage of the eligible voters who actually voted in national elections.
to vote for / in favour of / against sb / sth: They voted for of the Maastricht treaty. | The vast majority of people voted in favour of closer links with Europe. | Four years ago, when Ohio voted against incumbent Bush, the jobless rate in the state stood at 7 percent.
to vote Labour / Conservative / Tory / Liberal / Democrat(ic) / Republican / Socialist: I voted Labour at the last election. | He used to vote Conservative, but he switched to Labour in 1997. | Then they voted Democrat in 1992 and 1996. | I have voted Republican my entire life.
to vote to do sth: Congress voted to increase foreign aid by 10%. | The committee voted to approve the report.
to vote on sth: The committee voted on the proposal, and accepted it unanimously. | The people were given a chance to vote on the issue.
to vote somebody into / out of office / power / parliament | to vote sb in / out | to vote sb onto a committee / council to elect or dismiss someone by voting: The Republican Party was voted into of office. | They cannot join forces to vote her out of office. | The members of the national assembly will vote in a prime minister by a simple majority. | With policies like that, he'll be voted out in the next election. | It was the younger members who voted Smith onto the committee.
to vote sth through to approve a plan, law etc by voting провести (предложение) путем / в результате голосования: The committee voted through a proposal to cut the defence budget.
to vote sb / sth down | to defeat sth to reject sb or a plan, law etc by voting провалить / отвергнуть (предложение) путем / в результате голосования: If he demands too much, the unions will vote him down | The Congress voted down a motion to change the union's structure. | The proposal was defeated on April 2 by 767 votes to 121.
to go to the polls to vote in an election идти на выборы, принимать участие в выборах / голосовании, голосовать: We're trying to encourage young people to go to the polls. | Voters are due to go to the polls on Sunday to elect a new president.
to poll [transitive] to get a particular number or percentage of votes in an election получать / собирать голоса: The Labour candidate polled 52% of the votes. | The winner polled over 16,000 votes.
to ballot (1) [transitive] to ask people to vote in order to decide an issue проводить (тайное) голосование; баллотировать; решать вопрос голосованием
to ballot sb (on / over sth): The union decided to ballot its members on the issue. | The union will now ballot its members on whether to go ahead with strike action.
(2) [intransitive] to vote for something голосовать
to ballot for sth: Staff balloted for strike action yesterday.
to outvote [transitive] to defeat a person or an idea by winning more votes than them нанести поражение путем / в результате голосовании, иметь перевес голосов, забаллотировать: Waddington's proposal was outvoted in the Senate. | France was outvoted on that issue. | They feared that the numerous poor might outvote the few rich.
to stay away from the polls not to vote in an election не ходить на выборы, не принимать участия в голосовании, не голосовать
to abstain (from sth / doing sth) [intransitive] to choose not to vote for or against something in an election; to choose not to vote in an election or meeting воздержаться (при голосовании); не участвовать в голосовании / выборах: The leaders asked their workers to abstain from voting. | Three Conservative MPs abstained in the vote on the second reading of the Railways Bill. | But 26 million voters, or 69 % of the electorate, abstained.
to turn out (for sth / to do sth) [intransitive] to go somewhere in order to be present at an event or take part in an activity принимать участие; являться: About 70% of the population turned out for the election. | Only 62% of the electorate turned out to vote. | The highest turnout rate in the past 60 years came in the 1960 Kennedy-Nixon race when 62.8 percent turned out.
vote (1) [countable] a choice or decision that you make by voting in an election or meeting голос (на выборах): We have enough votes to carry the state. | Mr Reynolds was re-elected by 102 votes to 60. | The proposal was rejected by 19 votes to 7. | Bush initially won Florida by 2,000 votes.
vote for / in favour / against sb / sth: There were 402 votes for Mr Williams, and 372 against. | The House of Representatives approved the budget, with 52 votes in favour, 16 against and 12 abstentions.
to cast a vote (for / in favour of / against sb / sth) to mark a piece of paper to show who you are voting for подавать голос (на выборах), голосовать (на выборах): In Britain many people cast their votes at local schools. | She cast her vote for the Communist Party.
to win / gain / get / receive votes получать голоса (на выборах): Harkin won 74 percent of the votes cast. | He got an overwhelming majority of the votes. | He received 52 votes while the Communist candidate got only 33 votes.
to lose votes потерять голоса
to cost / lose sb votes стоить кому-л. голосов избирателей: This policy will cost her thousands of votes. | Defence, which lost Labour so many votes in 1983 and 1987, is especially important.
the deciding vote / ballot решающий голос (голос, определяющий исход голосования в случае, если количество проголосовавших "за" и "против" одинаково): The chairperson always has the deciding vote.
to count votes считать / подсчитывать голоса: Party members were up all night counting the votes.
count of votes подсчет голосов
recount of votes a second count of votes that happens in an election because the result was very close пересчет / повторный подсчет голосов: Opponents demanded a manual recount. | I am still trying to get them to do the recount.
(2) [countable; usually singular] an occasion when a group of people vote in order to decide something or choose a representative голосование; баллотировка; волеизъявление: a close / lopsided / solid / unanimous vote | The result(s) of the vote will be announced tomorrow. | The mass media can influence / swing the vote (in our favour). | Both sides expect a close vote. | The Senate passed the treaty by a vote of eighty-two to one.
to have / take / hold a vote (on sth / to do sth) | to hold a ballot (of sb) проводить (тайное) голосование: We called a meeting in order to have / take / hold a vote on the issue. | I think we should take a vote on whether or not to accept their offer. | They decided to hold a ballot. | It was decided to hold a ballot of all party members.
to put sth to the / a vote / the ballot поставить на голосование: The proposal was read out and then put to the vote. | When the matter was put to a vote, the staff voted overwhelmingly not to go on strike. | This seems to be an area of disagreement, so let's put it to the ballot.
direct / secret / open vote / ballot прямое / тайное / открытое голосование: Fifty of its members will be elected by direct ballot. | The party leader is elected by secret ballot. | Voting will be by secret ballot. | The President would be elected on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot for a five-year term.
(3) [singular] the total number of votes or voters in an election, or the number of votes received or cast by a particular group итоги голосования; (общее) число / количество (поданных) голосов; голоса избирателей: The Republicans increased their share of the vote. | Their policies are designed to win / capture the African-American vote. | The vote was overwhelmingly in favour of the Democratic Party.
to get / take / win / poll / secure 25% of the vote: The Green Party got / took 25% of the vote. | The Tories won 53 per cent of the popular vote. | Labour polled just 4% of the vote.
to split the vote to cause people to vote for different things: The new environmental party split the liberal vote.
(4) the right to vote in an election право голоса; избирательное право: At that time black people did not yet have the vote. | In France women didn't get the vote until 1945.
polling [uncountable] the activity of voting in a political election голосование: Polling started / began / commenced at 8.00 this morning. | Polling will take place from 7 a.m. to 10 p.m.
heavy / light polling with many or few people voting высокий / низкий процент участия избирателей в выборах
poll (BrE) | ballot [singular] the total number of votes recorded in an election итоги голосования; (общее) число / количество (поданных) голосов; голоса избирателей: Labour won / got the election with 40% of the poll. | In most constituencies the largest party can pull 40% of the poll. | Wilson came away with 64% of the poll.
the poll / polls an election to choose a government or political representative; the process of voting and the counting of votes выборы; голосование, баллотировка; подсчет голосов: Richards won a huge victory at the polls. | In 1945, Winston Churchill was defeated at the polls. | City officials do not expect many people at the polls. | Labour were the big winners in yesterday's poll. | The result of the poll won't be known until around midnight.
ballot [countable; uncountable] a system of voting, usually in secret, in order to choose a candidate in an election or express an opinion about an issue, or an occasion when you vote in this way (тайное) голосование, баллотирование, баллотировка; выборы: The result of the ballot will not be known for two weeks.
by (a) ballot | in a ballot путем (тайного) голосования: Party leaders are elected by ballot. | He was elected by a ballot of all the teaching staff in the college. | In a secret ballot of reporters who have covered both, Dole would probably defeat President Clinton.
void ballot недействительное голосование
abstention (from voting) [countable; uncountable] a vote in an election which is neither for nor against something or someone; a decision not to vote in an election or meeting воздержавшийся; неучастие в голосовании: The number of abstentions is likely to be crucial. | There were ten votes in favour, six against, and three abstentions. | The draft law was passed by 134 votes to 19, with 5 abstentions. | There were high levels of abstention (from voting) in the last elections. | The overall abstention rate was reported to be as high as 55 percent of the electorate of 2,200,000.
polling day (esp. BrE) | election day (esp. AmE) [countable] the day when people vote in an election день выборов / голосования: On polling day, voters go to polling stations. | The outcome may well depend on who copes best with the long run in to polling day.
(voter) turnout | turnout (of voters) [countable; uncountable] | (voter) participation [uncountable] the number of people who vote in an election явка (на выборы); количество избирателей, принявших участие в выборах: In most parliamentary democracies voter turnout tends to be around half to three-quarters of the electorate. | Participation is measured using voter turnout, or the percentage of the eligible voters who actually voted in national elections. | The 1996 presidential election produced the lowest percentage of voter turnout since 1824. | Turnout dipped / slid down despite an increase in voter registration. | Good weather on polling day should ensure a good turnout. | Election officials said the turnout of voters was low. | And major political issues are often decided on the basis of very low voter participation. | The turnout continues a downward voter participation trend that started in 1964.
a turnout of 4,000,000 etc: There was a relatively low turnout of just over 60 percent.
turnout at / in / for an election / referendum / round of voting: The turnout at a local election is also on average little more than half that at a general election. | Voter turnout in local elections was frequently as low as 25 percent, in contrast with over 70 percent in national elections. | The turnout for the 1992 primary election was 29 percent.
turnout by sb: Democratic strategists say a strong turnout by women is essential to re-electing Clinton.
high / heavy / low turnout высокая / низкая явка (на выборы): There was an unusually high turnout in the election, nearly twice the number predicted. | A high turnout was reported at the polling booths. | Heavy voter turnout has been predicted for the first primary of 1996. | Another factor cited for low voter turnout by young people was their greater mobility. | We're expecting quite a low turnout for the local elections.
to put / estimate turnout at 55% etc оценивать / приблизительно подсчитывать явку (на выборах): Initial estimates put (the) turnout at more than 70 percent in Gaza. | On polling day, the Information Ministry estimated turnout at 85 percent.
margin [countable] the difference in the number of votes, points etc that exists between the winners and the losers of a competition or election разница; преимущество: The margin in favour was 280-to-153.
by a narrow / small / slim / thin margin: Kennedy won the election by a narrow margin. | Danes voted by a narrow margin to keep their own currency. | Adenauer was only elected Chancellor by a slim / small margin. | The poll shows that the government is leading by the narrowest / slimmest of margins.
by a wide / big / large / significant / comfortable margin: The resolution was passed by a wide / big / large margin. | Recent polls say if the election were held today, Clinton would beat Dole by a significant margin. | But even there Dole won by a comfortable 12-point margin.
by a margin of 100 votes / 10 points etc (to 50 votes / 5 points etc): The election was won by a margin of only 200 votes. | The Senate approved the use of military force by a margin of 52 votes to 47.
by a 10% / 100-vote / 10-point etc margin: The bill passed by a one-vote margin. | He announced was re-elected by a 10-point margin.
a margin over sb: Some polls show he is favoured by female voters by a 2 to 1 margin over Dole.
majority [countable] the number of votes by which a candidate or party wins an election большинство: Their majority in the House was reduced by 20. | The election produced a Conservative majority in the House of Commons. | Their attempt was voted down by a majority of House members.
to win by / with a majority (of 1000 votes) победить с преимуществом…: He won by a majority of 500. | The social democrats won with a clear majority.
to win / gain / obtain / secure / get / receive / carry a majority получить / завоевать большинство: He won a majority of votes to become party leader. | Yeltsin won majorities in more than 80 of the 88 electoral districts. | No candidate gained an absolute majority in the first round. | If the candidate obtains an absolute majority, he is appointed Chancellor by the Federal President. | They secured an absolute majority with only 35.1 % of the vote.
to have / hold / enjoy a majority иметь большинство: The Conservatives had a huge overall majority in the House of Commons. | Democrats still hold a majority in the Senate. | They held a majority of seats on the National Executive Committee. | No single party enjoys an overall majority in the parliament.
to maintain a majority сохранять большинство: Their votes are needed this year to maintain the Republican majority in Congress.
to lose a majority потерять / утратить большинство: The Labour party have lost their majority in Parliament. | Religious conservatives lost their majority on the board in November.
small / narrow / slim / slender / tiny / bare majority незначительное большинство: Preserving a small majority was not a triumph for Mr Major in the real world. | He won by a narrow majority. | The Democrats have a slim majority in the House. | The Republicans won by a slender majority. | He had only a tiny parliamentary majority.
large / clear / clear-cut / commanding / comfortable / outright / handsome majority явное большинство: A referendum, held in March 1992, confirmed this position by a large majority. | In each case a clear majority of Republican voters rejected him. | The scandal over the tapes has also deprived Kuchma of a clear-cut majority in parliament. | Neither main party won a commanding majority. | Neither man won an outright majority.
absolute majority | overall majority | majority (AmE) [singular] a result in an election when one candidate or political party wins more than half the total votes or seats абсолютное большинство (голосов): If there is a party with an absolute majority in the lower house it will form the government. | The Tories therefore would fall 12 seats short of an overall majority.
two-thirds majority | qualified majority большинство в две трети (голосов); квалифицированное большинство: A two-thirds majority (of votes) is needed to override a veto. | The Senate voted but failed to get a two-thirds majority on the balanced budget. | So too is the voting system, where a simple formula of 55% of member states, comprising 65% of the EU's population, will in almost all cases make up a qualified majority. | Yes, in theory, the commission could then re-submit the original proposals unamended, but in practice they would be unlikely to do so, not least because, if a third of national parliaments are against a proposal, so will be their governments, and the commission would be close to losing the qualified majority needed to pass laws.
simple majority | relative majority (BrE) | plurality (esp. AmE) [countable; uncountable] the largest number of votes received by a candidate or party in an election that is less than the total number of votes which all the other candidates or parties have received простое / относительное большинство (голосов): A simple majority was needed for approval. | His lawyers have appealed to the constitutional court against the decree, which was agreed by a simple cabinet majority. | In order to be elected, a constituency candidate needs only a plurality of the votes cast.
to have a (thousand / 45%) plurality (of votes / the vote): He had a thousand plurality and was elected President.
to win a (thousand / 45%) plurality (of votes / the vote): The Democrats won only a plurality of the votes cast. | He won a 48 percent plurality of the vote rather than an outright majority.
to win by / with a plurality of 1000 votes: The mayor won with a plurality of 12,000 votes, while the other two candidates had 9,000 and 7,000 votes, respectively.
minority [singular; also + plural verb] a small group of people or things within a much larger group меньшинство: Only a minority support(s) these new laws.
small / tiny minority: These children are only a small minority. | It's only a tiny minority of people who are causing the problem.
substantial / significant / sizeable minority
to be in the majority to form the largest group быть в большинстве: The number of women on the committee has grown steadily and now they are in the majority.
to be in the / a minority to form less than half of a group быть в меньшинстве: Women are in the minority in the top ranks of government. | Even in the 1960s, politically active students and academics were in a minority.
minority party a political party that has a minority of seats in a parliament партия меньшинства: The administration's minority party has put off the decision. | The presence of minority parties would also engender a diversity of opinions and ethnic backgrounds.
minority government [countable] a government that does not have enough politicians in a parliament to control parliament and take decisions without the support of other parties правительство меньшинства: The following day Labour formed a minority government under Michael Field.
landslide (victory) [countable; usually singular] a victory in an election in which one person or party gets a lot more votes than their opponents убедительная / полная / крупная / безоговорочная победа на выборах: The newspapers were predicting a landslide for Thatcher. | Few people expected Labour's landslide victory in 1945.
(to win / to elect sb) by / in a landslide: He won the presidential election by a landslide. | He was re-elected by a landslide. | He was elected mayor in a landslide last May.
to win / achieve / gain / score / pull off (informal) a landslide (victory): Her party won a landslide victory in the 1990 general election. | The party scored a landslide victory, winning 159 seats.
ballot (paper) [countable] a piece of paper on which you record your vote избирательный бюллетень: As in Ireland some voters would find the ballot paper confusing.
on the ballot в избирательном бюллетене: Voters also heavily endorsed a clause on the ballot paper calling for the convening of a constituent assembly to reform the Constitution.
to put one's name on the ballot внести чье-л. имя в избирательный бюллетень: They succeeded in putting Perot's name on the ballot in Florida.
to cast a ballot (for sb / sth) опускать / бросать избирательный бюллетень; подавать / отдавать голос: Only 22% of voters cast their ballots. | One-third of working-class voters have traditionally cast their ballots for Conservative candidates.
to count ballots считать / подсчитывать голоса избирателей: Election boards will count the ballots by hand.
spoiled ballot papers ballot papers that have been marked incorrectly and so cannot be counted недействительные избирательные бюллетени
absentee ballot [countable] (AmE) a piece of paper which voters who are unable to be present at an election can vote on and send in by post открепительный талон, бюллетень для заочного голосования / отсутствующих избирателей: He has already voted by absentee ballot. | You can also get an absentee ballot within three days if your application is received before October 28.
ballot box [countable] a box in which you put your ballot paper after you have voted избирательная урна, баллотировочный ящик: Another ballot box was available at the central library.
the ballot box [singular] the democratic system of voting демократическая система голосования / принятия решений: No society which believes in democratic values can allow the ballot box to be overridden by the bomb and the bullet.
through / at / by means of the ballot box: The voters have expressed their views through / at the ballot box. | And the people have changed several governments through the ballot box. | The issue will be decided at the ballot box. | Like everyone else, they will be able to pass judgment by means of the ballot box.
the polls | polling station (esp. BrE) | polling place (AmE) [plural] the place where people go to vote in an election избирательный пункт, помещение для голосования: The polls open at 7 a.m. | The polls will close in an hour. | Voters have been flocking to the polls to elect a new president. | Security was tight at the polling stations.
polling booth (esp. BrE) | voting booth (esp. AmE) [countable] a small partly enclosed space in a polling station where you can vote secretly in an election кабина для голосования: We cannot expect voters to leave their conscience behind them when they go to the polling booth. | In every state help is available for people in the voting booth.
to campaign [intransitive] | to canvass [intransitive; transitive] to try to persuade people to support a political party, politician, plan etc by going to see them and talking to them, especially when you want them to vote for you in an election проводить избирательную кампанию, агитировать (за кого-л. / политическую партию), вербовать сторонников перед выборами: The party has been campaigning hard in the North. | She was canvassing in the Greenside area of town yesterday.
to campaign / canvass for / on behalf of sb / for sth: I wish to thank all my helpers who have campaigned for / on behalf of me / our party during the past few months. | I have to thank all my helpers who canvassed for me and helped me to win this election. | He is canvassing for the Conservative candidate. | He spent the rest of May canvassing for votes.
to canvass sb / sth: We'll have to canvass voters / the entire area before the election / referendum. | The USA is canvassing support from other Asian states.
to campaign | to crusade | to agitate [intransitive] to try to achieve political or social change by persuading other people or the government to do something проводить кампанию / участвовать в кампании за что-л. / против чего-л., бороться за что-л. / против чего-л., агитировать (за что-л. / против чего-л.)
to campaign / crusade / agitate for (doing) sth: Women campaigned / crusaded for equal pay and equal rights throughout the 1960s. | More people are agitating for social change / social justice / better conditions.
to campaign / crusade / agitate against (doing) sth: She campaigned / crusaded against sex and violence on television. | He agitated against the Vietnam war.
to campaign / crusade to do sth: The liberals campaigned / crusaded to expand the power of government / to change the law.
to contest | to fight (formal) [transitive] to compete for something or to try to win it бороться на выборах / за место (в парламенте)
to contest / fight an election (campaign) участвовать в выборах; бороться на выборах: A total of 406 candidates contested the election and a 72 percent turnout was registered. | He unsuccessfully fought the next three elections.
to contest / fight a seat (on a council / in parliament) бороться за место (в парламенте): His wife is contesting a seat on the council. | He subsequently fought and held his parliamentary seat against his former party.
contested election / seat выборы, в которых участвуют несколько кандидатов; напряженные выборы; место, за которое борются несколько кандидатов: No one there expected a contested election. | The opposition party won 392 of 485 contested seats.
agitation [uncountable; countable] a public argument or action for social or political change агитация
agitation for / against sth: mass agitation for / against political reform / social reform / civil rights / political rights / greater democracy
to carry on (an) agitation: Small shopkeepers carried on a long agitation against the big department stores.
electioneering [uncountable] things that candidates or political parties say and do in order to persuade people to vote for them in an election, often things that do not seem sincere or fair предвыборная кампания: genuine / crude electioneering | Modern electioneering is sophisticated and highly organized. | The second example of electioneering is aimed at youthful voters. | Critics have dismissed his visit to a shelter for the homeless as an obvious piece of electioneering.
(election / electoral) campaign | race [countable] a series of actions that a politician or political party does to try to win an election выборная / предвыборная / избирательная кампания / гонка: The endless public appearances are an inevitable part of an election campaign. | In all more than 1,000 people were arrested during the electoral campaign.
active / vigorous / whirlwind campaign активная / бурная (избирательная) кампания
feeble / weak campaign пассивная (избирательная) кампания
national / nationwide campaign общенациональная кампания
to plan a campaign планировать / готовить кампанию: Richards and his team have already started planning his campaign for election as party leader.
to launch / mount / organise / start a campaign начать / открыть / развернуть / организовать кампанию: Republicans accused the Democrats of launching a smear campaign. | The Labour Party mounted a smear campaign against Livingstone before the election.
to conduct / fight / run / wage / carry on a campaign проводить кампанию: The prime minister is conducting an impressive campaign. | Mr Kinnock fought a good campaign. | Jesse Jackson ran a quixotic campaign against Michael Dukakis in 1988. | Buchanan has waged a vigorous Arizona campaign.
the campaign gets off to a good / bad start кампания начинается хорошо / плохо
the campaign fizzles out the campaign gradually comes to a stop, especially because people have become less interested кампания терпит неудачу / проваливается / сходит на нет
to enter / join a race: Another candidate has now entered the presidential race / the race for the White House.
to drop out of / quit a race: He dropped out of / quit the presidential race on Friday.
presidential campaign / race | campaign / race for president / the presidency избирательная кампания по выборам президента: | He ran a lacklustre campaign for president in the 1992 primaries. | He lost to his political rival in the presidential race / the race for district attorney. | He is no longer in the race for the presidency.
smear / dirty tricks / dirty / negative / whispering / hate campaign (by sb / against sb) [countable] a deliberate plan to tell untrue stories about someone, especially a politician, in order to make people lose respect for them грязная (избирательная) кампания: He puts all the accusations down to a vicious smear / dirty tricks campaign by his political opponents / against the party leadership. | Bush will make this the dirtiest presidential campaign ever fought. | It was the Cloggy episode which started the whispering campaign. | The hate campaign began again, including obscene phone calls.
spin [singular; uncountable] (informal) a way of providing information that makes it seem to be favourable for a particular person or political party; a particular viewpoint or bias, especially in the media выгодный угол зрения, выгодное освещение какого-л. события: We would like to see more realistic policies and less Labour Party spin.
to put a spin on sth: They tried to put a favourable / positive spin on the news coverage of the controversial speech. | This report puts a different spin on the issue / economic figures / sales figures.
to give sth a spin | to give a spin to sth: The New York Times gave a wholly improper political spin to the report.
spin doctor [countable] (informal) someone whose job is to give information to the public in a way that gives the best possible advantage to a politician or organization; someone whose job is to make ideas, events, etc seem better than they really are, especially in politics политтехнолог, эксперт по связям с общественностью: The election was won despite the spin doctors. | The party spin doctors would like us to believe that the government is committed to improving the environment.
to promise [intransitive; transitive] to tell someone that you will definitely do or provide something or that something will happen обещать, давать обещание
to promise to do sth: The government promised to increase public expenditure, to cut taxes and to balance the budget.
to promise sth / sb sth / sth to sb: The Conservative Party promised higher standards in education. | Relief organizations are promising aid to the country. | The great powers promised them an independent state.
to promise (sb) that…: The government promised that they would reduce taxes / that the rich would no longer get preferential treatment.
to pledge [transitive] to make an official and public promise that you will do something давать торжественное обещание; заверять, обещать, клясться; связывать себя обещанием / клятвой
to pledge to do sth: The government pledged to reduce crime / end the fighting.
to pledge sth (to sb / for sth): The USA has pledged aid to the country. | Britain has pledged £1.3 million to the UN for refugee work.
to pledge (sb) (one's) support / loyalty / solidarity / cooperation / allegiance (to sb / for sth): We are asking people to pledge their support for our campaign. | Should new citizens of Canada pledge allegiance to the queen of Great Britain?
to pledge that…: The president has pledged that inflation will continue to fall and the economy will continue to grow.
to commit oneself (to sth / doing sth) | to commit to sth / doing sth | to pledge oneself to do sth / to sth to agree or promise to do something important брать / принимать на себя обязательство, связывать себя обязательством: You don't have to commit yourself at this stage. | The government must commit itself to improving health care. | Once we have committed to this course of action there is no going back. | They have pledged themselves to root out state corruption.
to commit sb to sth / doing sth | to pledge sb to sth / to do sth [transitive] to make someone agree or promise to do something обязать, налагать обязательства: The speech did not commit the rebels to a ceasefire. | He clearly committed his government to continuing down the path of economic reform. | The treaties renounce the use of force and pledge the two countries to co-operation.
(to be / remain) committed to sth / doing sth having promised to be involved in a course of action приверженный чему-л.: The government was committed to further reductions in defence spending. | We are committed to withdrawing our troops by the end of the year.
promise [countable] a statement that you will definitely do or provide something or that something will definitely happen обещание
solemn / sacred promise торжественное обещание, клятва
vague promise неопределенное / расплывчатое / туманное обещание: The politicians made vague promises about independence.
empty / false / hollow promise пустое / фальшивое обещание, пустые слова: We don't want any more empty / false / hollow promises from the government.
rash promise опрометчивое / поспешное / безрассудное обещание: He made all sorts of rash promises about economic growth.
pledge [countable] (formal) a serious and firm promise that is made publicly and officially (публичное) обещание; клятва; обязательство: The government ignored its pledges to hold democratic elections / to make no deals with terrorists.
pledge on sth: They comprise pledges on national standards and a new set of promises specifically geared to the local area.
promise | pledge COLLOCATIONS
promise / pledge of sth (from sb): a promise of help / support (from sb) | Sunday's vote was a test of the new president's pledge of fair elections.
to give (sb) / make a promise (to sb) давать / делать обещание: As a leader in the Senate, you make progress by making promises others can count on.
to give (sb) / make / take a pledge давать / делать обещание: All the candidates have given / made pledges not to raise taxes if they are elected. | Dole refuses to take a pledge to keep the party pro-life.
to keep / fulfil / carry out / deliver (on) / live up to / honour / be true to a promise / pledge выполнить / сдержать обещание, сдержать слово: The rebels failed to keep a promise / pledge to release the two men. | Eisenhower fulfilled / carried out his election pledge to end the war in Korea. | He failed to deliver (on) his key election / campaign promises / pledges. | The country will be forced to live up to the promise / pledge of democracy. | The King was not called upon to honour his promise / pledge.
to break / go back on / renege on a promise / pledge не выполнить / не сдержать / нарушить обещание, не сдержать слово: The army broke its promise / pledge to return the country to civilian rule. | Any pause in progress towards the objective is a matter of going back on electoral promises / pledges. | The government reneged on its promise / pledge to ensure full employment.
election / electoral / campaign promise / pledge предвыборное обещание: They have made some studies of specific election / electoral pledges and their fulfilment by governments. | Scott made a campaign promise not to raise taxes.
broken promise / pledge нарушенное обещание: the party's broken election promises / pledges
commitment (to sth / to do sth) [countable] a promise to do something обязательство; приверженность чему-л.; обязанность: The peace talks ended with smiles and handshakes, but no commitment. | His adviser expressed America's commitment to economic development.
to make / give a commitment (to sth / to do sth) брать на себя обязательство, связать себя обязательством: They made a commitment to peace. | But the environment minister could not give any firm commitment to further government funds.
to have a commitment (to sth / to do sth) иметь обязательство: The governor has a strong commitment to equal pay and opportunities / creating jobs in the state.
to honour / fulfil / meet a commitment (to sb / sth) выполнять обязательство: The Government will continue to honour its commitment to pensioners.
to reaffirm one's commitment (to sth / to do sth) (повторно / вновь) подтвердить: He insisted that he had acted within the Constitution and reaffirmed his commitment to multiparty democracy.
12.5. Influencing voters
to influence [transitive] to affect the way someone or something develops, behaves, thinks etc without directly forcing or ordering them влиять, воздействовать, оказывать влияние
to influence sb (to do sth): Judges should not be influenced by political motives. | Their purpose is to influence government to adopt policies favourable to them.
to influence sth: to influence (the outcome of) elections / political actions / policy / strategy | to influence one's beliefs / opinions / views / attitudes / tastes / preferences / culture / behaviour / development / decisions / public opinion | How does the media influence elections? | There are many aspects of the environment that might influence political beliefs and actions.
to influence sb / sth deeply / greatly / heavily / profoundly / significantly / strongly: Both societies are deeply influenced by their history and by their perception of that history. | Education has been heavily influenced by colonialism.
to seek / try to influence sb / sth: The politicians sought to influence voters / their electorate (in their choice of candidate) in the general election. | Different groups form to try to influence decisions concerning these issues.
to shape [transitive] to influence something such as a belief, opinion, policy, someone's character etc and make it develop in a particular way формировать придавать форму: to shape one's beliefs / opinions / views / attitudes / tastes / preferences / culture / behaviour / development / policy / strategy / public opinion | People's political beliefs are often shaped by what they read in the newspapers. | He was very influential in shaping the government's economic policy / strategy. | The public policy of the USA is shaped with a view to the benefit of the nation as a whole.
to instil | to implant | to inculcate (formal) [transitive] to put a feeling, idea or principle gradually into someone's mind, so that it has a strong influence on the way they think or behave; to strongly fix ideas, feelings or opinions in someone else's mind so that they influence their character or behaviour (исподволь) внушать; вселять; внедрять; прививать; насаждать
to instil / implant / inculcate confidence / enthusiasm / fear / discipline / ideas / beliefs / attitudes (in / into sb): They attempt to instil fear in / into people and discourage freedom of thought. | He had a deep sense of patriotism that had been implanted in / into him by his father. | She tries very hard to inculcate traditional values in / into her students.
to instil / inculcate sb with sth: It is easy to instil the minds of young children with fixed ideas, whether right or wrong. | Schools inculcate children with patriotic ideas from an early age.
to indoctrinate | to brainwash [transitive] to force someone to accept a set of political or religious beliefs by repeating the same idea many times so that the person cannot think in an independent way внушать; внедрять; насаждать; промывать мозги, подвергать (идеологической) обработке
to indoctrinate / brainwash sb (to do sth / into doing sth): People were indoctrinated not to question their leaders. | Citizens were indoctrinated into believing that their leader was the source of all wisdom and goodness. | The government is trying to brainwash them into thinking that war is necessary. | We were brainwashed to believe we were all equal.
to indoctrinate sb (with sth / in sth): It is too easy for any State or Church to indoctrinate young children with the views that it considers correct. | Some parents were critical of attempts to indoctrinate children in green ideology.
to sway [transitive] to influence someone so that they change their opinion повлиять, склонять (кого-л. к чему-л.); иметь влияние
to sway sb: He made a speech that swayed the voters.
to sway one's opinion / public opinion: Others said they have already decided who will get their vote, and the vice presidential selection will not sway their opinion. | These arguments swayed public opinion.
to sway sb into doing sth: Her speech failed to sway the voters into supporting her plan.
to swing (1) [intransitive] if people's opinions, ideas, attitudes, feelings or emotions swing, they change quickly to the opposite of what they were (резко) меняться / колебаться
to swing (away from sb / in sb's favour / the other way): At the next general election the voters can swing again. | The mood amongst Tory MPs seems to be swinging away from their leader. | Public opinion began to swing in their favour / the other way.
to swing from sth to sth / between sth and sth: His opinions would often swing from one extreme to the other. | Forecasts about the course of democracy tend to swing from optimism to despair.
(2) [transitive] to influence or win over; to manage or arrange successfully; to bring around to the desired result (резко) изменить / повлиять; победить, добиться победы
to swing sth (away from sb): This latest scandal could swing popular support away from them.
to swing the vote / votes (in sb's favour) (резко) изменить / повлиять на политические предпочтения / симпатии избирателей: Recent events swung the vote in our favour. | Do campaign gifts swing votes? | She should be able to swing a significant number of women's votes.
to swing an election (in sb's favour) успешно провести выборы, добиться успеха / победить на выборах: Her last speech swung the election in her favour.
to disabuse [transitive] (formal) to make someone realize that they were wrong to believe something разубедить; выводить из заблуждения; освобождать от иллюзий: to disabuse sb of an idea / notion / belief / impression / illusion | The government did nothing to disabuse the public of this impression.
influence [uncountable; countable] the effect that a person or thing has on someone's decisions, opinions, or behaviour or on the way something happens влияние, воздействие
influence on / over sb / sth: We turn now to influences on attitudes and votes. | The presidency gave him unusual influence over the profession.
to have / exercise / exert / wield influence (on / over sb / sth / to do sth) влиять, оказывать / иметь влияние: He has a huge amount of influence on / over the city council. | He denies exercising / exerting any political influence over them. | The president's wife wields enormous influence within the party.
to use one's influence (with sb / to do sth / for sth) использовать свое влияние: They used their influence with opposition leaders, cautioning them against agitating for further violence. | He tried to use his influence to put pressure on the voters. | The government should continue to use its influence for the release of all hostages.
to increase / consolidate / strengthen one's influence укреплять / усиливать свое влияние: Britain tries to increase its influence by placing its representatives in key posts, but all member states do that.
to diminish one's influence ослаблять / уменьшать чье-л. влияние: But this did not diminish their influence and importance. | His political influence was significantly diminished.
to neutralize / counteract / curb sb's influence нейтрализовать чье-л. влияние: Recent events have done much to neutralize the influence of the right-wing.
to gain / buy (sb) influence получить / завоевать влияние: His wealth can buy him political influence.
to be / come / fall under sb's influence / under the influence of sb / sth находиться под чьим-л. влиянием; подпадать под чье-л. влияние: They came under the influence of a strange religious sect. | There they fell under the influence of activist revivalists and reformers.
positive influence положительное / позитивное влияние
bad / disruptive / negative / pernicious influence вредное / негативное / пагубное влияние
steadying / restraining influence сдерживающее влияние: The Egyptian president could act as a steadying influence on the talks.
big / considerable / enormous / great / powerful /profound / strong / tremendous influence сильное влияние: The Council had considerable influence over many government decisions.
far-reaching influence далеко идущее влияние
undue influence чрезмерное влияние: They were accused of interfering with voters and exerting undue influence.
propaganda [uncountable] information which is false or which emphasizes just one part of a situation, used by a government or political party in order to influence people's opinions and beliefs пропаганда: political / ideological / enemy / wartime propaganda | democratic / liberal / communist / anti-communist / right-wing / left-wing / fascist / racist propaganda| a piece of anti-government propaganda| The film was later used for propaganda purposes. | Propaganda is a tool of war. | At school we were fed communist / right-wing propaganda.
to use / engage in / spread propaganda вести пропаганду, заниматься пропагандой: At the same time they are using propaganda and terror to boost their position in the countryside.
to subject sb to propaganda подвергать кого-л. действию пропаганды
to neutralize / counteract propaganda противодействовать пропаганде, нейтрализовать пропаганду
vicious propaganda грязная пропаганда
(to begin / mount / step up / win / lose) a propaganda campaign / war an organised plan to spread propaganda пропагандистская кампания / война: Khomeini began a propaganda campaign against the Shah. | They mounted a propaganda campaign against Western governments. | They stepped up the propaganda campaign to end military government. | We pride ourselves on having won the propaganda war. | Mr Barak has lost the propaganda war.
propaganda machine people who produce propaganda пропагандистский аппарат: The propaganda machine lied about the scale of casualties in our Civil War. | But in recent weeks it has cranked an impressive propaganda machine into action.
indoctrination | brainwashing | brainwash [uncountable] внушение идей; промывание мозгов; (идеологическая / политическая / религиозная) обработка: political / ideological / religious indoctrination / brainwashing | Education is indoctrination, or, as described today, the brainwash. | There was a lot of brainwashing involved.
to subject sb to indoctrination / brainwashing подвергать кого-л. идеологической обработке: The military in particular were subjected to intense political indoctrination.
swing [countable] (1) a noticeable change in opinions, ideas or emotions (резкое) изменение (политических предпочтений / симпатий избирателей): Educational practice is liable to sudden swings and changes. | In the 1979 election some locally popular candidates held their marginal seats against the national swing.
swing to / towards sb / sth: In the last elections there was a swing to the right. | The swing towards the Tories suggests an unwillingness to see Kinnock as prime minister.
swing (away) from sb / sth (to sb / sth) / against sb / sth: There was a massive twenty per cent swing away from the Conservatives to the Liberal Democrats. | If there is a swing against the Tories, the prospects for Mr Devlin look bleak.
to show a swing to / towards sth: The party's new policies show a swing towards the centre.
swing in sth: There has been a huge swing in public opinion on the issue.
(2) a change in the relative distribution of popular support for political parties процент избирателей, меняющих свои политические предпочтения / симпатии: The Democrats only need a 5% swing to win this election.
swing to sb: The swing to the Liberal Democrats at Newbury was 29%. | There has been a significant 15 per cent swing to Labour.
swing (away) from sb (to sb) / against sb: In 1987, there was a small 2.5 percent national swing from Conservative to Labour. | In Brent, the swing against Labour was 7.3%.
the pendulum (of opinion) | the political pendulum the tendency of ideas, beliefs, opinions etc to change regularly to the opposite маятник (общественного мнения)
the swing of the pendulum the movement of public opinion from one extreme to the other (резкое) изменение общественного мнения / политических симпатий избирателей
the pendulum swings back / in the other direction / the other way / in sb's favour / from sth to sth / back and forth: The pendulum of public opinion has swung back / in the other direction. | Now the pendulum seems to have swung the other way. | The political pendulum has swung in favour of the liberals. | The pendulum has swung from silly dreaming to grinding pragmatism. | The pendulum of public pressure swings back and forth.
undecided / wavering / floating (BrE) / swing (AmE) voter | undecideds | waverer [countable] someone who cannot make a decision about which political party to vote for at an election; someone who does not always vote for the same political party at elections колеблющийся избиратель: He will argue that there are still a lot of undecided / floating / wavering / swing voters to make up their minds. | We must persuade the undecideds / waverers to vote with us. | Some observers believe polls overestimated the influence of undecided voters. | On past records, most waverers go for the challenger rather than the one who holds power.
to poll | to survey [transitive] to ask a large group of people the same questions in order to find out what most people think about something проводить опрос (общественного мнения) / анкетирование
to poll / to survey sb (about / on sth): More than 70 per cent of the voters who were polled said that they approved of his record as president. | Almost 60% of those surveyed said they supported the President’s action. | Researchers surveyed 10,000 customers about / on the quality of companies that they used.
poll | (public) opinion poll | (public opinion) survey [countable] the process of asking a large group of people the same questions in order to find out what most people think about something; a record of the result of this опрос (общественного мнения); социологическое исследование: Another poll / survey asked respondents if they favoured nuclear war. | The latest opinion poll puts the Democrats in the lead.
poll / survey of sb опрос кого-л.: We conducted a poll / survey of parents in the village.
poll on sb / sth | survey on / of sth: We are doing a weekly poll on the president, and clearly his popularity has declined. | The committee carried out a survey on / of parking problems in residential areas.
in the polls: Labour is ahead in the polls. | He was still behind in the polls. | The Republicans are gaining / losing ground / support in the opinion polls. | They're worried about the government's present low standing in the polls.
to carry out / conduct / do / undertake a poll / survey (among sb) проводить опрос общественного мнения: MORI carried out / conducted / did / undertook a poll / survey among senior managers to get their views on taxation.
a poll / survey shows / indicates / finds / suggests / reveals that… | according to a poll / survey… : Recent opinion polls show that the President's popularity has declined / slipped. | Polls indicate that education is the top issue with voters. | A recent poll found that 80% of Californians support the governor. | Opinion polls suggest that only 10% of the population trusts the government. | According to the polls, a huge majority of citizens oppose bilingual education.
to lead (sb) (in) (the) (opinion) polls лидировать в ходе опроса общественного мнения: Labour led strongly in the opinion polls. | The party chairman now leads nationwide polls for president. | He leads Dole in Arizona polls.
exit poll [countable] the activity of asking people, as they leave a polling station, how they have voted in an election in order to discover the likely result опрос избирателей на выходе с избирательного участка
pollster [countable] a person or organization that prepares opinion polls интервьюер; институт общественного мнения
(popularity / approval) rating [countable] a measurement of how good, important, popular etc someone or something is рейтинг (популярности): When Mr Estrada took office in 1998 his approval rating was 60 %.
high / low / record rating: The President’s popularity rating is high / low according to recent opinion polls. | He leaves office with record approval ratings.
to have / enjoy a rating: At the end of the Gulf War he had the highest poll rating of any President. | At that time Clinton enjoyed the highest public approval ratings of his presidency.
a rating is at a new / record / all-time high / low | a rating is at a high / low point: The president's popularity ratings are at a record low. | New public opinion polls show the president's approval rating at its lowest point since he took office.
a rating rises / goes up (to sth) | a rating rises to / reaches / hits a new / record / all-time high | a rating rises to / reaches a high point: The President's approval rating rose to 78%. | Staying above the fray, he has gone about his duties and watched his approval ratings rise.
a rating falls / goes down (to sth) | a rating falls to / sinks to / reaches / hits a new / record / all-time low | a rating falls to / sinks to / reaches a low point: The Prime Minister's approval rating has fallen (as low as 12 percent) since he took office in 1998. | His approval ratings may even go down. | The government's popularity rating sank to an all-time low.
14. Political parties
(political) party [countable] [also + plural verb (British English)] an organization of people with particular political beliefs and aims which competes in elections to try to win positions in local or national government (политическая) партия: a party member / leader | Candidates could be nominated by political parties, party coalitions, or groups of 500 voters. | The Labour party has / have just elected a new leader.
to join a party вступать в партию: He first joined the Communist party when he was a student.
to establish / form a party основать / организовать партию
to disband / dissolve a party распустить партию: He dissolved political parties, banned demonstrations and introduced strict media censorship. | It was agreed to disband the working parties.
to ban a party запретить партию: By law, political parties can be banned only by a court decision. | Existing political parties were banned, and a period of military rule followed.
the party faithful strong supporters of the party убежденные / преданные / ярые сторонники политической партии: Her speech went down very well with the party faithful. | Morris continues to have deep support among the party faithful.
party machine партийный аппарат
ruling party | party in office / power правящая партия: Rarely has division within a ruling party been so bitter. | The ruling party's congress last month promised to establish a multi-party democracy.
opposition party оппозиционная партия: The opposition parties benefited from the problems of the ruling party. | Analysts say opposition parties still may question the legitimacy of the midterm elections. | The opposition parties united to boycott the election.
the opposition [singular; can be followed by a singular or plural verb] the main political party in a country's parliament that is not part of the government оппозиция: the leader of the opposition | an opposition leader / politician | The opposition fought hard, but had no chance of winning. | Newspapers must reflect the views of the opposition as well as those of the government. | The Opposition has / have condemned the Government's proposed tax increases.
in opposition a political party that is in opposition is in parliament, but is not part of the government в оппозиции: The Socialists were elected to power after ten years in opposition.
movement [countable] a group of people who share the same ideas or beliefs and who work together to achieve a particular aim движение (общественно-политическое)
movement for / against sth / to do sth: a movement to stop animals being killed for their fur | The movement for civil rights opposes this bill.
to lead a movement возглавлять движение: Mendes led a movement to stop destruction of the rain forest.
to launch a movement создавать / инициировать движение
to support a movement поддерживать движение
to oppose a movement противодействовать движению
to suppress a movement подавлять движение
to be / become / get involved in a movement | to join a movement: He became involved in the anti-nuclear movement in the 1960s.
a movement begins / develops: The environmental movement developed rapidly at the end of the last century.
peace / anti-war movement движение за мир / против войны, движение сторонников мира: He was a tireless campaigner for the peace movement during the cold war.
political movement политическое движение: People of all faiths have always participated in the political movements of this country.
social movement общественное движение
civil-rights movement движение за гражданские права: The aim of the civil rights movement was to eliminate racial discrimination in all its forms.
labour movement рабочее движение, движение трудящихся
trade union movement профсоюзное движение: The trade union movement is increasingly critical of the government.
revolutionary movement революционное движение: The armed revolutionary movement controlled ten percent of the country's villages.
independence movement движение за независимость: They were part of the independence movement.
national liberation movement национально-освободительное движение: The pressures that force these two processes do not cease after a national liberation movement attains power.
feminist / women's (liberation) movement женское / феминистическое движение: Younger women no longer think of themselves as part of the feminist movement.
protest movement движение протеста: A world-wide protest movement tried to prevent their execution, but they eventually went to the electric chair in 1927.
faction [countable] a small group of people within a larger group, who have different ideas from the other members, and who try to get their own ideas accepted фракция; группировка: The pro-war faction within the party condemned any attempt at negotiation. | Since then, factions of moderates and hardliners have battled within the movement.
wing [countable] a group within a political party or organization whose beliefs and aims are in some way different from those of the main group крыло (политической партии): a left / right wing | a conservative / radical / racist / liberal / moderate wing | a political / military wing | The left wing of the party is confident that the motion will be carried. | The Tamil Tigers have had a political wing since 1976, but never registered it as a legal party.
(to be) on the left / right (wing) (of a party): The president is on the right wing of the Democratic party. | The new law has been severely criticized by politicians on the left. | The war is generally opposed on the left.
(to be) on the liberal / conservative wing of a party: She's on the liberal wing of the Republican Party.
fringe (group) [countable] a group of people within an organization or political party who have extreme ideas that most people do not agree with экстремистская политическая группировка; политическая группировка, пропагандирующая крайние / экстремистские взгляды: The monarchists are a small fringe group who quarrel fiercely among themselves. | The terrorist fringe condemned the decision.
the right-wing fringe крайне правые
the nationalist fringe крайние националисты
the lunatic fringe наиболее ревностные сторонники, фанатичные приверженцы, экстремисты, фанатики, безумствующие крайние, "бешеные"
the Labour Party a left-of-centre party in Britain, which stands for equality, for the weaker people in society, for more government involvement in the economy and is more concerned to provide full social services than to keep taxes low (After many years in the 1980s and 1990s when it did not get elected as a government, the party made its policies less left-wing and began to call itself New Labour.) Лейбористская партия
the Conservative Party | the Tories | the Tory Party a right-of-centre party in Britain, which stands for hierarchical authority, minimal government interference in the economy, maintains traditional values and institutions, gives high priority to defence and internal law and order, promotes private enterprise and is in favour of keeping taxes low Консервативная партия
Tory [countable] a member of the British Conservative Party член Консервативной партии, тори
the (Social and) Liberal Democrats [plural] a party of the centre, or a party that is slightly left of centre, in Britain, which has always been strongly in favour of the European Union, places more emphasis on the environment than other parties, believes in giving greater powers to local government and in reform of the electoral system Партия либерал-демократов, Партия социал-либеральных демократов
the Democratic Party a left-of-centre party in the USA, which supports international commitment and broad social reform Демократическая партия
the Republican Party | the Grand Old Party (GOP) a right-of-centre party in the USA, which favours limited government and low taxes Республиканская партия
15. Political spectrum
the left | the Left [singular; can be followed by a singular or plural verb] political parties or groups, such as Socialists and Communists, that want wealth and power to be shared equally between all parts of society, generally support workers rather than employers, usually want large industries to be owned by the state and advocate using taxes to help solve social problems левые, левые партии
from / to / towards the left: He has support / received strong criticism from the left (of the party). | The party is moving further to the left.
(to be) on the left: Younger voters tended to be on the left.
the far / extreme left крайние левые: Pearce concludes: the truth is that the far left is no longer that important.
left-wing (adjective) supporting the political left левый: a left-wing newspaper / political party / politician / organization / group / government | left-wing views / activists / intellectuals | She's got very left-wing views. | Her views are fairly left-wing. | She's very left-wing.
left-winger | leftist | lefty / leftie (disapproving) (informal) (esp. BrE) [countable] someone supporting left-wing ideas or groups левый, сторонник левых; член левой партии; представитель левого крыла (партии, политической организации, правительства): a leftist party / group / politician / activist | She is supported by left-wingers in the party. | Two of the men were leftists and two were centrists. | They make no secret of their leftist sympathies. | He tells me Oxford is boiling with lefties. | I don't get on with his lefty friends.
left-of-centre | left of centre | centre-left (adjective) supporting ideas and aims that are between the centre and the left in politics левоцентристский: a left-of-centre / centre-left newspaper / party / government / politician | A left-of-centre paper combining easy tabloid reading with heavyweight news coverage looked like a good bet. | Her political views are (slightly) left of centre.
the right | the Right [singular; can be followed by a singular or plural verb] political parties or groups, such as the conservatives in Britain or the republicans in the USA, that support traditional values and institutions, encourage private enterprise, believe in low taxes and private ownership of property and industry, stand for less help for the poor правые; правые партии: In Britain, the right was / were in power after 1979. | The Minister has been attacked by the Right for her reforms.
from / to / towards the right: Opinion in the country was beginning to shift to the right. | There has been a marked shift in attitudes towards the right.
(to be) on the right: politicians on the extreme right | Most people on the right of the party support privatization.
the extreme / far right крайние правые: far / extreme right politicians | He's a man of the far / extreme right. | There are four principal theories used to account for the failure of the extreme right in Britain.
right-wing (adjective) supporting the political right правый: a right-wing newspaper / party / organization / group / politician / government / extremist | right-wing views / activists / intellectuals | He is known for his extreme right-wing views. | Extreme right-wing parties scored more pronounced successes. | The organization is very right-wing. | As a result, the mainstream right-wing parties have been hit hard.
right-winger | rightist [countable] someone supporting left-wing ideas or groups правый, сторонник правых, консерватор; крайний консерватор, реакционер; член правой партии; представитель правого крыла (партии, политической организации, правительства): a prominent right-winger in the party
right-of-centre | right of centre | centre-right (adjective) supporting ideas and aims that are between the centre and the right in politics правоцентристский: a right-of-centre / centre-right newspaper / party / government / politician | Her political views are (slightly) right of centre. | He is the leader of the centre-right National Action Party.
the centre [singular] a political party, group of parties, or position that is not extreme because it is neither left-wing nor right-wing (политический) центр: a centre party | a party of the centre
(to move / drift) / (a swing) towards the centre: The party has moved / drifted towards the centre in recent years. | The party's new policies show a swing towards the centre.
centrist (adjective) having political beliefs that are not extreme; supporting the centre of the range of political opinions; moderate центристский: a centrist party | centrist politics / policy | It's hard to see many differences between the centrist political parties. | He left the movement because it had abandoned its centrist policies.
centrist [countable] someone having political beliefs that are not extreme; someone supporting the centre of the range of political opinions; moderate центрист
moderate (adjective) having opinions or beliefs, especially about politics, that are not extreme and that most people consider reasonable or sensible умеренный: a moderate politician / party / wing / leadership / voter / position | moderate views | Her views represent the moderate wing of the party. | Moderate socialists believe in democratic reform rather than revolution. | Some prominent Republicans are adopting this moderate position. | Whitman lost moderate voters by a narrow margin. | Both countries have called for a moderate approach to the use of force.
to be moderate in one's views: The party leader is an extreme left-winger, but her deputy is more moderate in her views.
moderate [countable] someone whose opinions or beliefs, especially about politics, are not extreme and are considered reasonable or sensible by most people умеренный; человек, придерживающийся умеренных взглядов: He is well-known as a moderate in the party. | Carter appointed moderates to the Supreme Court. | The party is deeply divided between moderates and conservatives / extremists.
liberal (adjective) (1) believing in social or political change if most people want it свободомыслящий, с широкими взглядами, без предрассудков: liberal ideas / views / values / attitudes | a more liberal policy on issues of crime and punishment
(2) allowing people a lot of personal, political, or economic freedom либеральный; свободный: a liberal party / politician | liberal politics / policy | This distinction reflects the separation of the state from the individual in a liberal society / state / democracy. | They favour liberal free-market policies.
liberal [countable] someone with liberal opinions or principles либерал, сторонник либерализма: a nation of free-thinking liberals | That decision did not win her much support from liberals and moderates.
liberalism [uncountable] a belief in liberal ideas and principles, especially in political and social matters либерализм: political / economic liberalism | Seafaring has also promoted political liberalism in Britain. | In the name of economic liberalism, the Thatcher governments made war on traditional institutions and traditional elites.
conservative (adjective) not willing to accept much change, especially in the traditional values of society консервативный: a conservative society / government / group / politician | conservative ideas / views | a conservative approach / outlook / position| The conservative opposition managed to prevent any real discussion of political change. | They use it to promote conservative views.
conservative [countable] someone who is not willing to accept much change, especially in the traditional values of society консерватор: They ranged across the political spectrum from right-wing conservatives to left-wing socialists. | According to a recent poll, the governor has lost support among (political / religious) conservatives.
conservatism [uncountable] a political belief that it is better for society to change only gradually; a political philosophy which believes that if changes need to be made to society, they should be made gradually консерватизм; консервативность: the philosophy of modern Conservatism | They like the Pope's policy of conservatism on religious doctrine.
radical (adjective) believing or expressing the belief that there should be complete social and political change радикальный: radical ideas / views (about education) | radical politics / policy | a radical politician / party / organization / group | He was known as a radical reformer / thinker / politician. | These people have very radical views. | Such conditions fuelled discontent and facilitated the spread of radical ideas. | The senate objected to Stuart's radical politics.
radical [countable] someone who has new and different ideas, especially someone who wants complete social and political change радикал: a social / political radical | Millionaires are unlikely to be social or political radicals. | Are student radicals of the left different from student radicals of the right?
extreme (adjective) extreme opinions, beliefs, or organizations, especially political ones, are considered by most people to be unacceptable and unreasonable крайний: He has rather extreme views. | He's on the extreme right wing of the part. | Observers argue that banning political parties is counterproductive because it forces moderates into more extreme positions.
extremist [countable] someone who has extreme political opinions and aims, and who is willing to do unusual or illegal things in order to achieve them экстремист, сторонник крайних мер / крайних взглядов: The government condemns anyone who disagrees with it as extremists. | The bomb was planted by right-wing / left-wing extremists. | The army was infiltrated by political / religious extremists.
extremist (adjective) экстремистский: an extremist candidate / group / regime | extremist violence / tendencies | It will eradicate the power of the extremist minority in political parties. | A previously unknown extremist group carried out Friday's bomb attack.
extremism [uncountable] opinions, ideas, and actions, especially political or religious ones, that most people think are unreasonable and unacceptable экстремизм: political / religious extremism | left-wing / right-wing extremism | It breeds extremism in the environmental community and greater detachment from reality.
fundamentalist [countable] someone who believes that original religious and political laws should be followed very strictly and not be changed фундаменталист: He will try to satisfy both wings of the party, the fundamentalists and the realists. | The president's announcement is bound to anger religious fundamentalists.
fundamentalist (adjective) фундаменталистский: a fundamentalist doctrine / group / movement | He spoke for traditional family values and found support from various fundamentalist groups.
fundamentalism [uncountable] the belief that original religious and political laws should be followed very strictly and not be changed фундаментализм: Religious fundamentalism was spreading in the region. | Recent years have seen / witnessed a growth in religious fundamentalism.
reactionary (adjective) very strongly opposed to any social or political change (used to show disapproval) реакционный: reactionary attitudes / ideas / views | a reactionary politician | He is known for his reactionary views on immigration and the reintroduction of the death penalty. | Reactionary forces / elements in the industry are preventing its progress towards greater efficiency.
reactionary [countable] someone who strongly opposes any social or political change (used to show disapproval) реакционер: Reactionaries are preventing reforms.
16. Legislative branch
parliament (1) [countable; uncountable] [also + plural verb (British English)] legislature | legislative assembly / body / authority [countable] an official group of people who are elected in a country or part of a country to make or change laws and discuss important affairs парламент; законодательный орган, законодательное собрание: a national / federal / state legislature | He failed to win a seat in Parliament. | They demanded a free parliament and press. | The proposals before the legislature include the creation of two special courts to deal exclusively with violent crimes. | The Liberal Party has won control of the legislative assembly. | Policy goals and objectives are set by legislative bodies, made up of politicians.
(2) [countable] a particular period of time during which a parliament is operating, between either holidays or elections сессия парламента: We expect to get these laws passed during the present parliament. | The legislation is expected to be passed in the next parliament.
session / meeting of parliament a part of a period when parliament meets заседание парламента: The bill would be discussed in the first session of the next parliament.
parliament | legislature COLLOCATIONS
to summon / convene / convoke (a) parliament / a legislature собирать / созывать парламент: The Sovereign summons and dissolves Parliament. | The president dissolved parliament and called for new elections.
a parliament / legislature convenes парламент собирается
to dissolve / disband (a) parliament / a legislature распускать парламент: He should dissolve parliament and call an election.
to get into / enter (a) parliament | to be elected to parliament / a legislature быть избранным в парламент / членом парламента: Later on, perhaps at the next election, there might be an opportunity for me to get into Parliament. | He entered Parliament in 1997. | He was elected to parliament / the state legislature.
to sit / be in parliament / a legislature заседать в парламенте, быть членом парламента: He sat in Parliament until the civil war.
a parliament / legislature meets / sits парламент заседает / проводит заседание: The Parliament will certainly meet next Monday. | Parliament sits until the session is over and then it rises.
to adjourn (a) parliament / a legislature объявлять / делать перерыв в работе парламента
a parliament / legislature adjourns парламент делает перерыв в заседании
to present sth to / before parliament / a legislature | to place / lay / bring sth before parliament / a legislature представить / вынести на рассмотрение парламента: The budget for 1992 / proposed law was presented to / before parliament for approval. | The new laws will be placed before Parliament. | An annual report will be presented to the Lord Chancellor and will be laid / brought before Parliament.
to pass (through) parliament / a legislature if a law or proposal passes (through) an parliament, it is officially accepted by it быть утвержденным парламентом, получить одобрение парламента: The Bill should pass through parliament this year.
to represent sb in (a) parliament / a legislature представлять кого-л. в парламенте: Henceforth, parties which fail to get 5% of the vote will not be represented in parliament.
chamber | house [countable] one of the sections of a parliament (In many systems there is a lower chamber such as the British House of Commons and an upper chamber such as the British House of Lords.) палата (парламента): The House began sitting at 3 p.m. / rose at 2 a.m. | The President will address both houses of Congress.
lower chamber / house нижняя палата: Legislative power is vested in a bicameral Parliament, the lower chamber of which is popularly elected for up to five years.
upper chamber / house верхняя палата: Putin proposed stripping the regional leaders of their seats in the upper chamber of parliament.
House of Commons палата общин (нижняя палата британского парламента)
House of Lords палата лордов (верхняя палата британского парламента): He sits in the House of Lords as a cross-bencher and is active in debates, particularly on environmental issues. | The objection to the House of Lords is that it is not a democratic institution. | They propose to abolish the House of Lords.
House of Representatives палата представителей (нижняя палата конгресса США)
legislative [only before noun] used for talking about groups of people who have the power to create new laws законодательный: The powers of the legislative council / committee are unclear.
member of parliament | MP [countable] someone who has been elected by the people in a particular area to represent them in a country's parliament член парламента: the Member of Parliament for Selly Oak
legislator | lawmaker (esp. AmE) [countable] a member of an official group of people who together have the power to make or change laws and discuss important affairs законодатель; член законодательного органа / собрания: Legislators introduce bills in the legislative body and examine and vote on bills introduced by other legislators. | In 1870, 13 black men were elected legislators.
the Speaker / speaker the politician who officially controls discussions in a parliament спикер: Two new polls indicate weak public support for the speaker. | He served for eight years as Speaker of the House of Representatives. | Mr. Speaker, our message to the president is simple.
the Presiding Officer the politician who officially controls discussions in the Scottish Parliament or the Welsh Assembly (The Presiding Officer's position is the same as that of the Speaker of the House of Commons.)
hung parliament [countable] (BrE) a parliament in which no political party has more elected representatives than the others added together: If there is a hung parliament and the Prime Minister resigns for whatever reason, what happens next? | The polls came after another day dominated by the prospect of a hung parliament.
to lobby [intransitive; transitive] to try to persuade the government or someone with political power that a law or situation should be changed лоббировать, пытаться воздействовать на / обрабатывать членов законодательного органа (путем закулисных переговоров)
to lobby (to do sth): It is terribly frustrating to lobby and get absolutely nowhere. | Local residents lobbied to have the factory shut down.
to lobby sb (about sth): They advise corporate clients on how to lobby the government. | They encouraged class members to lobby their local councils about cuts in classes.
to lobby sb to do sth: We need to lobby our leaders to work for peace. | We are lobbying our State Representative to support the new health plan.
to lobby for / against sth: The group is lobbying for / against a bill / higher taxes / tougher laws / a reduction in defence spending.
to lobby sth through: In spite of opposition from the other parties, the changes in the law have been lobbied through.
lobby [countable] (1) [also + plural verb (British English)] a group of people who try to persuade the government that a particular law or situation should be changed лобби; лоббисты: an education / farm / labour / oil / environmental / tobacco / gun-control lobby (group) | He set up a lobby of independent producers.
(2) an attempt to persuade the government to change a law, make a new law etc лоббирование: a mass lobby of Parliament by women’s organisations | Pensioners took part in a mass lobby of parliament.
lobbyist [countable] someone who tries to persuade the government or someone with political power that a law or situation should be changed лоббист: a transport lobbyist | Lobbyists for the tobacco industry have expressed concerns about the restriction of smoking in public places.
vested interest [countable; usually singular] a strong reason for wanting something to happen because you will benefit from it (личная) заинтересованность
to have a vested interest in (doing) sth: The tobacco companies have a vested interest in claiming that smoking isn't harmful. | Others point to the rapid growth of military-industrial complexes with vested interests in international hostility.
vested interests | vested interest groups [plural] people or organizations who have a financial or personal interest in a business, company or existing system заинтересованные круги: The proposal faces tough opposition from powerful vested interests. | Enormous vested interests will need to be overcome to bring about such changes. | The new reforms were opposed by both vested interests and welfare groups.
to legislate [intransitive; transitive] to create a new law and have it officially accepted издавать законы, законодательствовать, осуществлять законодательную власть
to legislate (to do sth): The Government will have to legislate. | In the new Parliament, we will legislate to enforce and enhance these rights.
to legislate (on / for) sth: Only Parliament has the power to legislate on constitutional matters. | The government was under a lot of public pressure to legislate for equal pay. | Congress failed to legislate effective handgun controls.
to legislate against sth запрещать в законодательном порядке: The government has promised to legislate against discrimination. | There are plans to legislate against computer-related crime.
legislation [uncountable] (1) the act of making laws законодательная / нормотворческая деятельность
(2) a law or set of laws закон, законодательный акт; законодательство, свод законов: emergency / progressive / remedial / social / civil rights legislation | legislation governing minimum wage rates | The legislation requires motorcyclists to wear helmets.
legislation on sth / to do sth: (the) legislation on the sale of alcohol | She has called for legislation to eliminate handguns.
law (1) [singular; uncountable] the whole system of rules that people in a particular country or area must obey закон, право: civil / criminal law | tax / divorce / company / labour / libel law | the supreme law (of the land) | the principles of international law | Federal law protects workers who are disabled.
to become law становиться законом: The Criminal Justice Bill became law amidst much controversy. | This was four months before the Endangered Species Act became law.
to obey / comply with / observe the law соблюдать закон, подчиняться закону: Elected officials ought to obey the law. | To comply with the law, we had to install firefighting equipment.
(to be / keep / stay / remain / act / operate / work) within the law придерживаться закона, оставаться / действовать в рамках закона: They were fully convinced they were performing their duties within the law. | You can't take that course of action and stay / remain within the law. | Security forces must act / operate / work within the law.
to break / violate / flout a law нарушить / преступить закон: There were easy profits for businessmen who were prepared to break the law. | Federal officials began to violate the civil rights laws in addition to refusing to enforce them. | He condemned those who have (deliberately / openly) flouted the law simply for commercial gain.
to be against the law: Sex discrimination is against the law. | It is against the law for children to work before they are fifteen.
(2) [countable] piece of legislation a rule that people in a particular country or area must obey закон: a fair / just / unfair law | a strict / severe / tough / stringent law | a written / unwritten law | The laws governing the possession of firearms are being reviewed. | This law makes it illegal to smoke in public places. | The Public Order Act was a necessary but highly controversial piece of legislation.
law on sth: laws on immigration / equal opportunities / advertising
law against sth: Japan has very strict laws against guns and drugs. | There ought to be a law against cutting down trees.
to lay down a law формулировать закон
to impose a law on sth ввести закон против чего-л.: They led the fight to impose laws on smoking.
to promulgate a law опубликовать закон
to interpret a law толковать закон: Courts interpret laws. | You have the ability to interpret complex laws regarding employee rights.
to declare a law unconstitutional объявить закон противоречащим конституции
legislation | law COLLOCATIONS
to enforce / implement / administer legislation / a law выполнять / исполнять / применять / проводить в жизнь закон: The federal government has sole responsibility to enforce / implement immigration laws. | A system of fines was introduced to enforce the law. | It is the function of courts to administer the laws which Parliament has enacted.
to toughen (up) / tighten (up) legislation / a law ужесточить закон, сделать закон более жестким: The state is toughening its anti-smoking laws. | She thinks the laws on privacy should be tightened.
to abrogate / annul / repeal / revoke legislation / a law отменять / аннулировать закон: The new government repealed some of the anti-union laws.
under legislation / a law | according to the law | by law в соответствии с законом, по закону: under new / existing / current legislation | Both individuals and companies can be prosecuted under the new legislation. | Under the new law, anyone who assists in a suicide faces 10 years in prison. | We must act according to the law. | These safety measures are required by law.
act [countable] a law or formal decision made by a parliament or other group of elected lawmakers закон, постановление: an act of Parliament / Congress | Almost two hundred suspects were detained in Britain last year under the Prevention of Terrorism Act.
bill | draft law [countable] | legislation [uncountable] a written proposal for a new law, which is brought to a parliament so that it can be discussed законопроект, проект закона: draft legislation | Monday's debate on the defence bill lasted all night. | The bill was amended. | The bill was thrown out.
to shelve a bill откладывать обсуждение законопроекта
a bill becomes law: When a bill is passed in parliament it becomes law.
bill | legislation COLLOCATIONS
to draft a bill / legislation (под)готовить законопроект: Under severe pressure from the neighbourhood, the council drafted legislation to stop construction of the metal houses.
to bring in / bring forward / introduce / propose a bill / legislation вносить законопроект на рассмотрение: The government has promised to bring in / forward new legislation to combat this problem. | Many tried to introduce legislation / a bill to remedy the situation. | The Commission's sole right to propose legislation remained untouched.
to reject / vote down a bill / legislation отклонить / провалить законопроект: The House is free to pass or reject bills as it wishes.
to veto a bill / legislation налагать вето на законопроект: President Clinton has vowed to veto the legislation. | Clinton vetoed the bill after being lobbied by trial lawyers.
legislation | law | act | bill COLLOCATIONS
to pass / approve / enact / adopt legislation / a law / an act / a bill принимать / утверждать закон / законопроект: The government should pass / approve / enact / adopt legislation to limit the powers of the police in such cases. | Parliament will pass a law against smearing politicians. | The bill was approved by a large majority. | The state legislature passed an act banning the sale of automatic weapons.
to get / put / take legislation / a law / an act / a bill through (parliament / a legislature) to have a new law accepted by a parliament / legislature провести через парламент / законодательное собрание (о законе / законопроекте): We failed to get the Bill through (Parliament). | We should have no difficulty in putting the new law / legislation through (Parliament). | Were you able to take the new law through Parliament?
legislation / a law / an act / a bill gets through / goes through / passes (through) (parliament / a legislature) to be officially accepted by a parliament / legislature пройти через парламент / законодательное собрание (о законе / законопроекте): Anti-hunting legislation will never get through the House of Lords. | His referendum law failed to get through. | The new law should go through Parliament quite easily, as it has been demanded by the public for some time. | The bill failed to pass the House of Representatives.
to rush / railroad legislation / a law / a bill through (a parliament / legislature) to deal with official or government business more quickly than usual провести в срочном / спешном порядке, протащить через парламент / законодательное собрание (о законе / законопроекте): The legislation was rushed through parliament. | He railroaded the law / bill through.
to vote on / for / against legislation / a law / an act / a bill: Lawmakers are going to vote on the bill next week. | He voted for / against the bill.
legislative relating to laws or the making of laws законодательный: new legislative measures to stem the flow of drugs into the USA
legislative power / authority законодательная власть: The U.S. president has no legislative power, but he can make recommendations. | Legislative authority rests with parliament.
legislative powers законодательные полномочия: The European Parliament will have greater legislative powers.
legislative proposal законодательное предложение; законопроект: legislative proposals that would reduce the amount of hazardous waste
to legalize [transitive] to make something legal by creating a new law легализовать, узаконить, придать законную силу: Abortion was legalized in the 1960s. | Gambling has been legalized in the country.
legalization [uncountable] легализация, придание законной силы, узаконение: She ruled out the legalization of drugs.
to amend [transitive] (formal) to make small changes or improvements to a law or document вносить поправки, изменения, дополнения (в конституцию, закон, законопроект и пр.): to amend legislation / a law / an act / a constitution | The law was amended to include women. | He agreed to amend the constitution and allow multi-party elections.
amendment [countable; uncountable] a small change, improvement, or addition that is made to a law or document, or the process of doing this поправка, изменение, дополнение (к конституции, закону, законопроекту и пр.): a constitutional amendment
amendment to sth: an amendment to the constitution / a resolution / a bill | An amendment to the bill was agreed without a vote.
to propose / introduce / move / table / suggest / offer an amendment предлагать поправку / изменение / дополнение: He proposed an amendment to the poll tax. | They encouraged conservative members to introduce amendments. | On third Reading, he moved a second amendment to make racially discriminatory behaviour by the police a specific disciplinary offence. | The Liberal Democrats have tabled an amendment to the bill. | Democrats accused him of denying them the ability to suggest / offer amendments.
to make an amendment вносить поправку / изменение / дополнение: The Administration of Justice Act makes amendments to some legislation referring to solicitors.
to pass / adopt / approve / accept / carry / endorse an amendment принимать поправку / изменение / дополнение: Parliament passed an amendment to the code of criminal procedure. | Congress approved an amendment ensuring that the law was fairer to everyone. | The Council may adopt any amendment to the decisions which it may deem appropriate. | The amendment was carried by 292 votes to 246. | In the end, the conference voted overwhelmingly to endorse the amendment.
to reject an amendment отклонять поправку / изменение / дополнение: The House voted 208-217 to reject an amendment that would have phased out the program over five years.
to withdraw an amendment отзывать поправку / изменение / дополнение: I invite Opposition Members to withdraw amendments Nos. 75 and 76.
to vote on / for / against an amendment: The House has voted for an amendment that required a balanced budget. | I ask Hon. Members to vote against amendment No. 17.
reading [countable] one of the three occasions in a parliament, when a bill is read and discussed before it can become law чтение (в парламенте): the second reading of the Industrial Relations Bill | The bill is expected to pass its second reading with a comfortable majority. | The House debated the Second Reading of the poll tax bill. | The House is debating the Bill on Second Reading.
to be / remain in effect if a law, rule, or system is or remains in effect, it is being used now действовать (о юридическом документе): The decision was taken yesterday and will be / remain in effect until further government instructions.
to take effect / to come into effect | to be / become effective if a law, rule, or system takes effect, or comes into effect, or is / becomes effective, it officially begins to be used вступать в силу (о юридическом документе): The new Constitution will take effect / come into effect from April. | The cut in interest rates is effective from Monday. | The new laws will become effective next month.
to sit | to serve [intransitive] to be a member of a committee, parliament, or other official group быть членом (комиссии, комитета, парламента и т. д.)
to sit in (a) parliament / legislature / assembly: The party's three MPs will continue to sit in parliament. | Their father sits in the National Assembly.
to sit / serve on a committee / commission / board / jury: She sits / serves on several government committees / numerous commissions / the boards of several large companies / a jury.
to sit for a town / constituency представлять в парламенте (избирательный округ): Our member of Congress has sat for this town for years.
17. Executive branch
government (1) government | Government [countable: followed by a singular or plural verb; uncountable] the people who control a country, region, or town and make decisions about its laws and taxes правительство: (a) clean / corrupt government | an authoritarian / totalitarian / dictatorial / reactionary / democratic / liberal / parliamentary government | a civil / military government | a shadow government | government policy / funding / spending / statistics | The government is / are expected to announce its / their tax proposals today. | The country now has a democratic government for the first time. | After years of corrupt government, people are tired of politics. | Government spending on health care totals about $60 billion a year. | Government statistics show an increase in unemployment.
central / national / federal government a government for an entire country центральное / национальное / федеральное правительство: This law will take power away from central government and give it to local authorities. | It has been difficult for the central government to conduct elections in remote areas.
local / regional / provincial / state / municipal government a government for an area or town местное правительство, местная власть / администрация, местное самоуправление,; правительство штата; городское / муниципальное (само)управление, муниципалитет: The tax surplus is to be given to local governments to spend as they see fit. | He works in local government.
provisional / interim / transitional / caretaker government a temporary government, usually one that governs until official elections can take place in a country временное / переходное правительство
to destabilize a government to make a government become less successful or powerful, or less able to control events дестабилизировать правительство: Apparently the CIA acted to destabilize Communist governments.
under a government during the government of a particular party в период работы / срока полномочий правительства, при данном правительстве: changes in policy under the last Labour government | to live under a democratic government | Structural reforms are unlikely under the present government.
coalition government a government made up of members of several political parties коалиционное правительство: The Social Democrat Party is threatening to leave the coalition government.
(2) [uncountable] the process, method, or effects of controlling a country, region, or town форма / система (государственного) правления; государственная власть; государственное устройство, политический строй: strong / weak government | The 1990s saw a shift to democratic government in Eastern Europe. | What this state needs is really strong government.
form / system of government форма / система (государственного) правления: He established an autocratic form of government.
(3) [uncountable] the activities involved in controlling a country, region, or town управление, руководство, правление: Government has been entrusted to the elected politicians. | The party that was elected to power has no experience of government. | Having a popular leader does not guarantee good / effective government.
to be in government to control a country, region, or town управлять, руководить: The Democrats were in government at the time of the conflict. | The party was in government for four years in the 1960s.
cabinet | Cabinet [countable; followed by a singular or plural verb] a small group of the most senior ministers in a government, who meet regularly to discuss policies, make decisions, or advise the leader of the government (In the British political system, members of the cabinet are called cabinet ministers and each minister is usually the head of one of the main government departments.) кабинет (министров), совет министров, правительство: The Cabinet meets / meet every Thursday. | The Prime Minister has offered him a position in the cabinet.
cabinet minister | a member of the cabinet член кабинета / совета министров: The spy scandal involved two cabinet ministers and several civil servants.
government | cabinet COLLOCATIONS
cabinet / government meeting заседание правительства / кабинета министров: The announcement came after a three-hour Cabinet meeting in Downing Street.
to form / establish a government / cabinet to choose the people who will have the most important jobs in the government формировать правительство / кабинет министров: The party with an overall majority is then asked to form a government. | A coalition government will now be established.
to head / run a government / cabinet возглавлять правительство / кабинет министров, руководить работой правительства / кабинета министров
to overthrow / bring down / topple / overturn a government / cabinet свергнуть правительство / кабинет министров: The military overthrew / toppled / overturned the elected government. | This scandal could bring down / topple the government.
a change of government / cabinet смена правительства / кабинета министров: We are hoping for a change of government.
a government / cabinet falls / resigns правительство / кабинет министров уходит в отставку: The government fell / resigned in 1998.
to appoint sb to the government / cabinet (as sth): She was appointed to the Cabinet as secretary of commerce.
to reshuffle a cabinet / government to change the jobs or responsibilities of the cabinet ministers перетасовывать, перемещать, менять местами; производить изменения: The prime minister told reporters this morning that he plans to reshuffle his entire cabinet.
cabinet / government reshuffle a change in the members of the Cabinet, decided by the Prime Minister, in which some members are given different jobs, some members lose their jobs, and new members are brought in перестановки / изменения в кабинете министров / правительстве: A cabinet reshuffle will probably happen this summer. | In 1982 eight ministers lost their jobs in a mid-year cabinet reshuffle. | The Prime Minister is expected to announce details of a cabinet / government reshuffle later today.
to carry out a cabinet / government reshuffle производить перестановки / изменения в кабинете министров / правительстве: He has carried out a partial cabinet reshuffle.
president [countable] the person who has the highest political position in a country that does not have a king or queen, and who in some countries is also the leader of the government президент: the President of France | President Bush | President Chirac visited Japan this week. | Mandela was already in his seventies when he became president. | Thank you, Mr / Madam President.
president-elect someone who has been elected as a new president, but who has not yet started the job избранный, но еще не вступивший в должность президент: The President-elect has been preparing to take office in January.
incumbent (formal) / current president holding an official position at the present time действующий президент; президент, вступивший в должность: Carter suffered the worse electoral defeat of any incumbent President ever, including Herbert Hoover in 1932.
acting president / prime minister someone who does the job of president / prime minister while the usual person is not there, or until a new person is chosen for the job (временно) исполняющий обязанности президента / премьер-министра: He is now acting president.
vice president | vice-president | VP (AmE) | veep (AmE) (informal) [countable] the person who has the position immediately below the president in some countries, and who is responsible for the president's duties if he or she is unable to do them вице-президент: Vice President Cheney | former US vice-president Dan Quayle
prime minister | Prime Minister | MP [countable] the most important minister and leader of the government in some countries which have a parliament премьер-министр: the British Prime Minister | Prime Minister Blair | the Prime Minister of Turkey | He first became prime minister in 1982.
minister | secretary | Secretary of State (BrE) [countable] a politician who is in charge of a government department министр
minister of / for sth: the minister of / for foreign affairs / defence / finance / education / agriculture / culture | When the government came to power, he was named minister of culture.
secretary of sth (AmE): the secretary of foreign affairs / defense / finance / education / agriculture / culture | the Secretary of Health and Human Services
foreign / defence / finance / health / education / environment / trade minister / secretary: a meeting of EU foreign ministers | the Foreign Secretary | The Russian foreign minister was also present at the meeting. | Alexander, a former education secretary, favours longer school days and a longer school year.
secretary of state for sth (BrE): the secretary of state for foreign affairs / defence / finance / education / agriculture / culture | She became Secretary of State for Education after spending three years as Environment Secretary.
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs министр иностранных дел (в Великобритании)
Secretary of State (AmE) государственный секретарь (министр иностранных дел) (в США): But good news came when Truman appointed Dean Acheson secretary of state.
Secretary of State for Home Affairs | Home Secretary министр внутренних дел (в Великобритании)
Chancellor of the Exchequer министр финансов, канцлер казначейства (в Великобритании)
Secretary of the Treasury министр финансов (в США)
to swear in / into [transitive] to make an official promise to fulfil the duties of a new job or appointment well приводить к присяге (при вступлении в должность): the swearing-in ceremony
to swear sb in (as sth): The newly elected President was sworn in today. | He was sworn in as president / prime minister.
to swear sb into office: When he is sworn into office he will have to pledge his allegiance to the republican constitution.
to overturn | to overrule | to override [transitive] to say officially that something such as a decision or law is wrong and change it отменять, отклонять, отвергать; аннулировать, считать недействительным; объявлять неконституционным (о законе)
to overturn / overrule a decision / law / legislation / verdict / provision / policy / order: The decision was finally overturned by the House of Lords / Supreme Court last year. | The House of Lords overruled the decision of the Court of Appeal.
to override a decision / policy / instruction / order: The President used his veto to override the committee's decision. | It still leaves the state Legislature with massive pre-emptive powers to override local decisions. | The EU commission exercised its power to override British policy. | Churchill issued a new order overriding previous instructions. | The Senate will debate the bill Monday and vote Tuesday on whether to override the filibuster.
to override / overrule sb / sth: Milosevic himself chaired a key meeting overriding infuriated hard-liners angered by the moderates' desire to compromise. | Parliament overruled the local authorities.
override [singular] an attempt to cancel someone's decision by using official power or authority or by gaining more votes than them in an election or contest отмена, аннулирование; признание недействительным; принятие решения о приоритете того или иного законодательного акта: An override of the veto appears unlikely. | The veto override is scheduled for a House vote next Tuesday.
veto [countable; uncountable] (1) an official refusal to approve or allow something вето, запрет; запрещение
presidential veto вето, налагаемое президентом; президентское вето: The measure faces a certain presidential veto if it clears the Senate.
executive veto вето, налагаемое главой исполнительной власти
legislative veto вето, налагаемое законодательным органом: This procedure came to be known as the legislative veto. | Over the past five decades, the legislative veto has been placed in nearly 200 statutes.
veto on / of sth: There is the threat of a presidential veto on this legislation. | The government has threatened a veto of any tax reform proposals.
to impose a veto (on sth) налагать вето / запрет
to sustain a veto подтвердить вето / запрет: The lawmakers sustained his veto of a bill banning certain late-term abortions.
to override / overturn / overcome a veto преодолеть вето / запрет: Congress has the power to override the President's veto. | The Senate had a sufficient majority to override the presidential veto. | A subsequent vote in the Senate failed to achieve the two-thirds majority necessary to overturn / overcome a presidential veto.
(2) right / power of veto | veto right(s) / power(s) the right to refuse to approve or allow something, especially the right given by a constitution to prevent a law from being passed право вето
veto on / over sth: This would effectively give the white population a veto on all constitutional changes. | The head teacher has the right of veto over management-board decisions.
(to have) a / the right / power of veto / veto right(s) / veto power(s) иметь право вето, обладать правом вето: The Ministry of Defence has the right / power of veto over all British arms exports. | The two houses would have absolute veto rights over each other. | The Bush administration threatened to use its veto powers.
to exercise / use one's (right / power of) veto воспользоваться правом вето: They exercised their right / power of veto in the Security Council to prevent the resolution being passed. | In theory the British government could use its veto to block this proposal.
to veto [transitive] to officially refuse to approve or allow something налагать вето / запрет (на что-л.)
to veto a bill / a law / legislation / a decision / a proposal / a plan / a project / a measure / a treaty / a deal / an agreement / budget: President Bush vetoed the bill on July 6. | The president has the right to veto any piece of legislation. | If the president vetoes their decision, both chambers must then muster a two-thirds vote to override the veto. | The president vetoed two reform proposals last year. | Bill Clinton vetoed the balanced budget.
to enforce / implement / administer (legislation / a law / an act / a rule / a regulation etc) [transitive] to make sure that a law or rule is obeyed by people применять (закон / правовую норму), требовать соблюдения (законa), осуществлять, проводить в жизнь; придавать законную силу: to enforce laws strictly / rigidly / stringently | Governments make laws and the police enforce them. | The federal government worked vigorously to enforce the new act and to suppress attempted violations. | A recent consumer survey indicated that 89% of people wanted the Government to implement legislation to promote more recycling of paper. | The rules implement legislation passed by Congress in 1994.
enforcement [uncountable] the process of making sure that a law or rule is obeyed by people применение (права / закона), правоприменение, проведение в жизнь (закона); обеспечение правопорядка: strict / rigid / stringent law enforcement | law enforcement authority / agency | They should be encouraged to use enforcement powers where necessary. | The doctors want stricter enforcement of existing laws.
to appoint | to nominate [transitive] to choose someone officially for a position or a job назначать (на пост / должность); утверждать (в должности)
to appoint / nominate sb / sth: The French president has appointed a new Minister for Culture. | The President appoints the Cabinet, and is assisted by two Vice-Presidents.
to appoint / nominate sb (as) sth: The Prime Minister has appointed a civilian as defence minister. | Reagan nominated him as CIA director.
to appoint / nominate sb to sth: This is the first time that a woman has been appointed to the post / job. | She was nominated to the legislative council / board.
to appoint / nominate sb / sth to do sth: They appointed him to be treasurer. | They appointed him to serve as secretary. | He has been nominated to represent his country at the negotiations.
appointment | nomination (1) [uncountable; countable] the choosing of someone for a position or a job назначение / определение (на должность /пост / место)
appointment / nomination of sb / sth | sb's appointment / nomination: Other changes included the appointment of a new Foreign Minister.
appointment / nomination as sth: His appointment as head of department has caused a lot of friction. | They congratulated him on his nomination as chairman.
appointment / nomination to sth: His appointment to the Cabinet would please the right-wing. | He felt too inexperienced to accept nomination to the committee.
to make an appointment (as sth / to sth): Our department expects to make five new appointments this year alone. | She makes appointments to its bishoprics.
(2) [countable] a job or position, usually involving some responsibility должность, пост, место: a permanent / temporary appointment
to receive / get an appointment / nomination (as sth): He left the White House after the election when he did not receive a high-level appointment / nomination. | Barron recently received / got an appointment as vice chairman.
to accept / take up an appointment / nomination (as sth): Davis accepted the appointment. | Mr Fay is to take up an appointment as a researcher with the Royal Society.
to reject an appointment / nomination (as sth): One of his announced choices rejected the appointment.
to hold an appointment / nomination: One had even held an appointment under Heath as minister of state for Employment.
appointee (to sth) [countable] someone who has been chosen officially for a position or a job получивший назначение, назначаемое лицо, назначенец: a presidential / government appointee | a recent appointee to the Supreme Court. | The new appointee will be working closely with both departments.
18.1. Conduct of a meeting
meeting [countable] (1) an event at which people meet to discuss and decide things заседание, собрание, совещание; встреча; конференция; съезд: a meeting of senior politicians | She will raise the question at her meeting with the ambassador.
meeting about / on sth: There was a public meeting about the future of the gallery. | European leaders attended a meeting on air pollution.
to arrange / organize / set up a meeting организовывать заседание / собрание / совещание: They organized meetings on a number of important political issues. | I'm going to set up a meeting to discuss the budget.
to hold / have a meeting проводить заседание / собрание / совещание: The committee will hold another meeting to discuss the funding crisis. | We're having a meeting next week to discuss the matter.
to adjourn a meeting объявлять / делать перерыв в заседании / собрании / совещании
to call / convene / convoke (formal) / summon a meeting созывать заседание / собрание / совещание: The minister has called / convened an emergency meeting. | Separate meetings were convoked / summoned by the two opposing factions.
to call off / cancel a meeting отменять заседание / собрание / совещание
to postpone / put off a meeting откладывать заседание / собрание / совещание: Can we postpone our meeting until next week?
to attend a meeting посещать / приходить на заседание / собрание / совещание, присутствовать на заседании / собрании / совещании: Over a hundred and fifty people attended the meeting. | Neighbourhood groups were invited to nominate a representative to attend relevant council meetings.
a meeting takes place: In the end, the meeting did not take place.
summit meeting встреча глав правительств / на высшем уровне: The visit cleared the way for a summit meeting between the Communist Party leaders of the two countries.
(2) the meeting (formal) all the people who are at a meeting участника заседания / собрания / совещания: The meeting decided that further efforts were needed. | I'd like to put a few ideas before the meeting.
chairperson | chairman | chairwoman | presiding officer [countable] (1) someone who is in charge of a meeting председатель, председательствующее лицо: A woman who chairs a meeting is either a chairwoman or a chair, never a chairman.
(2) someone who directs the work of a committee, board, or organization председатель: the chairman of the board
deputy / vice chairperson / chairman / chairwoman заместитель председателя, вице-председатель: He was replaced by John Smith, but he remains deputy chairman. | Barrett serves as vice chairman.
to appoint / nominate a chairperson / chairman / chairwoman
to appoint / nominate sb (as) chairperson / chairman / chairwoman: Potts was appointed / nominated chairman of the education committee. | The board appointed him chairman and managing director, a fulltime post. | Martin Brookes has been appointed as the new chairman and succeeds Charlie Jones, who drops to vice chairman.
to serve (a term) as chairperson / chairman / chairwoman: She also served as chairman of the newspaper publishers group. | I served as finance chairman of his successful gubernatorial races. | She later served a term as chairwoman of the council.
to chair [transitive] (1) to preside at / over to be the chairperson of an official meeting, ceremony, or other event председательствовать на заседании / собрании / совещании, вести заседание / собрание / совещание
to chair / preside at / over a meeting / hearing / conference / congress / convention / ceremony / trial / service: He was about to chair a meeting in Venice of EC foreign ministers. | I shall be pleased to preside at your meetings. | He continued to preside over cabinet meetings.
(2) to preside over to be the head of a committee, board, or organization возглавлять (комитет / комиссию / совет); осуществлять контроль / руководство
to chair / preside over a committee / commission / board / council / cabinet / company / organization: She subsequently chaired the executive board of the UN Children's Fund. | The President appoints and presides over the Council of Ministers. | These committees are usually presided over by a senior judge.
to call / bring a meeting to order | to call for order (formal) to tell people to obey the rules of a formal meeting, for example by asking them to stop talking so that the meeting can continue призвать к порядку: The Chair called for order / called the meeting to order. | I now call this meeting to order.
to propose [transitive] to make a formal suggestion in a meeting for people to think about and vote on предлагать; вносить предложение; предлагать / выдвигать чью-л. кандидатуру, представлять (кандидата на должность)
to propose sth: I propose the admission of Peter King as a new member.
to propose that… : I propose that we discuss this at the next meeting.
to propose doing sth: France has proposed creating a rapid-reaction force to deal with the crisis.
to propose a motion / bill / law / legislation / amendment / resolution: He proposed a motion that the chairman resign. | He also proposed an electoral law, details of which remained unspecified. | He proposed an amendment to the poll tax. | The resolution was proposed by the chairman of the International Committee.
to propose sb (for sth): I asked them to propose and second me. | I would like to propose Mr Harrison for the position of Party Treasurer.
to move [intransitive; transitive] (formal) to officially make a proposal at a meeting or in a court of law вносить (предложение / резолюцию); делать заявление; ходатайствовать
to move an amendment / motion: They want to move an amendment to the bill. | Labour quickly moved a closure motion to end the debate.
to move for sth: to move for an adjournment | Your Honour, we wish to move for dismissal of the charges.
to move to do sth: I move to approve the minutes as read.
to move that… : I move that we accept the proposal. | The chairman moved that the meeting be adjourned.
to second [transitive] to make a formal statement of support for a suggestion or plan made by someone else during a meeting so that there can be a discussion or vote поддерживать предложение (на собрании): Who'll second the motion / proposal / amendment? | The motion was proposed by the club's chairwoman and seconded by the secretary. | He nominated Brown and eighteen other committee members made lengthy speeches seconding the nomination.
to table [transitive] (1) (BrE) to suggest formally in a meeting something such as a proposal that you would like everyone to discuss предлагать, выносить на обсуждение, вносить (предложение / резолюцию)
to table a proposal / motion / suggestion / measure / question / bill / amendment: Dr Clark tabled a motion for debate at next month's committee meeting. | The committee voted 17-9 to table the bill. | The Opposition have tabled a cluster of amendments.
(2) (AmE) to delay dealing with something such as a proposal until a future time откладывать обсуждение, класть под сукно
to table a proposal / motion / suggestion / measure / question / bill / amendment: The suggestion was tabled for discussion at a later date. | Six senators tabled the bill and refused to discuss other similar proposals.
proposal [countable] a plan or suggestion which is made formally to an official person or group предложение; план
proposal for sth / for doing sth / to do sth: proposals for increasing trade between two countries | Proposals for a new constitution are under discussion. | There has been an angry reaction to the government's proposal to reduce unemployment benefit.
proposal that… : There was anger at the proposal that a UN peacekeeping force should be sent to the area.
to draw up a proposal готовить / подготовить предложение: A commission to draw up proposals for changes to the Constitution was established on Sept. 9.
to make / present / put forward / put forth / submit a proposal сделать / выдвинуть / внести / представить предложение: The governor has made a proposal to raise the tax on gasoline by two cents. | The committee put forward / presented a proposal to reduce the time limit. | The governor will submit his proposal later this month.
to consider / discuss a proposal рассматривать / обсуждать предложение: They will consider our proposal at their next meeting. | The council is considering a proposal to double that limit.
to approve / accept / adopt / agree to / welcome a proposal принять / одобрить предложение: The French government has approved proposals for a new waste law. | Clinton is facing a battle to get Congress to accept / adopt his proposals. | The Executive Committee have agreed to this proposal. | We welcome the proposals to reduce the superpower arsenals.
to reject / defeat / turn down a proposal отвергнуть / отклонить предложение: The committee rejected the proposal to reduce taxes.
a proposal fell through проект провалился / потерпел неудачу
to oppose a proposal | to be opposed to a proposal выступать против предложения: That is why we oppose / are opposed to the Commission's proposals.
motion [countable] a formal proposal that people discuss and then vote on in a meeting or debate (Someone proposes a motion, and someone else must second it before it is accepted for discussion.) предложение
motion to do sth: We will now vote on the motion to raise membership charges by 15%.
motion that… : We will now vote on the motion that membership charges should rise by 15%.
to propose / put forward / make / table / bring / file a motion сделать / выдвинуть / внести / представить предложение: Someone proposed / put forward a motion to increase the membership fee to £500 a year. | She made a motion to adjourn. | She made a motion that debate (should) be stopped. | Opposition parties are likely to bring a no-confidence motion against the government. | He is eligible now to file a motion for a new trial.
to second / support a motion поддержать предложение: Mr Jones seconded the motion. | I urge you to support this motion.
to debate a motion обсуждать предложение: The Committee will debate the motion today.
to vote on / for / against a motion
to carry / pass / approve / accept a motion принять предложение: The motion was carried (by 15 votes to 10 / unanimously). | The motion was passed / approved / accepted.
to defeat / vote down / reject a motion отклонить / отвергнуть предложение: The motion was defeated by 201 votes to 159.
motion for adjournment предложение о рассмотрении / обсуждении внеочередного вопроса
closure motion предложение о прекращении прений
to withdraw a motion снять предложение
to debate [transitive; intransitive] to discuss a subject formally, putting forward different views, before making a decision, usually by voting обсуждать, дебатировать, дискутировать, полемизировать
to debate (with sb): He received an invitation to debate with Williams on the future of democracy | We debated heatedly / hotly for several hours before taking a vote.
to debate a matter / issue / question / subject / motion / proposal / measure / bill / law / report / budget / policy etc: The United Nations Security Council will debate the issue today. | Parliament is still debating the bill. | The budget currently is being debated by Parliament.
to debate whether / what / how… : The two sides debated whether to raise taxes. | We debated what to do. | Officials were still debating how to pay for the program.
to argue [intransitive; transitive] to give clear reasons why you believe that something is right or true, or that something should be done приводить доводы / аргументы, аргументировать: You can argue either way, for or against.
to argue: Successful economies, she argues, are those with the lowest taxes.
to argue soundly приводить убедительные / обоснованные доводы / аргументы, обоснованно аргументировать: He argues soundly.
to argue for / in favour of / against (doing) sth приводить доводы / аргументы в пользу чего-л. / против чего-л., выступать в пользу чего-л. / против чего-л.: They argued for the new policy. | His report argued for an improvement in prison conditions. | The minister argued in favour of making cuts in military spending. | They argued against the amendment / cutting the military budget. | The report argues against tax increases.
to argue a case / point / matter (for / in favour of / against sth): The lawyers argued the case for hours. | I argued the case for an independent central bank. | She argued the case for changing the law. | They argued the point for hours without reaching a conclusion.
to argue a case / point / matter pro and con обсуждать проблему, приводя доводы "за" и "против": They argued the matter pro and con.
to argue that… : He argued that a date should be set for the withdrawal of troops. | They argued that legality and transparency often conflict with the interests of state. | He was arguing that poverty may be a blessing.
to weigh (up) / consider [transitive] to think carefully about the advantages or disadvantages of a situation before making a decision or choice оценивать, рассматривать, обдумывать, взвешивать
to weigh (up) / consider sth / doing sth: They weighed up the consequences of an action. | The judge weighed / considered all the facts carefully before reaching a verdict.
to weigh (up) / consider whether to do sth: You have to weigh up whether a human life is more important than an animal's life. | He is considering whether to accept a job offer.
to weigh (up) / consider what / where / how / why... : She spoke very slowly, weighing what she would say. | We're still considering where to move to.
to weigh sth against sth | to balance sth against / with sth to consider the importance of one thing in relation to something else when you are making a decision; to compare the advantages and disadvantages of something сравнивать, сопоставлять, взвешивать: They weighed one plan / argument against another. | We have to weigh the benefits of the scheme against the costs. | The courts must balance our liberty against the security of the nation. | Development has to be balanced against environmental concerns. | She carefully tried to balance religious sensitivities against democratic freedom.
to outweigh [transitive] to be more important, useful, or valuable than something else перевешивать; быть более влиятельным / важным и т. п.
advantages / benefits / strengths outweigh disadvantages / drawbacks / weaknesses / risks: The advantages / benefits / strengths of the scheme outweigh the disadvantages / drawbacks / weaknesses.
disadvantages / drawbacks / weaknesses / risks outweigh advantages / benefits / strengths: The likely dangers of traditional internationalism are starting to outweigh any plausible benefits.
debate [countable; uncountable] a formal discussion, for example in a parliament or institution, in which people express different opinions about a particular subject and then vote on it дебаты; дискуссия, обсуждение; прения: an acrimonious / bitter / fierce / heated / lively / spirited / sharp debate | a televised debate
debate about / on / over sth: The debate about who should pay what tax in the underdeveloped world has moved centre stage. | A parliamentary debate on the issue might be the one thing to tear the coalition apart. | Agreement was only reached following a fierce debate over the question of radioactive waste.
to have / hold / conduct a debate: I appeal to you, Mr. Speaker, to allow us to have a debate on this matter today. | It would have been better to hold the debate during the day.
to be under debate: The future size and shape of these forces is under debate. | The whole question of compensation is still under debate.
argument [countable; uncountable] a reason or set of reasons that you use for persuading other people to support your views довод, аргумент, доказательство; аргументация, приведение / изложение доводов: Politicians need to put both sides of the argument to the electorate.
airtight / balanced / cogent / compelling / conclusive / convincing / credible / good / logical / persuasive / plausible / powerful / rational / reasoned / solid / sound / telling / tenable / trenchant / valid argument веский / убедительный / обоснованный / четкий / ясный довод / аргумент, веское / убедительное / обоснованное / четкое / ясное доказательство: One powerful argument attributes this stagnation to the economic structure set in the early 1950s.
irrefutable / unassailable argument неопровержимый довод / аргумент, неопровержимое доказательство
groundless / spurious / tenuous / weak argument слабый / безосновательный довод / аргумент, слабое / безосновательное доказательство
argument for / in favour of / against sth: The arguments for and against a government regional policy in industry are old and well-rehearsed. | There are other very strong arguments for the importance of reading for pupils under the age of 16. | There are powerful arguments against releasing them from prison.
argument that… : They rejected the argument that security cameras would reduce crime.
to present / put forward / make / provide / produce / offer / set out / use an argument выдвигать довод / аргумент / доказательство: She made / presented a good / strong argument for more funding. | We need to provide a convincing argument as to why the system should be changed. | He produced the strongest arguments why these provinces should not be partitioned. | The doctors have set out their arguments against the proposals. | In some ways, she might be justified in using that argument.
to accept / agree with an argument принимать довод / аргумент / доказательство: I can't accept his argument that war is inevitable. | Do you agree with the argument that violence on TV makes people behave violently? | I can't accept the argument that prison deters crime / criminals.
to support an argument подтверждать довод / аргумент / доказательство: At least this one case supports the argument for a flexible policy.
to reject an argument отвергать довод / аргумент / доказательство: The Court of Appeal rejected her arguments. | The judge rejected the argument that publication of the information in an article would be in the public interest.
to refute / confute / rebut / counter / demolish an argument опровергать аргумент: He could not publicly counter / refute / rebut the false arguments of the government. | He completely demolished all her arguments.
(so) the argument goes / runs в соответствии с приведенным доводом / аргументом / доказательством: If violence is increasing amongst children, so the argument runs, then the increased violence on television must be a factor.
line of argument аргументация, последовательность доводов, путь доказательства: I don't think that line of argument is going to work.
case [countable; usually singular] a set of arguments, reasons and facts in support of or against something доводы, аргументы, доказательства, факты
case for / against (doing) sth: There is a good / strong case for / against government intervention. | The case for reform of the law is clear. | Both these facts strengthen the case against hanging. | The case against cigarette advertising is becoming stronger all the time.
to make (out) / present / put (forward) / argue / state a case (for / against sth) готовить / излагать доводы: Calvin makes a good case for this unpopular policy in his article. | She presented / put forward a well-argued case for the banning of smoking in public places. | He argues a case against the war. | She is going to state her case.
pros and cons the advantages and disadvantages of something за и против
the pros and cons (of sth): Experts will give advice on the pros and cons of restocking with fish.
to have one's pros and cons: Every scheme has its pros and cons.
to discuss / debate the pros and cons of sth: Two subgroups were formed to discuss / debate the pros and cons of various structural alternatives.
to weigh (up) / consider / look at the pros and cons of sth: We're just weighing up the pros and cons of the two deals. | I can't decide for you, but don't ignore the questions; consider the pros and cons and then decide. | We need to look at the pros and cons of each system.
to pass | to approve | to adopt | to accept | to enact [transitive] to officially accept a law or proposal, especially by voting принимать, одобрять, утверждать
to pass / approve / adopt / accept / enact legislation / a law / a bill / a measure / a resolution: Parliament passed a series of important measures in 1994. | The Senate approved a plan for federal funding of local housing programmes. | They tried to persuade the UN to adopt an aggressively anti-American resolution. | A package of economic sanctions is to be enacted against the country.
to carry [transitive] to vote for and accept something such as a suggestion at an official meeting принимать / проводить (законопроект / предложение / резолюцию)
to carry a motion / proposal / amendment / bill / resolution: The proposal / bill / resolution was carried. | The motion / amendment was carried by 210 votes to 160. | Those in favour of the motion raise your arm. Those against? The motion is carried.
unanimous (1) a unanimous decision, vote, agreement, approval etc is one that everyone in a group agrees with and supports единогласный, единодушный: After a lengthy discussion we reached a unanimous decision on the proposal. | The decision of the committee was unanimous. | He was elected by a unanimous vote. | The proposal was accepted with unanimous approval.
(2) a group of people who are unanimous about something all agree about it or vote the same way единодушный
to be unanimous (that…): The jury was unanimous. | Many party members agreed with their leader, but they certainly weren't unanimous. | The jury was unanimous that the defendant was guilty.
to be unanimous in (doing) sth: The country is unanimous in support of the Government's policy. | The meeting was unanimous in adopting the proposals.
unanimously (adverb) единогласно, единодушно: The board of ministers unanimously approved the project last week. | The court ruled unanimously in her favour.
to adjourn [intransitive; transitive] to temporarily end something such as a formal meeting, parliamentary session, or trial делать / объявлять перерыв (в работе заседания, сессии и т. п.), прерывать / закрывать (заседание)
to adjourn: When the conference was over, the delegates voted not to adjourn, but to constitute themselves as a permanent body. | It was almost noon when the meeting adjourned.
to adjourn sth: The chairman has the power to adjourn the meeting at any time. | An inquest was opened and adjourned last week.
to adjourn for sth: Congress has adjourned for the November elections. | Can I suggest we adjourn for lunch now?
to adjourn (sth) until / to a date: The committee adjourned until Tuesday. | His trial was adjourned until May. | The case was adjourned to 3 October 1983.
to adjourn for a period of time: The trial was adjourned for two weeks.
adjournment [uncountable; countable] a temporary stopping of a formal meeting, parliamentary session, or trial перерыв в работе, остановка; пауза; перерыв между заседаниями: The court ordered a four-month adjournment. | The defence attorney requested an adjournment. | We sought an adjournment of the proceedings.
19. International politics
power [countable] a country that is able to influence other countries because of its economic or military strength держава, страна, сильное государство: Egypt is still a major power in the Middle East. | China has emerged as a major economic power in Asia. | France was the only European power not to sign the treaty.
world power a country that can influence events in different parts of the world мировая держава: Germany's strong industrial base has helped maintain its status as a major world power.
superpower [countable] a nation that has very great military and political power сверхдержава; одна из наиболее мощных великих держав: The book traces the emergence of China as a superpower in the 21st century.
confrontation [countable; uncountable] (1) a situation in which there is a lot of angry disagreement between two people or groups противоборство, противостояние, конфронтация; противоречие: (a) direct confrontation | (an) ideological / political confrontation | The Paris summit formally ended four decades of military confrontation between East and West. | Through mounting intervention to sustain a profitable economy, capitalist states are haphazardly establishing a wholly new arena of political confrontation.
(2) a fight or battle столкновение, стычка: (an) armed / military / violent confrontation | The police were obviously anticipating a confrontation, as they were heavily armed. | Two people were killed and several wounded in the confrontation.
confrontation with / between sb: Japan seemed unlikely to risk military confrontation with Russia. | There were violent confrontations between police and demonstrators.
to provoke / lead to (a) confrontation: The issue has caused great tension between the two countries and could lead to a military confrontation. | That led to more frequent confrontations with police.
to seek (a) confrontation: The point is not to seek confrontation for its own sake.
to be / get involved in (a) confrontation: You might expect Christians to be the last group of people to be involved in strong confrontations.
to avoid (a) confrontation: The commission remains so weak that it will continue to avoid confrontation with governments.
standoff | stand-off [countable] a disagreement or fight in which neither opponent can do anything to win or achieve their aim противоборство, противостояние, конфронтация: The political standoff led to a six-month delay in passing this year's budget.
standoff with / between sb: After a prolonged legal battle, she is ready to end her standoff with state authorities. | There is no sign of an end to the stand-off between Mohawk Indians and the Quebec provincial police.
to lead to a standoff: The State Department was warning that this could lead to another diplomatic stand-off.
tension [uncountable; countable – usually plural] the feeling caused by a lack of trust between people, groups, or countries who do not agree about something and may attack each other напряжение, напряженность, напряженное состояние: increasing / mounting tension | high / low tension | political / social / racial tension(s) | The tension was high in Mexico as the day of the decision approached. | The years of his government are remembered for political tension.
tension builds (up) / mounts / grows / increases / escalates напряжение / напряженность нарастает: The tension built up to a climax. | A crowd gathered and tension mounted till the riot broke out. | Tension in the region has grown due to recent bombings. | The tension escalated until it became unbearable.
to ease / reduce / defuse tension(s) ослаблять напряжение / напряженность: attempts to ease racial tensions in inner cities | Nixon cited the potential for reducing tensions between the two nations. | The talks were due to include discussions of measures to reduce tension between the two states and to promote bilateral exchanges. | Talks between representatives of the three communities appeared to defuse some of the tension.
tension eases / subsides напряжение / напряженность спадает: After a while the tension eased.
friction [uncountable; countable – usually plural] disagreement or unfriendliness caused by people having different opinions разногласия, противоречия, трения: political / social / racial friction | The decision is likely to lead to friction with neighbouring countries.
source of friction: This question can become a major source of friction.
tension | friction COLLOCATIONS
to cause / create / produce / generate tension(s) / friction(s) создать напряженную обстановку; вызывать разногласия / противоречия / трения: Immigration from Comoros has caused tensions on Mayotte. | Restrictions on trade have caused friction between these two nations.
tension / friction arises появляется напряжение / напряженность, появляются разногласия / противоречия / трения
to increase / heighten / raise / aggravate tension(s) / friction(s) усилить напряженность / противоречия / разногласия / трения, обострить обстановку: The failure of the talks held in Geneva at the end of September has clouded the horizon and increased tensions. | The deadlock in electing a president heightened the political tension in the country. | And pumping more weapons into Bosnia is likely to raise tensions, rather than ease them. | The plan is likely only to aggravate ethnic frictions.
threat [countable; usually singular] the possibility that something very bad will happen; someone or something that is regarded as a possible danger угроза, опасность
threat of sth: the threat of rioting / military invasion | There's a serious threat of famine.
threat to sb / sth: a threat to freedom / democracy
threat from sb: According to the Secretary of State, the Russians face no threat from an expanded NATO.
threat that… : There is a threat that violence will break out again.
to be under threat of sth: The country is under threat of attack.
to face a threat: They face the threat of terrorism every day.
to be / pose / constitute / present / represent a threat (to sb / sth) представлять угрозу: The fighting is a major threat to stability in the region. | The dispute poses a direct threat to peace. | The process constitutes a national threat because it will break up the United Kingdom. | This search for a medical solution may present a serious threat to civil liberties. | Indeed, earnings worries represent the biggest threat to the bull market.
to reduce a threat уменьшать угрозу: Meantime, the government is already spending less, helping to reduce the threat of inflation.
to prevent / avert a threat предотвращать угрозу: The threat of full-scale war has not been averted.
a threat escalates угроза усиливается: When the focus is upon the potential for violence, the threat escalates.
conflict [countable; uncountable] (1) a state of disagreement or argument between people, groups, countries конфликт, противоречие, столкновение, конфликтная ситуация; коллизия: (a) political / social / ethnic conflict | It is an ethnic conflict between peoples who see each other at close range.
to be in conflict (with sb) (over sth): Employees are in conflict with management over job cuts.
to come into conflict (with sb) (over sth) вступить в конфликт: Doctors exercise considerable power and often come into conflict with politicians.
to bring sth into conflict (with sb) (over sth): His views on the literal truth of the Bible brought him into conflict with other Christian leaders.
(2) fighting between two or more groups of people or countries; a war вооруженный конфликт, вооруженное столкновение, сражение; борьба: the conflict in the Middle East | the Arab-Israeli conflict | Can this peace settlement bring an end to years of conflict?
conflict over / about sth: a conflict between neighbouring countries over / about their common border
armed / military / violent conflict вооруженный / военный конфликт, война: For years the region has been torn apart by armed conflicts. | Nevertheless, national security issues and the incidence of military conflict remain highly significant. | UN troops intervened to avert a threat of violent conflict.
to cause / create / provoke (a) conflict: It was an unpopular policy and caused a number of conflicts within the party. | Naturally, adopting non-traditional patterns creates some conflict. | The issue provoked conflicts between the press and the police.
to be / get involved in (a) conflict: The United States was involved in these conflicts, sometimes as a mediator, always as a supplier of arms. | A decree in February banned the sale of weapons to countries involved in armed conflict.
to prevent / avert (a) conflict: The National Security Council has met to discuss ways of preventing a military conflict.
to avoid (a) conflict: We wish to avoid conflict between our countries.
to resolve / settle / end (a) conflict: No conflict can really be resolved as long as these double standards prevail. | Opinion polls show that many of them are prepared to sacrifice territory to end the conflict.
resolution of (a) conflict | conflict resolution разрешение конфликта / конфликтной ситуации: a lawyer specializing in conflict resolution
ethnic cleansing [uncountable] the use of violence to force people from a particular racial or national group to leave an area or country этническая чистка: More have been wounded and others were victims of ethnic cleansing. | In late May, government forces began the ethnic cleansing of the area around the town. | This vile policy of ethnic cleansing must be stopped.
force [uncountable] military action used as a way of achieving your aims сила; насилие, принуждение
the use of force применение силы: After World War I the use of force to settle conflicts was prohibited. | The UN will allow the use of force against aircraft violating the zone.
by force (of arms) силой (оружия): Peace cannot be imposed by force (of arms).
to use / apply / resort to force применять силу, прибегать к использованию силы
to renounce (the use of) force отказываться от применения силы
aggression [uncountable] | act of aggression [countable] the act of attacking a country, especially when that country has not attacked first нападение; агрессия, незаконное применение силы преступное нападение: military / territorial aggression | an act of unprovoked aggression | Any eastward expansion would be regarded by the government as an act of aggression. | These acts of aggression went unchecked because the powers that might have stopped them had problems of their own. | We shall unite to defend ourselves against aggression.
aggression against sb: The statement condemned the country's brutal aggression against its neighbour.
to commit (an act of) aggression against sb осуществить агрессию против кого-л.
to prevent (an act of) aggression предотвратить агрессию: The President promised to use all his powers to prevent further aggression. | It will inevitably be harder to prevent similar acts of aggression in future.
aggressor [countable] a person or country that begins a fight or war with another person or country агрессор; нападающая сторона, субъект преступного нападения; зачинщик конфликта: the aggressor nation | measures taken to deter potential aggressors | The situation is complex and it is not easy to determine exactly who is the aggressor in this case. | If the enemy ignites war recklessly, we shall resolutely answer it with war and completely destroy the aggressors.
to appease [transitive] (formal) to prevent further disagreement in arguments or war by giving to the other side an advantage that they have demanded попустительствовать, потакать, потворствовать; успокаивать, умиротворять: The offer has not appeased separatists. | They attempted to appease international opposition by promising to hold talks. | Churchill was ready to make peace with Soviet Russia on the best terms available to appease the general situation.
appeasement [uncountable; countable] the act of trying to prevent further disagreement in arguments or war by giving to the other side an advantage that they have demanded потакание, попустительство; уступки; политика умиротворения; умиротворение: Chamberlain's policy of appeasement towards Hitler in the 30s | Appeasement of dictators led to wide-scale bloodshed. | He denied there is a policy of appeasement. | The policy of international appeasement must of course be pressed forward.
19.2. Unification and disintegration
to unite | to unify (1) [transitive] to combine people, groups, or countries so that they will work together объединять, соединять: Our goal is to unite the opposition parties and defeat the President. | We want to forge a policy that unites, not divides, people. | They sought to unify Europe by fair means or foul. | He said he would seek to unify the Conservative Party and win the next general election.
(2) [intransitive] to become combined объединяться, соединяться
to unite / unify (to do sth): The two parties have been trying to unite since the New Year. | In 1960, the regions united to form the Somali Republic. | If the party unifies, the bill might become law.
to unite / unify (with sb / sth): If the Byzantine Empire would ever bring itself to unite with the Empire of the West. | the benefits of unifying with the West
to unite against sb: Police chiefs called on the local people to unite against the drug dealers. | Uniting against globalisation is not the same as uniting against capitalism.
to unite behind sb: Party members united behind their leader.
united | unified (adjective) объединенный, соединенный: Successive opinion polls have found only around 10% in favour of a united Ireland under present circumstances. | It takes a unified country to mount a consensus foreign policy.
to be / stand united against sb: The two countries were united against a common enemy.
united front единый фронт: Nations of the world must present a united front against terrorists.
unification [uncountable] the process of uniting groups or countries, or the fact that they have been united объединение, слияние; воссоединения; консолидация; союз: the unification of Germany / Italy | the unification of East and West Germany | A more complete unification would not be possible.
(territorial) integrity [uncountable] (formal) (территориальная) целостность / неприкосновенность (страны): Separatist movements are a threat to the integrity of the nation. | Territorial integrity is a fuzzy concept when there is a dispute over boundaries.
to defend / protect territorial integrity: They have vowed to protect the country's territorial integrity.
to violate territorial integrity: The foreign affairs department has denied claims that territorial integrity has been violated.
to restore territorial integrity: They called for a negotiated settlement restoring the republic's sovereignty and territorial integrity.
self-determination [uncountable] the right of a country to be independent, instead of being controlled by a foreign country, and to choose its own form of government самоопределение: The Progressive majority was hostile to the status quo, and advocated national self-determination and political liberalism.
right to / of self-determination право на самоопределение: It is about a principle for which people have been fighting and dying for centuries – the indisputable right to self-determination. | The principle of the right of national self-determination was then extended much more widely.
to achieve / realize self-determination самоопределиться; получить самостоятельность / независимость: Most Progressives were prepared to support the Prussian state as the instrument of achieving national self-determination.
to give / grant self-determination давать / предоставлять право на самоопределение
to disintegrate | to break up [intransitive] to become weaker or less united and be gradually destroyed распадаться (на составные части), разрушаться: The nation disintegrated under economic pressures. | Civil war could come if the country breaks up.
to disintegrate / break up into sth: The Ottoman Empire disintegrated into lots of small states. | Whole armies disintegrated into their component individuals and sub-groupings.
to break away (from sth) [intransitive] (1) to split (off) from sth to leave a group or political party and form another group, usually because of a disagreement отделиться, выйти (из организации): More than 30 Labour MPs broke away to form a new left-wing party. | They broke away from the national union and set up their own local organization. | The Pan-Africanist Congress split from the ANC in 1959. | A group of extremists split (off) from the Labour Party to form a new "Workers' Communist Party".
(2) to secede (from sth) (formal) to stop being part of a country and form an independent state отделиться, отпасть, отложиться, выйти (из состава страны): Part of the country broke away (from the state) to form a new nation. | During that time, Portugal's colonies broke away from colonial rule. | There is likely to be civil war if the region tries to secede from the country.
disintegration | breakup | break-up [uncountable] the division of something such as an organization or country into smaller parts распад, разрушение, дезинтеграция; разделение на составные части: the violent disintegration of Yugoslavia | the breakup of the Soviet Union | At no time did a majority of Czechoslavakia's citizens support the country's break-up.
disintegration / breakup into sth: the disintegration of the Soviet empire into separate republics
breakaway (adjective) (1) a breakaway group is a group of people who have separated from a larger group because of a disagreement отделившийся: a breakaway group / party / movement | Three senior politicians have formed a powerful breakaway group.
(2) secessionist (formal) a breakaway area is one that has stopped being part of a country отделившийся, отколовшийся: a military assault on the secessionist republic | Chechen nationalists plan to hold mass demonstrations in Grozny, capital of the breakaway republic.
breakaway (from sth) [singular] (1) a time when some people leave a group or organization after a disagreement and start a new group or organization отделение, выход (из организации): He led a breakaway from the Communist Party.
(2) secession (from sth) [uncountable; countable] (formal) a time when a particular area ceases to be part of a country отделение, отпадение, выход (из состава страны): A valley breakaway could require a vote of the people. | It was the lack of democracy and equality which impelled the oppressed to fight for secession. | They want secession from the union, not a new treaty binding them into it.
separatist | secessionist [countable] (formal) someone who wants their country to be independent of another country сепаратист, сторонник отделения: a separatist / secessionist movement / group | a separatist / secessionist conflict | Basque separatists | Lithuanian secessionists | The separatists won no seats at the last elections. | The army has come under attack by separatists. | The government is trying to crush a secessionist movement.
separatism [uncountable] the beliefs and activities of separatists сепаратизм: Basque separatism
19.3. Promotion of peace
peace [uncountable; singular] a situation in which there is no war or fighting between countries or groups of people мир; общественный порядок, спокойствие: peace proposals / moves / talks / negotiations | a peace conference / initiative | Peace lasted in Europe for just over 20 years after 1918 before war broke out again. | The President spoke of a shared commitment to world peace and economic development.
lasting / durable / permanent peace прочный мир: There seems to be only one feasible solution that could bring lasting peace. | We hope to have created a durable peace between the two countries.
fragile / uneasy peace хрупкий / недолговечный мир: A fragile peace ending the seven-year civil war has been in place since last July. | An uneasy peace continued until 1939.
to be / remain at peace (with sb) | to live in peace (with sb) жить в мире: The country is at peace with its neighbours for the first time in years. | In this city people of different religions have lived together in peace for centuries.
to achieve / bring about peace | to bring peace (to sb / between sb) | to create peace (between sb) установить мир, достигать / добиваться мира: The Camp David agreement brought peace between Israel and Egypt. | We hope to have created a durable peace between the two countries.
to make peace (with sb) заключить мир; подписать мирный договор; мириться: The UN Secretary General urged the two sides to make peace. | The two armies made peace with each other in 1918.
to restore peace восстановить мир: initiatives to restore peace in the Middle East
to keep the peace | to maintain peace сохранять / поддерживать мир: The President sent federal troops to Grenada to keep the peace. | For many years the agreement maintained peace in Europe.
to break / disturb / shatter the peace нарушать мир / спокойствие: Residents say that the new development would shatter the peace of their area.
to threaten peace | to be / pose / present a threat to peace угрожать миру: It was a dangerous situation that threatened world peace.
to promote / further / advance peace | to campaign for peace бороться за мир, быть участником движения за мир, способствовать установлению миру: He dedicated his life to promoting / furthering the cause of world peace. | He campaigned for peace and against the spread of nuclear weapons.
cause of peace [singular] дело мира: to promote / further / advance the cause of peace
peace dividend [singular] the money that is saved on weapons and is available for other purposes, when a government reduces its military strength because the risk of war has been reduced (The peace dividend is the economic benefit that was expected in the world after the end of the Cold War.) экономическая выгода от сокращения расходов на оборону / вооружения: The peace dividend has not materialized despite military spending going down in most countries.
peace process [singular] a series of actions that are done in order to achieve peace мирный процесс: the Middle East / Israeli-Egyptian peace process
peace movement движение за мир, движение сторонников мира: The peace movement is organizing a march in central London. | He was involved in the peace movement but never a pacifist.
peace demonstration / protest / rally демонстрация / акция протеста / митинг в защиту мира
peace demonstrator / protester / activist / campaigner борец за мир, сторонник мира: Some 40,000 peace demonstrators gathered in Bonn yesterday to protest against the bombing. | Peace protesters broke into the Administration building and occupied it for six days. | Most peace activists remained united by their opposition to the government.
peaceful demonstrator / protester / activist / campaigner участник мирной демонстрации / акции протеста / кампании
peacetime [uncountable] a period of time when a country is not fighting a war мирное время: The talks were aimed at establishing normal peacetime relations between the two countries.
in / during peacetime: The British could afford to reduce defence spending in peacetime without excessive risk. | A country's army may be quite small during peacetime.
peaceful not involving war, fighting, or violence мирный, миролюбивый; тихий, спокойный: the peaceful use of nuclear energy | There was a relatively peaceful transfer of power from the military government to the new democracy. | The peaceful transition to democracy depends mainly on the military regime.
peaceful means / manner / method / way: Some important political changes have been achieved by peaceful means. | Unification shall be achieved through peaceful means.
for peaceful purposes: They emphasised that their equipment was for peaceful and not military purposes.
peace-loving | peaceful believing strongly in peace rather than war миролюбивый, мирный: These people are peace-loving, law-abiding citizens.
peaceful coexistence / co-existence [uncountable] a situation in which nations live in peace with one another мирное сосуществование: There could be peaceful co-existence between different political systems. | She hoped the different ethnic groups in the area could live together in peaceful co-existence. | Nixon contends that we are heading into a period of peaceful coexistence in the world.
to establish peaceful coexistence: The countries in Europe have established peaceful co-existence.
peacekeeping [uncountable] the maintenance of international peace and security by the deployment of military forces in a particular area, especially the supervision by international forces of a truce between hostile nations сохранение / поддержание / обеспечение мира: The UN's undersecretary-general is in charge of peacekeeping.
peacekeeping force(s) / troops / army a group of soldiers who are sent to a place in order to stop two opposing groups from fighting each other войска по поддержанию мира: A large peacekeeping force is now being assembled. | It is now hoped that the full peacekeeping force will be in place by the end of the month.
peacekeeping operation / mission операция по поддержанию мира: US troops taking part in the peacekeeping mission | Nigerian warplanes involved in peace-keeping operations in Liberia | The United Nations peacekeeping mission was a disaster waiting to happen. | Wars begin and end quickly; peacekeeping missions go on for ever.
to establish / deploy / install a peacekeeping force / army / peacekeeping troops (in a place) | to send a peacekeeping force / army / peacekeeping troops to a particular place вводить / размещать / направлять войска по поддержанию мира: They signed a protocol on interim measures to establish peacekeeping forces and military observers. | It would be the first major peacekeeping force deployed in the Western Hemisphere. | The United Nations has installed a peacekeeping force to maintain order until the elections in May 1993. | The United Nations has decided to send a peacekeeping force into the area.
to withdraw a peacekeeping force / army / peacekeeping troops (from a place) выводить / отводить войска по поддержанию мира: Panama called for the United States to withdraw its peacekeeping army.
peacekeeper [countable; usually plural] a soldier in a military force that has been sent to a place in order to prevent war, especially between groups who have been fighting there участник / солдат сил по поддержанию мира; страж мира: American marines were sent abroad as peacekeepers. | American ground troops are to join the UN peacekeepers to try to stop the war from spreading.
peacemaker | peacekeeper [countable] a person, organization, or country that tries to persuade groups of people or nations to stop fighting миротворец, примиритель: The Labour government acts as a peacemaker and mediator. | They want the United Nations to play a bigger role as the world's peacekeeper.
to mediate (1) [intransitive; transitive] to try to end a disagreement between two people, groups, or countries посредничать, быть посредником, выступать в качестве посредника
to mediate: Few were even prepared to try to mediate, none to risk anything for the king and the Despensers.
to mediate between sb: UN officials mediated between the rebel fighters and the government.
to mediate (in) sth: They mediate territorial disputes between neighbouring nations. | The Vatican successfully mediated in a territorial dispute between Argentina and Chile in 1984.
(2) [transitive] to find an agreement or solution that settles a disagreement успешно выполнить посредническую миссию, добиться чего-л. путем посредничества: UN peacekeepers mediated a new agreement / cease-fire. | The two envoys have succeeded in mediating an end to the war.
mediation [uncountable] посредничество, ходатайство, заступничество: They hoped that Russia's mediation would end the war. | The agreement provides for UN mediation between the two sides.
mediator | intermediary | go-between [countable] a person or organization that tries to end a disagreement between two people, groups, or countries by discussion посредник, примиритель: He received the Nobel Prize for his work as a mediator in the Palestine conflict. | The police negotiated with the gunman through an intermediary. | But in the city, as the go-between pointed out, things were changing.
to act / serve as (a) mediator / intermediary / go-between (between sb / for sb / in a conflict etc): An archbishop has been acting as mediator between the rebels and the authorities. | The former president has agreed to act as an intermediary between the government and the rebels. | The ambassador has offered to act as a go-between for the two countries involved in the conflict.
humanitarian concerned with improving bad living conditions and preventing unfair treatment of people гуманитарный; гуманный, человеколюбивый, человечный: humanitarian concerns | a humanitarian operation / mission | The Government displayed a more humanitarian approach towards victims of the recession.
humanitarian disaster / crisis: This earthquake is the worst humanitarian crisis in the country's history.
humanitarian aid / assistance / supplies / relief food, clothes, medicine and shelter гуманитарная помощь: Thousands of people are being denied access to humanitarian aid, food supplies and work. | Humanitarian relief efforts have been stopped by the attacks.
to provide / send humanitarian aid / assistance / supplies / relief: We have provided valuable economic and humanitarian aid to ease the transition to a market economy. | The United Nations is sending humanitarian aid to the areas worst affected by the conflict.
on humanitarian grounds: Two of the hostages were released on humanitarian grounds. | Air bombardment raised criticism on the humanitarian grounds that innocent civilians might suffer.
for humanitarian reasons / purposes: The prisoner has been released for humanitarian reasons.
pacifism [uncountable] the belief that war and violence are always wrong and that people should refuse to fight in wars пацифизм: However, this was not due to any genuine belief in pacifism.
pacifist [countable] someone who believes in pacifism пацифист: The pacifist movement is gaining increasing support among young people. | They turned out to be less consistent pacifists.
peacenik [countable] (informal) a political activist who publicly opposes war, a particular war, or the proliferation of weapons; a pacifist (used to show disapproval) сторонник пацифистского движения; противник американского вторжения во Вьетнам: His campaign attracted the support of feminists, peaceniks and ecologists.
to negotiate [intransitive; transitive] to discuss something in order to reach an agreement, especially in business or politics; to reach an agreement, especially in business or politics вести переговоры, договариваться; обсуждать условия; договориться, получить (в результате переговоров), заключить (договор / соглашение / контракт и т. п.)
to negotiate: The two sides have yet to show their willingness to negotiate.
to negotiate with sb: The government refuses to negotiate with terrorists.
to negotiate for sth: I'm negotiating for a new contract.
to negotiate sth (with sb / between sb): to negotiate an agreement / treaty / contract / deal / peace / settlement (with sb / between sb) | Colombia and Venezuela are currently negotiating a trade agreement. | UN representatives are trying to negotiate a ceasefire. | The South African president has negotiated an end to white-minority rule.
to negotiate to do sth: There were reports that three companies were negotiating to market the drug.
negotiating table стол переговоров: His first aim is to get the warring parties back to the negotiating table.
negotiation [countable – usually plural; uncountable] | talks [plural] official discussions between the representatives of opposing groups who are trying to reach an agreement, especially in business or politics переговоры; обсуждение условий: A ceasefire, let alone lasting peace, will take long negotiation. | The agreement was reached after a series of difficult negotiations.
by negotiation путем / посредством переговоров: Any border changes will come about only by negotiation.
to be under negotiation being discussed in a process that may lead to change находиться в процессе обсуждения: The exact details of the agreement are still under negotiation.
to be open to / subject to / up for negotiation able to be changed or agreed upon after discussion возможно внесение изменений, возможны изменения: The union said that everything is open to negotiation. | We've reached a broad agreement, but the details are subject to negotiation. | All those stipulations are up for negotiation.
negotiation(s) for / on / over sth | talks about / on / over sth переговоры о чем-л.: Negotiation for the pay increase is likely to take several weeks. | The completion of multilateral negotiations on the abolition of chemical weapons will be pursued. | The Union was involved in negotiations over pay and working conditions. | Talks broke down last week about / on / over the issue of overtime pay.
negotiations / talks with sb / between sb переговоры с кем-л. / между кем-л.: The negotiations with the company had reached a crucial stage. | He visited Egypt in March for talks with the president.
to begin / start / enter into / open negotiations / talks (with sb) вступать в переговоры: The government opened negotiations with the IMF for another loan. | The company is about to start talks with rugby clubs around the country. | Then the opposition leaders entered into talks with the President.
to hold / conduct / have negotiations / talks вести переговоры: Multilateral negotiations on regional economic co-operation were held in Paris. | He also held talks with President Hosni Mubarak.
to attend / participate in / take part in negotiations / talks: The president will attend the Rome talks.
negotiations / talks are under way / take place / continue ведутся переговоры, переговоры продолжаются
to suspend negotiations / talks приостанавливать; откладывать; временно прекращать: Management might suspend all negotiations about pay and conditions.
to break off negotiations / talks (внезапно) прекращать переговоры; срывать переговоры
negotiations / talks break down / collapse / stall переговоры провалились / потерпели неудачу: Negotiations broke down after only two days. | Peace talks have broken down in the Middle East. | The peace talks seem to have stalled again.
breakdown of negotiations / talks провал / срыв переговоров: This bomb attack has led to the breakdown of peace talks.
to resume / revive / reopen negotiations / talks возобновлять переговоры: Their aim is to revive the peace talks. | The United States urged Moscow and the rebels to resume peace talks.
negotiations / talks resume / reopen переговоры возобновляются: The delegations again failed to agree on when or where the negotiations should resume. | The trade talks will resume next month.
a round / session of negotiations / talks раунд переговоров: the next round of arms negotiations | the need for a fresh round of peace
peace negotiations / talks мирные переговоры, переговоры о мире: The agreement was reached during peace talks sponsored by the European Community.
settlement [countable] an official agreement that ends a disagreement урегулирование; соглашение: Hopes grew that a workable peace settlement might emerge. | They are not optimistic about a settlement of the eleven year conflict.
peaceful / peace / political settlement мирное / политическое урегулирование: The treaty guaranteed the peaceful settlement of disputes between the two countries. | The tentative discussions in Washington towards a peace settlement are now irrelevant. | Without a political settlement any truce in Bosnia remains precarious.
negotiated settlement урегулирование путем переговоров: They called for a negotiated settlement restoring the republic's sovereignty and territorial integrity.
settlement of / to a conflict / dispute / crisis etc: the search for a peaceful settlement of the Northern Ireland conflict | They helped negotiate peaceful settlements to several independence wars.
to reach / negotiate / achieve / secure / find a settlement урегулировать, добиваться урегулирования, обеспечивать урегулирование; достигать соглашения, приходить к соглашению: It now seems unlikely that it will be possible to reach a peaceful settlement of the conflict. | They are negotiating a peace settlement. | No one can underestimate the difficulties implicit in achieving a negotiated settlement. | Our objective must be to secure a peace settlement. | But Mr Reynolds said that renewed efforts were needed to find a political settlement in Northern Ireland.
solution [countable] a way of solving a problem or dealing with a difficult situation решение, разрешение: a peaceful solution to the troubles in the region | talks aimed at finding a peaceful solution to the crisis
a solution to a conflict / dispute / crisis / problem etc: There are no simple solutions to the problem of overpopulation.
peaceful / political solution (to sth) мирное / политическое решение / разрешение: But people do not believe there can be a peaceful solution to the crisis. | Any political solution presupposes that the fate of prisoners must be settled.
to seek a solution (to sth) искать решение / разрешение: City council members are still seeking solutions to the problem of unemployment.
to find / arrive at / bring about / obtain a solution (to sth) найти решение: UN leaders are working hard to find a peaceful solution to the conflict. | The parties involved attempted to arrive at a solution. | That is not going to help to bring about a just and peaceful solution to the problem. | He agreed to go to Rome himself to try to obtain an acceptable solution. | There have been fewer serious efforts towards obtaining effective solutions.
to come up with / devise a solution (to sth) разработать / подготовить решение: The committee has failed to come up with any solutions to the crisis.
to offer / provide a solution (to sth) to be a possible solution являться решением: Solar energy offers a low cost solution to our fuel problems.
to propose / suggest / offer a solution (to sth) предлагать решение: Some of our economists are proposing the same solutions. | More than half the builders offered other solutions to the fee problem. | The warring factions are suggesting drastically different solutions to the crisis.
to reject a solution (to sth) отвергать решение: It was not the first time that sensible political solutions had been rejected.
agreement (1) [countable] a decision or arrangement, often formal and written, between two or more people, groups, organizations, or countries соглашение, договор; контракт: If society is to exist as a unity there must be an agreement on shared values. | The dispute was settled by an agreement that satisfied both sides.
ceasefire agreement соглашение о прекращении огня / военных действий
armistice agreement соглашение о перемирии
compromise agreement компромиссное соглашение: It looks as though a compromise agreement has now been reached.
(2) [uncountable] the situation when people have the same opinion or have made the same decision about something (взаимное) согласие: Officials said there was broad / general / widespread / wide agreement on the need to promote growth by cutting government spending.
agreement to sth согласие на что-л.: I don't think they'll ever get the government's agreement to these proposals.
to be in agreement (with sb) (about / on sth) (formal) соглашаться, иметь одно и то же мнение: The government was in agreement with the committee about what they should do. | The two sides are in agreement on the need for arms reduction. | We were in full agreement with them on all points.
to reach (an) agreement (with sb) (about / on sth / that…) | to come to / arrive at an agreement достичь согласия, договориться: They reached full agreement on all points. | We are determined to reach agreement with the IMF before the end of the year. | After two years of talks, the Russians and the Americans finally reached an agreement. | The negotiators came to an agreement that all troops would be withdrawn.
mutual agreement взаимное согласие: A contract can also be terminated by mutual agreement of the parties. | Changes to borders can come about only by mutual agreement and consent.
tacit agreement молчаливое согласие: Your silence may be taken to mean tacit agreement.
treaty [countable] a written agreement between two or more countries formally approved and signed by their leaders договор, соглашение, конвенция: The Treaty of Versailles ended the First World War. | Both countries agreed to work towards a peace treaty. | He had no difficulty in persuading parliament to approve the treaty.
(nuclear) non-proliferation treaty договор о нераспространении (ядерного оружия): Over 20 countries have now signed the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty. | France today announced its plans to join the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. | Both countries are signatories to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
(nuclear) test ban / test-ban treaty договор о запрещении испытаний ядерного оружия: But it has refused to sign up to the comprehensive test ban treaty. | The President gave top priority to achieving a nuclear test-ban treaty.
agreement | treaty COLLOCATIONS
agreement / treaty with / between sb: the agreement between the parties | a trade treaty with New Zealand
agreement / treaty on sth: an agreement on arms reduction / military cooperation | He said the treaty on conventional forces would likely be thrown overboard.
agreement / treaty to do sth: The twenty-six countries signed an agreement to cut air pollution. | Next week he will appeal to the Senate to ratify a global treaty to ban chemical weapons.
to negotiate / broker / work out an agreement / treaty разработать / подготовить / выработать / обсудить соглашение / договор: The two sides are negotiating a ceasefire agreement. | An agreement was worked out between them on all points.
to conclude / enter into / negotiate an agreement / treaty заключить соглашение / договор: We've concluded a treaty with neighbouring states to limit emissions of harmful gases. | The government has entered into an international arms-control agreement. | He negotiated a similar treaty with Tripoli in 1659.
to sign / ratify an agreement / treaty подписать / ратифицировать соглашение / договор: Leaders of some rival factions signed a peace agreement last week. | They signed a treaty to settle all border disputes by arbitration. | The parliaments of both countries were due to ratify the treaty by the end of February 1991.
to implement / honour / observe an agreement / treaty выполнять соглашение / договор: Both countries agreed to implement arms control agreements. | They will honour the agreement to the letter.
to break / breach / violate an agreement / treaty нарушать соглашение / договор: They have broken (the terms of) the agreement on human rights. | The companies accused each other of breaching the agreement.
to abrogate / denounce / terminate / scrap an agreement / treaty расторгать / денонсировать / аннулировать соглашение / договор, объявлять о прекращении действия соглашения / договора: Both governments voted to abrogate the treaty. | He hopes to scrap the anti-ballistic missile treaty, destabilizing the world's nuclear equilibrium.
to back out of / withdraw from an agreement / treaty выйти из соглашения / договора
terms / provisions of an agreement / treaty условия соглашения / договора: They claimed the company had broken the terms of the agreement. | There are no provisions in the treaty that would exclude them from taking part in it.
under (the terms of) an agreement / treaty согласно условиям соглашения / договора, по соглашению / договору: Under the Sino-British agreement, Hong Kong will come under Chinese rule in 1997. | Under the terms of the agreement a state of transition was established prior to the creation of the third republic within 18 months.
trade agreement / treaty торговое соглашение
peace agreement / treaty соглашение о мире: The issue now is to ensure that the ceasefire turns into a lasting peace agreement.| The peace treaty ends nearly four years of violence.
bilateral / multilateral agreement / treaty двустороннее / многостороннее соглашение: Further bilateral and multilateral agreements were also envisaged to ensure that each country's armed forces participated in joint anti-drug initiatives.
safeguard [countable] a law, rule, plan etc that protects someone or something from possible dangers or problems гарантия; защита; охрана: built-in safeguards | International safeguards prevent the increase of nuclear weapons.
safeguard for sth: A system like ours lacks adequate safeguards for civil liberties.
safeguard against sth: The bill provides for additional safeguards against the import of Genetically Modified Organisms.
to build safeguards into an agreement / treaty | to build in safeguards включить гарантии в соглашение / договор: They built all the necessary safeguards into the treaty. | They may also be able to build in some safeguards.
to provide a safeguard / safeguards (for sb / sth / against sth) обеспечить гарантии (кому-л. / чему-л. / против чего-л.): Conservative backbenchers put pressure on the government to provide safeguards for households which would lose by more than a certain amount. | The system provides a safeguard against the risk of human error.
to compromise [intransitive] to reach an agreement in which everyone involved accepts less than what they wanted at first пойти на компромисс / уступки, делать уступки
to compromise (with sb) (on / over sth): Party unity is threatened when members will not compromise. | The President might be willing to compromise on defence spending. | The government has compromised with its critics over monetary policies.
to meet somebody halfway (on sth) to do some of the things that someone wants you to do, in order to show that you want to reach an agreement or improve your relationship with them уступить кому-л., пойти на компромисс: Democrats plan to meet the president halfway on welfare cuts.
compromise [countable; uncountable] an agreement that is achieved after everyone involved accepts less than what they wanted at first, or the act of making this agreement компромисс; соглашение (на основе взаимных уступок): an acceptable / reasonable compromise | a compromise between government and opposition | The government has said that there will be no compromise with terrorists. | The treaty represents a political compromise between the two nations.
to call for a compromise призывать к компромиссу: The defence minister called for a compromise and promised that the army would stay out of the dispute.
to make a compromise (with sb / sth) пойти на компромисс / уступки, делать уступки: Everybody has to be prepared to make compromises. | The senator made no compromises with his convictions.
to reach / arrive at / come to / find / agree on a compromise достичь компромисса, найти компромисс: If moderates fail to reach a compromise, the extremists will dominate the agenda. | There is a necessary compromise which can only be arrived at in the context of a particular system.
to reject a compromise отвергнуть компромисс
concession [countable] something you give or allow to someone in order to end an argument or a disagreement уступка; соглашение, компромисс; послабление: Deadlock between the two bodies might result in compromise and concession on some issues.
concession on sth / to sb / to do sth: The government has already made significant concessions on pay and conditions. | He said there could be no concessions to the terrorists. | The real fear that this revolution might overthrow the Tsar forced him to make some political concessions to appease the masses.
to make a concession (to sb / sth | on sth) | to grant a concession (to sb / on sth / to do sth) делать уступку, идти на уступки, идти на компромисс: He stated firmly that no concessions will be made to the strikers. | As President Boris Yeltsin has lost popularity, he has made concessions to nationalist views. | The national agreements also granted important concessions to the labour movement. | Producers of commercials resisted, but granted some concessions to end the strike.
to force a concession from sb | to gain / win / secure a concession (from sb) добиться уступки / компромисса (от кого-л.): We will try to force further concessions from the government. | They won no concessions from the government. | The Green Party aims to gain concessions on environmental safeguards for nuclear power. | His task was to keep the republic, while securing constitutional concessions.
I. Sections: General concepts, Political power, People in politics, Politicians' positive qualities and attitudes, Politicians' negative qualities and attitudes, National attitudes
1. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. срок пребывания в должности
b. злоупотреблять властью
c. отрекаться (от престола)
d. захватить власть
e. попытка переворота
f. готовить переворот
g. свергать правительство
h. баллотироваться / выставлять свою кандидатуру (на должность)
i. (государственный) переворот
j. неудавшийся переворот
k. прийти к власти
l. организовать переворот
m. уходить в отставку
n. вступить в должность
o. занимать пост / должность
p. увольнять, отправлять в отставку
q. проводить политику, следовать политическим курсом
r. уйти в политику
s. иметь всласть
t. вести политическую игру
u. политика с позиции силы
v. заниматься политикой
w. уйти из политику
x. разрабатывать политику
y. быть / находиться у власти
2. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
b. умный; хитроумный
c. беспристрастный, непредвзятый
d. проницательный, сообразительный
e. проявлять терпимость
f. мудрый; благоразумный
g. бескорыстный, незаинтересованный
i. правящая элита
j. выдающийся, знаменитый
k. уважаемый; почтенный
l. верный, стойкий, преданный
m. стойкий приверженец
n. неподкупный, честный
p. влиятельный, важный
q. искусство управлять государством
r. мелкий политик
3. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
b. ненависть к иностранцам
c. сталкиваться с предубеждением
d. устойчивый предрассудок
e. пристрастный, предвзятый
f. слабохарактерный, безвольный
g. нетерпимый, фанатичный
h. продажный, коррумпированный
i. разрушить / искоренить / преодолеть предубеждение
j. предвзятость, предубеждение
l. хитрый, ловкий, лукавый
m. точка / угол зрения, мнение
n. беспечный, безответственный
o. самодовольный, самоуверенный
p. низкий, подлый; мерзкий
q. крайний национализм
r. безликий, невыразительный
u. бойкий, говорливый, речистый
s. печально известный, позорный
w. подобострастный, раболепный
t. непостоянный, переменчивый
v. высокомерный, надменный
x. непорядочный; бесчестный
4. Give synonyms for the following words and phrases.
to go into (politics), to develop (a policy), to pursue (a policy), to exercise (power), to come to (power), to run for / stand for (office), to take (office), to remove sb (from office), to overthrow (a government), to step / stand down, to stage (a coup), to rest with sb / sth, staunch, crooked, tricky, impartial, reckless, glib, evil, chauvinist, arrogant, slavish, partial
5. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
to try to be elected
a situation in which political or military strength is shared evenly
to be governing a country
the process of formally accusing a public official of committing a serious crime relating to their job, especially in the USA
someone who is extremely interested in politics
to give someone the official right to do or own something
to be the responsibility of someone
to make a subject or a situation more political
to give part of your authority to someone in a lower position than you
a difficult problem which opposing politicians argue about or which each side deals with in a way that will bring them advantage
to deliberately use your authority for the wrong purpose or for your own advantage
the time someone spends working in an important job in government
6. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
not easily offended or upset by other people's criticism or insults
having a strong tendency to control other people without taking their feelings into consideration (used to show disapproval)
the defeat and removal from power of a leader or government, especially by force
a respected leader, who usually no longer has an active job but who still has influence because of their wide experience in politics or government
the attitude of someone who is willing to accept other people's beliefs, way of life etc without criticizing or punishing them, even if you disagree with them
a small group of people who think they are special and do not let other people join them
a group of people who have a lot of power and influence because they have money, knowledge, or special
an occasion when a group of people takes control of a country, usually by means of military force
a tendency to support or oppose a particular person or thing in an unfair way by allowing personal opinions and feelings to influence your judgment
to publicly say that you want to give up a right, title, position etc
7. Explain the meaning of the words and phrases listed below.
power politics, to ascend / mount the throne, to be next in line to the throne, to hold the balance of power, abdication, to attempt a coup, hack, statesmanlike, discreet, detachment, eloquence, self-denial, thin-skinned, haughty, to be prejudiced (against sb / sth), to be slanted towards / in favour of sb / sth, jingoist, nationalism, xenophobe
8. Explain the difference between the meanings of the following of words.
politics – policy, politician – statesman, nationalist – nationalistic, fair – just
9. Match the words in List A with those in List B to form phrases.
a. a prejudice
b. as leader of the party
c. (a) bias
d. towards sb
e. one's claim to the throne
g. on the political situation
i. to office
j. an issue
l. a president
m. power (to sb)
n. a policy
o. a coup
p. in the government
r. media coverage
10. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
Margaret Thatcher left an unforgettable mark ….. British politics.
Thomson has always been deeply involved ….. local politics.
He entered ….. politics at the age of twenty-one.
He is planning to retire ….. politics next year.
With my friends from home we discussed ….. Third World politics.
The Home Secretary strongly defended his party's policies ….. crime.
They were engaged ….. a bitter power struggle against the director.
Unelected civil servants exercise great power ….. ministers.
The Conservatives were ….. power for much of the twentieth century.
If the Social Democrats got ….. power, they would change the whole system of local government.
Mrs Thatcher would win the election and she would probably stay ….. power for ever.
Congress could remove the President ….. power.
The goal of the welfare bill is to devolve power and responsibility ….. the states.
I have no desire to seek ….. public office.
Bush was elected ….. the office of President in 2000.
Trujillo held office ….. finance minister.
Hayward has expressed his willingness to continue ….. office.
….. the new President there was clearly going to be no relaxation of the competition ….. the two superpowers.
He must perform all the duties that are vested ….. him.
The nation rests too much power ….. the President.
The mass media have been vested ….. significant power in modern developed societies.
Responsibility for child care rests ….. social services.
11. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
The responsibility for decision-making resides ….. the director.
We absolutely renounce ….. all forms of terrorism.
It's time he stood ….. and let a more qualified person do the job.
He was forced to step ….. ….. his post.
He is stepping .…. ….. a younger man.
In 1913, George V was ….. the throne.
He was only ten years old when he came ….. the throne.
Ferdinand Marcos fled to Hawaii in 1986 after he had been deposed ….. president of the Philippines.
She was extremely influential ….. raising people's awareness of the dangers of drug use.
They need to be tolerant ….. different points of view.
I think in the old days people were more tolerant ….. each other.
Some members of the party would like to see it develop a greater tolerance ….. contrary points of view.
The group remained steadfast ….. its support for the new system.
He was intolerant ….. both suggestions and criticisms.
Prejudice ….. black people is common in many parts of America.
He denied being prejudiced ….. black people.
They were accused of bias ….. people over 50.
He is heavily biased ….. of the plan.
The electoral system is heavily slanted ….. the ruling party.
The report provides a new slant ….. important environmental issues.
12. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
power, power, to renounce, to impeach, to take, to stand down, to vest, political, policy, to pursue, politics, to depose, to wield, to come to, to reside in, to overthrow, to talk about, to play, politicized
He is an important figure in the world of ….. .
Dole, to his credit, has repeatedly declined ….. politics in the most sensitive diplomatic areas.
But he ignores the question and starts ….. politics.
Woodrow Wilson hoped the League of Nations would replace ….. politics with international cooperation.
Education is back at the top of the ….. agenda.
We will make human rights the cornerstone of our foreign …… .
It is only to be regretted that the Committee ….. this policy with sufficient boldness and consistency.
The tobacco issue is becoming too ….. .
The Church ….. immense power in Ireland.
The ruling Social Democratic party has been in ….. for ten years.
Labour ….. power with an enormous majority.
Less than three weeks after Labour ….. office, an economic crisis developed.
He must perform all the duties that ….. in him.
The power to change the law ….. Parliament.
The governor ….. for accepting bribes.
Gandhi ….. the use of violence.
He ….. after more than 18 years in power.
The government ….. in a military coup three years ago.
He ….. as the party's leader in 1999.
13. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
corrupt, nationalist, jingoist, stateswoman, unbiased, tolerant, politician, religious, hack, intolerant, xenophobic, elite, coup, to be deeply ingrained, prejudiced, to be biased, to stage, bias
Tomorrow is the anniversary of the ….. that brought a military dictatorship to power here nine years ago.
The chief of the armed forces intended to take power by ….. a coup d'état.
An opposition ….. , Dan Brown, was jailed for 12 days in 1999 for speaking in public without a permit.
She is now one of America's leading ….. .
Before the election Davies was considered just a political ….. .
Only a small ….. can afford to send their children to this school.
This murder case has had so much media publicity that it will be difficult to find an ….. jury.
She's not very ….. of other people's failings.
He had accused three opposition members of ….. practices.
….. intolerance has always been a major cause of war.
This ban is a sad reflection of an ….. society.
Even today Southern states are seen as being more racially ….. than other states.
Ideally we'd choose judges who are without political ….. .
The selection of pupils for grammar schools ….. in favour of the middle-class child of a small family from a good area.
Political life has been infected by growing ….. sentiment.
He was a confirmed ….. and would frequently speak about the dangers of Britain forming closer ties with the rest of Europe.
….. nationalism is on the rise in some West European countries.
The belief that you should own your house ….. in British society.
14. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Он начал заниматься политикой, когда учился на третьем курсе университета.
Он ушел из политики из-за скандала, в котором фигурировало его имя.
Мы с друзьями часто говорим о политике.
Она считает, что политика с позиции силы неприемлема в современных условиях.
Я не интересуюсь политикой.
Нашей стране необходимо выработать эффективную внешнюю политику.
Президент обещал проводить твердую политику в области борьбы с преступностью.
В современном мире спорт становится крайне политизированным явлением.
Они полагают, что президент страны обладает слишком большой властью.
Их партия находится у власти уже более десяти лет.
Коммунистическая партия требует передачи власти народу.
Эта партия пришла к власти в 1946 году.
Мятежники захватили власть в стране в результате кровавого государственного переворота.
Какой государственный орган с США имеет право отстранить от должности президента страны?
Полиция получила специальные полномочия для борьбы с терроризмом.
Он планирует баллотироваться на пост губернатора.
Буш был избран на должность президента в 2000 году.
Она занимает этот пост c февраля 2004 года.
Он был вынужден уйти в отставку после того, как в стране разразился политический скандал.
Срок пребывания в должности президента страны составляет четыре года.
Парламент страны наделен правом принимать законы.
Ответственность за проведение эффективной экономической политики лежит на правительстве страны.
Никсон опасался, что против него будет возбуждено дело об отстранении от должности.
Елизавета II вступила на престол после смерти своего отца.
Король отрекся от престола в пользу своего старшего сына.
Он отказался от всех притязаний на английский престол.
15. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Правительство потребовало, чтобы сепаратисты отказались от применения насилия.
Повстанцы планируют свергнуть правительство страны.
Государственный переворот был организован группой офицеров.
После неудавшегося государственного переворота ему тем не менее удалось избежать ареста.
Он был уважаемым государственным деятелем, а не каким-то мелким политиком.
Правящая элита противится проведению реформ в стране.
Стране не хватает дальновидных и мудрых политиков.
Правительство терпимо относится к инакомыслию.
Им надо проявлять терпимость по отношению к национальным меньшинствам.
Красноречие не является его сильной стороной.
Он был непреклонным сторонником свободы слова.
Все государственные чиновники должны быть неподкупными и бескорыстными.
Стране нужны беспристрастные судьи.
Религиозная и национальная нетерпимость стала серьезной проблемой в современном мире.
Он не любит бойких, речистых политиков.
Он всегда был безликим и косноязычным политиком.
Его поражает ненадежность политиков.
Этот штат страны печально известен грубыми нарушениями прав человека.
Продажные таможенники оказались замешанными в торговле наркотиками.
Потребуется много времени для преодоления этих предрассудков.
Правительство использовало средства массовой информации для того, чтобы повлиять на мнение избирателей.
Они по-новому взглянули на политическую ситуацию в мире.
Мятежники разжигают националистические чувства у населения.
В атмосфере усиливающейся ксенофобии шовинисты требуют депортации всех иностранцев.
II. Sections: Political strife, Forms of protest, Mudslinging in politics, Corrupt practices in politics, Political manipulation
1. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. отвергать обвинение
b. вызывать критику
c. мирная демонстрация
d. бурная демонстрация
e. вызвать волну протеста
f. организовывать забастовку
g. вызывать дискуссию / полемику
h. опровергать обвинение
i. (голословное) заявление
j. сгладить / смягчить разногласия
k. дело справедливости
l. разогнать демонстрацию
m. выдвинуть обвинение против кого-л.
n. расходиться во мнениях (по вопросу)
o. предъявлять кому-л. обвинение
p. обвинять кого-л. в чем-л.
q. подвергаться критике
r. направлять критику против к-л.
s. возлагать вину на кого-л.
t. занимать позицию (по вопросу)
u. спорный, дискуссионный
v. дискуссия, дебаты, полемика
w. необоснованные обвинения
2. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. искоренить коррупцию
b. закулисные переговоры
c. махинации, интриги, происки
d. провоцировать кровопролитие
e. потворствовать, попустительствовать, потакать
f. улучшать репутацию
g. испортить / запятнать репутацию
h. смотреть сквозь пальцы
i. широко распространенное взяточничество
j. политическое манипулирование
k. подстрекатель, зачинщик
l. оправдывать свою репутацию
m. устная клевета
n. обливание / поливание грязью
o. предлагать / давать взятку
p. брать взятку
q. шантажировать кого-л.
r. клевета в печати
s. дискредитировать; порочить
t. приобретать репутацию
u. создавать имидж / образ
3. Give synonyms for the following words and phrases.
controversy, to arouse / cause (controversy), controversial, (to take / adopt) a position, to put / place (the blame on sb), to level (criticism at sb), to make (an accusation), to attract / draw (criticism), to touch off (a storm of protest), to build up / create (an image), to establish / gain (a reputation), to blemish / tarnish (a reputation), to slander, to take (a bribe), to eliminate / root out (corruption), activist, to egg sb on
4. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
a statement that someone has done something wrong or illegal, but that has not been proved
a large public meeting, especially one that is held outdoors to support a political idea, protest etc
to give a particular type of people something they want or need, especially something unusual or special
dishonest, illegal, or immoral behaviour, especially by people in positions of power
to change your beliefs or principles, especially in order to get more money or some other advantage (used to show disapproval)
to come together to publicly express disapproval or opposition to something
to criticize someone or something severely or angrily, especially in a newspaper article or speech
to say insulting or unfair things about someone, especially to try to damage their reputation
to say or think that someone or something is responsible for something bad
to say things to make someone or something seem less important or good
5. Explain the meaning of the words and phrases listed below.
to defile, to dismiss an allegation, outcry, to ban a demonstration, to go on strike, to call off a strike, moot point, sell-out, compromising situation, blackmail, defamation, to go negative over sb / sth, to stir up mud
6. Match the words in List A with those in List B to form phrases.
c. a rally
d. an image
f. negative over sth
h. a cause
i. on an issue
j. of an opponent
k. the blame on sb
l. an accusation
m. a stance
o. a strike
7. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
The two sides remained divided ….. the issue of nuclear weapons.
His tough stance ….. crime appeals to voters.
If she had taken a tougher line ….. them at once, they would have known where to stop.
The report also criticized the government ….. refusing to allow Amnesty observers into the territory.
The report has been criticized ….. inaccurate and incomplete.
Criticism has been levelled ….. senior figures in the industry.
Bernstein's work has come ….. ….. some strong criticism recently.
McCain lashed ….. ….. the media.
You can't blame all your problems ….. your working class background.
They tried to pin the blame ….. the killing ….. an innocent army officer.
Labour spokesman David Oakenson says there's evidence to suggest the blame lies ….. Swindon Police.
It's no use trying to shift the blame ….. other people.
Local officials stand accused ….. gross mismanagement.
Several serious accusations have been made ….. the former state governor.
The man they arrested last night has been charged ….. murder.
8. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
Allegations ….. fraud were made ….. him.
5000 employees came ….. ….. strike in protest ….. the poor working conditions.
Tear gas was used to break ….. demonstrations by 300 striking bus drivers and students in Managua on July 21
The angry outcry ….. officials and the press was deafening.
A big crowd of demonstrators were protesting ….. cuts in health spending.
Staff at the hospital went ….. strike in protest ….. the incidents.
Prisoners bribed guards ….. cigarettes.
Action is being taken to root ….. corruption in the police force.
We will not be blackmailed ….. silence.
Politicians should learn to cater ….. the man in the street.
Political leaders almost inevitably pander ….. big business.
To buy things cheaply from a poor country is to connive ….. its poverty.
Their appalling treatment of opposition candidates could only have happened ….. the connivance ….. the political authorities.
He managed to manipulate her ….. lending his company £500,000.
9. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
to deny, divided, critical, to face, to draw, debatable, to rage, to take, to level, to drag on, widely, controversy
The result was controversy between Vienna and St Petersburg which ….. for two decades.
When he first became the candidate more than two years ago it caused considerable ….. .
As the debate ….. on for months after the election, the strain of the turbulent year began to show on Daley.
It is ….. whether the plan would actually work.
They are sharply ….. about the choice of a new chairperson.
The international community has been timid in ….. a stand on such principles.
The government is being ….. criticized in the press for failing to limit air pollution.
He was highly ….. of the use of private houses for Government Offices.
Several criticisms ….. at the company's board of directors.
Plans for the new road ….. fierce criticism from local people.
The Minister ….. the accusation that she had behaved dishonestly.
Mr Major now ….. accusations that he forced the Maastricht motion through the House for no urgent reason.
10. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
libel, unfounded, to hold, manipulation, rally, to pay, to provoke, to project, to allege, outcry, to incite, fire
He ….. to have ordered the murder of a US citizen.
Police opened …. on a peaceful demonstration.
These allegations are totally ….. .
Its lack of detail ….. considerable protest.
Supporters of the policy are reported to be gathering in Delhi for a mass ….. .
Over fifteen thousand people ….. a mass protest against racism in the country's capital.
The large number of civilian deaths in Sakhiet provoked an international ….. .
In the absence of significant parties, nominations could be won by charismatic self-starters who could ….. an acceptable image.
Some companies in Belgium and France ….. bribes for the award of contracts.
She threatened to sue the magazine for ….. .
Four men were arrested for ….. the riot.
There were allegations of political ….. .
11. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
В стране продолжается острая политическая полемика.
Действия полиции вызвали ожесточенные споры среди членов парламента.
Внешняя политика правительства является предметом серьезных разногласий в обществе.
В высшей степени спорной является проводимая правительством политика в области разоружения.
Члены партии резко расходятся во мнениях по широкому кругу вопросов.
Президент занял твердую позицию по вопросу о терроризме.
Профсоюзы резко критиковали правительство за его нежелание заниматься вопросами социального обеспечения.
Оппозиция возложила всю ответственность за провал экономических реформ в стране на кабинет министров.
Газеты обвиняли генерала в некомпетентности.
Ему было предъявлено обвинение в убийстве.
Утверждают, что новое правительство будет проводить жесткую политику в экономической сфере.
Критика была направлена против министра финансов.
Ее голословные заявления были подвергнуты резкой критике.
Ответственность за экономический кризис лежит на либеральных экономистах.
Они пытались переложить ответственность за инфляцию на оппозицию.
Ему надо не только отвергнуть обвинение в коррупции, но и опровергнуть его.
Выдвинутое против него обвинение является абсолютно необоснованным.
Он всегда боролся за дело мира.
12. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Убийство двух подростков вызвало мощную волну протеста среди жителей небольшого города.
Все работники предприятия вышли на забастовку с требованием повысить заработную плату.
Забастовщики протестуют против значительного повышения цен.
Он предпринимал огромные усилия для того, чтобы создать себе положительный политический имидж.
Он имеет репутацию дальновидного политика.
Политические оппоненты поливали друг друга грязью.
Его политические соперники делали все возможное, чтобы опорочить его репутацию.
Никто не смог очернить его имя.
Такие безобразные видеоматериалы только развращают молодежь.
Клевета как в устной форме, так и в печати является излюбленным методом борьбы с политическими оппонентами.
Клеветнические заявления были направлены на то, чтобы опорочить доброе имя кандидата в президенты.
Его шантажировали компрометирующими материалами из его частной жизни, чтобы он отказался от участия в выборах.
Эти государственные служащие не только берут, но и дают взятки.
Говорят, власть оказывает разлагающее влияние на человека.
Президент обещал искоренить взяточничество в крупных размерах.
Закулисные махинации правящей элиты спровоцировали беспорядки на национальной почве.
Правительство обвинили в том, что оно потворствует расовой нетерпимости.
Массовые акции протеста произошли при попустительстве полиции.
III. Sections: Electoral issues, Polling, Political parties, Political spectrum
1. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. завоевать / получить место
b. список / реестр избирателей
c. отклонить предложение путем голосования
d. избирательный округ
e. всеобщее избирательное право
f. нанести кому-л. поражение путем голосовании
g. провести предложение путем голосования
h. подтасовка / фальсификация результатов голосования
i. выдвижение на пост президента
j. бороться за место
k. фальсифицировать (выборы / результаты выборов)
l. выставлять / выдвигать чью-л. кандидатуру на выборах
m. участвовать в выборах на должность президента
n. избирать кого-л. президентом
o. всеобщие выборы
q. напряженные выборы
r. занимать выборную должность
s. зарегистрироваться в качестве кандидата
t. избирать кого-л. в парламент
u. дополнительные выборы
v. добиться выдвижения в качестве кандидата от Республиканской партии
w. промежуточные выборы
x. соперничать с кем-л. на выборах
y. снимать свою кандидатуру
z. срок полномочий
2. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. избирательный пункт
b. быть в большинстве
c. высокая / низкая явка (на выборы)
d. принимать участие в выборах
e. абсолютное большинство (голосов)
f. день выборов / голосования
g. избирательная урна
h. убедительная / безоговорочная победа на выборах
i. открепительный талон, бюллетень для заочного голосования
j. быть в меньшинстве
k. избирательный бюллетень
l. простое / относительное большинство (голосов)
m. выиграть выборы с незначительным преимуществом
n. выиграть выборы с большим преимуществом
o. не ходить на выборы
p. решающий голос
q. пересчет голосов
r. неучастие в голосовании
s. проводить голосование
t. поставить на голосование
u. подсчет голосов
v. подавать голос (на выборах)
w. кабина для голосования
x. явиться на выборы
3. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. избирательная кампания
b. левоцентристская партия
c. придерживаться умеренных взглядов
d. экстремистская политическая группировка
e. начать / развернуть кампанию
f. грязная избирательная кампания
g. правящая партия
h. сторонник крайних взглядов
i. давать / делать обещание
j. движение в сторону (политического) центра
k. крайние левые
l. агитировать за кого-л.
m. нарушить обещание
n. промывать кому-л. мозги
o. оказывать / иметь влияние
p. колеблющийся избиратель
q. повлиять на общественное мнение
r. вселять уверенность
s. выполнить / сдержать обещание
u. проводить кампанию
v. проводить опрос (общественного мнения)
w. рейтинг (популярности)
x. фракция; группировка
4. Give synonyms for the following words and phrases.
to get / win (the Republican nomination), (electoral) register, to conduct / wage (a campaign), to keep / fulfil (a pledge), to break / go back on (a pledge), to instil (confidence), to brainwash sb, undecided / wavering voter, public opinion poll, to carry out / conduct (an opinion poll), to canvass for sb, primary elections, to win (an election), to win (votes), electioneering, to establish a party, to disband a party
5. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
the legal right to vote in national elections
the practice of cheating in an election by producing a false record of the number of votes
all the people in a country or area who have the right to vote
the act of officially suggesting someone for an election, job, position or honour
someone who has been elected as a new president / governor / prime minister, but who has not yet officially started the job
someone who is competing against you and who belongs to a different party or who have different aims or policies
to show by marking a paper, raising your hand etc which person you want to elect or whether you support a particular plan
the democratic system of voting
the largest number of votes received by a candidate or party in an election that is less than the total number of votes which all the other candidates or parties have received
an occasion when people vote to choose someone for a political or official position
to choose not to vote for or against something in an election; to choose not to vote in an election or meeting
a piece of paper on which you record your vote
the total number of votes recorded in an election
the number of people who vote in an election
a result in an election when one candidate or political party wins more than half the total votes or seats
to vote in an election
6. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
to make someone realize that they were wrong to believe something
a series of actions that a politician or political party does to try to win an election
someone having political beliefs that are not extreme; someone supporting the centre of the range of political opinions; moderate
the process of asking a large group of people the same questions in order to find out what most people think about something; a record of the result of this
a serious and firm promise that is made publicly and officially
allowing people a lot of personal, political, or economic freedom
the belief that original religious and political laws should be followed very strictly and not be changed
believing or expressing the belief that there should be complete social and political change
to try to persuade people to support a political party, politician, plan etc by going to see them and talking to them, especially when you want them to vote for you in an election
someone whose job is to give information to the public in a way that gives the best possible advantage to a politician or organization
information which is false or which emphasizes just one part of a situation, used by a government or political party in order to influence people's opinions and beliefs
to force someone to accept a set of political or religious beliefs by repeating the same idea many times so that the person cannot think in an independent way
a measurement of how good, important, popular etc someone or something is
supporting ideas and aims that are between the centre and the right in politics
the main political party in a country's parliament that is not part of the government
7. Explain the meaning of the words and phrases listed below.
to make / mount a bid for sth, to run on an independent ticket, to serve for a term in office, inauguration, direct vote, minority government, landslide victory, absentee ballot, the campaign fizzles out, to put a spin on sth, commitment, to shape one's views, to swing a vote in sb's favour, the swing of the pendulum, exit poll, fringe group, to return sb to parliament, the Grand Old Party
8. Group the following words according to whether they are used in British English or American English.
to run, to stand, to return, constituency, polling day, election day, relative majority, plurality, absentee ballot, floating voter, swing voter
9. Match the words in List A with those in List B to form phrases.
b. a pledge
d. a survey
f. a seat
g. the nomination
h. public opinion
i. one's candidacy
j. an elective office
n. a vote
o. from voting
p. the election results
q. a bid for sth
r. for election
s. for a seat
10. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
She was nominated ….. our candidate.
Ferraro was the first woman to be nominated ….. the job of vice president.
He is a candidate ….. the office of Governor.
She is expected to announce officially her candidacy ….. president early next week.
The new party is putting up 15 candidates ….. 22 seats.
William has been put up ….. a candidate for the committee.
You have said that you will stand ….. the presidential election next year.
There will be three candidates running ….. her.
He returned to politics in January 1995 when he and his wife were elected ….. parliament.
Morris was re-elected ….. a third term.
Durrant was returned ….. Parliament ….. an increased majority.
He ran ….. governor ….. the Republican ticket.
He hopes to visit China during his second term ….. office.
Independent candidates won the majority of seats ….. the local council.
I cannot understand people who continue to vote ….. Conservative after they have lost their homes or their jobs, or both.
The proposals were voted ….. yesterday.
The leaders asked their workers to abstain ….. voting.
About 70% of the population turned ….. ….. the election.
11. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
….. comparison, the turnout ….. the 1992 primary election was 29 percent.
Engle beat Blanchard ….. a razor-thin margin in the race ….. governor.
He won last month's presidential election ….. a landslide.
The Socialists won ….. a narrow / large majority.
In the boardrooms of most big corporations, women are ….. the minority.
Party supporters were called on to help canvass ….. their candidate.
The senator was determined to put a positive spin ….. the affair.
He said the government remained committed ….. peace.
The government is delivering ….. its 1994 election promise to create 100, 000 jobs a year.
By participating at an early stage, we hoped to have some influence ….. the national agenda.
It is impossible for these moral values to be implanted ….. people ….. force.
People have been brainwashed ….. believing they need this stuff.
They stepped ….. the propaganda campaign to end military government.
However, a swing ….. the Conservatives in London reduced Labour's representation there from 26 to 24 seats.
Many parents were surprised by the survey ….. teenage drug use.
The party leader is an extreme left-winger, but her deputy is more moderate ….. her views.
Initial estimates put turnout ….. more than 70 percent in Gaza, lower in the West Bank.
12. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
rigging, to hold, bid, to serve, to cast, candidacy, turnout, to run for, to nominate, to win, to take, candidate, to put up, to turn out, franchise, to poll, abstention
In 1960, young Democrats took over the party by ….. John E Kennedy for the presidency.
She was nominated as our ….. .
Bob Dole none the less remains the front-runner in the race ….. the Republican presidential nomination.
Eight months later he announced his ….. for the U. S. Senate.
Do you really intend ….. for that seat?
Richard Roe will ….. mayor.
Mr Meaney made an unsuccessful ….. for the presidency two years ago.
Women are given the ….. on the same basis as men.
Reagan became the first incumbent ….. two terms in the presidency since Dwight D. Eisenhower in the 1950s.
Republicans ….. 235 of the 435 seats in the House.
The poll was widely discredited after allegations of ballot ….. .
He ….. 23,579 votes.
The Senate had already approved the treaty on Sept. 17 by 176 votes to 16 with one ….. .
About 70% of the population ….. for the election.
By the end of the day, less than 40% of the population ….. their votes.
Why do you think we should ….. a vote on that?
Yet statistics show voter ….. sliding down.
13. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
spin, to shape, negative, ballot box, race, to crusade, to win, majority, to indicate, to wage, to shift, to run against, to come, to enjoy, to contest, false
It is no easy job ….. John Glenn, Ohio's Democratic senator.
In 1972 Richard Nixon became the first Republican to win a ….. of Catholic votes.
The NLD ….. a landslide victory in the elections five months ago.
They are determined to win power through the ….. , not by violence.
He continued ….. for free education for all.
He plans ….. a seat on Cookstown district council in the May elections.
The media ….. a virulent hate campaign against her.
Lamar Alexander dropped out of the presidential ….. on Friday.
Mr Johnson ran a ….. campaign in an attempt to discredit the president.
Washington was also eager to put its own ….. on the news it was imparting.
He should apologise for the ….. promises that he made in 1991.
Research findings are often used ….. Government policy.
They ….. under the influence of a strange religious sect.
A recent poll ….. that most people opposed the changes.
At that time Clinton ….. the highest public approval ratings of his presidency.
Opinion in the country was beginning ….. to the right.
14. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Республиканцы выдвинули его кандидатом в президенты на предстоящих всеобщих выборах.
Два известных политика борются за выдвижение в качестве кандидата на пост президента от Демократической партии.
Он очень легко добился выдвижения в качестве кандидата на пост президента от Республиканской партии.
Ему пришлось снять свою кандидатуру на президентских выборах.
Каждая партия имеет право выставить одного кандидата на выборах.
Он планирует выставить свою кандидатуру на выборах губернатора / на выборах в парламент страны.
Ему придется соперничать на выборах с двумя достойными кандидатами.
Он был избран в местный парламент / на должность премьер-министра.
Правительство собирается объявить о проведении выборов через месяц.
Всеобщие выборы будут проведены в будущем году.
На выборах в национальный парламент он побеждал дважды и один раз потерпел поражение.
Несмотря на все усилия, предпринятые правительством, очередные выборы были сорваны.
Она никогда не занимала выборной должности.
В последнее время было отмечено усиление националистических настроений среди избирателей.
В этом году он снова собирается бороться за пост президента.
Он участвует в президентских выборах от Демократической партии.
Он принимает участие в выборах в парламент по спискам правоцентристской партии.
В то время большинство избирателей проголосовало за крайние левые партии.
Впервые президентские выборы были проведены на основе всеобщего и равного избирательного права при тайном голосовании.
Мы надеемся, что ныне действующий президент будет переизбран на новый четырехлетний срок.
Срок полномочий правительства истекает в следующем году.
Он подал в отставку с поста президента страны.
Наш кандидат завоевал место в комитете по правам человека.
Торжественная церемония вступления президента в должность пройдет в январе будущего года.
15. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Оппозиция опасается, что результаты парламентских выборов будут сфальсифицированы.
Ходили слухи о подтасовке результатов голосования.
Он всегда голосовал за консерваторов.
Я предлагаю провести голосование по этому вопросу.
Я предлагаю поставить вопрос на голосование.
Их предложение было отвергнуто в результате голосования.
Десять членов местного совета воздержались при голосовании.
На выборы явилось более половины всех избирателей.
Кандидат от Лейбористской партии получил 60% всех голосов.
Явка избирателей на выборы приблизительно составила 52%.
Консерваторы победили с незначительным / большим преимуществом / с преимуществом в 5000 голосов.
Наша партия имеет абсолютное большинство в парламенте.
В избирательной урне было обнаружено большое количество недействительных бюллетеней.
Всю последнюю неделю мы агитировали за кандидата от Республиканской партии.
Демократы обвинили своих оппонентов в организации грязной избирательной кампании.
Многие из его предвыборных обещаний не были выполнены.
Средства массовой информации в значительной степени формируют общественное мнение.
Радио и телевидение внушают потенциальным избирателям опасные политические взгляды.
Такие телевизионные программы используются политиками для промывания мозгов неискушенным зрителям.
Представленные ими аргументы повлияли на общественное мнение.
Ежемесячно они проводят опрос общественного мнения по вопросам социально-экономической ситуации в стране.
У нашего кандидата высокий рейтинг популярности.
Радикальное крыло партии выступило против компромисса с оппозиций по вопросу о разоружении.
Его отличают умеренные / крайние взгляды.
IV. Sections: Legislative branch, Executive branch, Meetings
1. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. подготовить законопроект
b. ужесточить законодательство
c. принимать / утверждать закон
d. применять закон
e. соблюдать закон
f. законодательство; свод законов
g. отменять / аннулировать закон
i. законодательный орган
j. распускать парламент
k. член парламента
l. иметь личную заинтересованность в чем-л.
m. запрещать в законодательном порядке
n. заинтересованные круги
p. делать перерыв в работе парламента
q. собирать / созывать парламент
r. заседание парламента
s. нарушить / преступить закон
t. толковать закон
2. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. применять закон
b. действующий президент
c. свергнуть правительство
d. избранный, но еще не вступивший в должность президент
e. провести законопроект через парламент
f. получить должность / место
g. назначать кого-л. на должность
h. приводить к присяге
i. исполняющий обязанности президента
j. легализовать что-л.
k. вступать в силу
l. временное правительство
m. формировать кабинет министров
n. производить перестановки в кабинете министров
o. коалиционное правительство
p. быть членом комиссии
q. предлагать поправку
r. законодательная власть
s. преодолеть вето
3. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. последовательность доводов
b. обсуждать предложение
c. приводить доводы в пользу ч.-л.
d. выдвигать довод / аргумент
e. готовить / излагать доводы
f. опровергать аргумент
g. единогласный, единодушный
h. созывать собрание
i. председательствовать на собрании
j. оценивать / взвешивать доводы "за" и "против"
k. поддерживать предложение
l. принять / одобрить предложение
m. отменять собрание
n. отклонить предложение
o. подготовить предложение
p. вносить предложение
r. обсуждать проблему, приводя доводы "за" и "против"
s. проводить собрание
t. сравнивать, сопоставлять
4. Give synonyms for the following words and phrases.
legislature, to obey (the law), to break (a law), piece of legislation, to enforce (a law), to toughen up (legislation), to repeal (a law), to pass / adopt (a law), to propose / move (an amendment), to take effect, provisional / interim (government), to overthrow (a government), to override (a veto), to call (a meeting), to call off (a meeting), to preside at / over (a meeting), to reject (a motion), to refute / confute (an argument), minister
5. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
a law or set of laws
a government made up of members of several political parties
a law or formal decision made by a parliament or other group of elected lawmakers
to say officially that something such as a decision or law is wrong and change it
a small group of the most senior ministers in a government, who meet regularly to discuss policies, make decisions, or advise the leader of the government
a politician who is in charge of a government department
the people who control a country, region, or town and make decisions about its laws and taxes
an official refusal to approve or allow something
a strong reason for wanting something to happen because you will benefit from it
an official group of people who are elected in a country or part of a country to make or change laws and discuss important affairs
to try to persuade the government or someone with political power that a law or situation should be changed
one of the three occasions in a parliament, when a bill is read and discussed before it can become law
a written proposal for a new law, which is brought to a parliament so that it can be discussed
to make small changes or improvements to a law or document
6. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
the advantages and disadvantages of something
a set of arguments, reasons and facts in support of or against something
a formal proposal that people discuss and then vote on in a meeting or debate
someone who is in charge of a meeting
to think carefully about the advantages or disadvantages of a situation before making a decision or choice
to give clear reasons why you believe that something is right or true, or that something should be done
to make a formal statement of support for a suggestion or plan made by someone else during a meeting so that there can be a discussion or vote
to discuss a subject formally, putting forward different views, before making a decision, usually by voting
to temporarily end something such as a formal meeting, parliamentary session, or trial
to suggest formally in a meeting something such as a proposal that you would like everyone to discuss
to choose someone officially for a position or a job
the process of making sure that a law or rule is obeyed by people
7. Explain the meaning of the words and phrases listed below.
speaker, hung parliament, lobby, vested interest groups, to legislate on constitutional matters, under legislation, to legalize sth, amendment, to rush / railroad a bill through parliament, to sit for a constituency, caretaker government, to destabilize a government, to reshuffle a cabinet, president-elect, incumbent president, acting president, to adjourn a meeting, to table a proposal (BrE), to table a proposal (AmE), to outweigh sth, to make out a case
8. Match the words in List A with those in List B to form phrases.
a. a case
b. a meeting
c. an issue
d. the pros and cons of sth
f. an argument
g. to order
h. a veto
j. the law
o. a government
p. on a committee
r. a bill
s. for foreign affairs
t. into office
u. an appointment
9. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
He sat ….. Parliament until the civil war.
The other Regulations should be laid ….. Parliament soon, subject to Ministerial approval.
The Pesticide Products Control Bill should pass ….. parliament this year.
Gun control advocates are lobbying hard ….. new laws.
In spite of opposition from the other parties, the changes in the law have been lobbied ….. .
Clearly, local businesses have a vested interest ….. seeing lower rates of crime against property.
They promised to legislate ….. cigarette advertising.
They pledged to work ….. the law to bring about change.
They led the fight to impose laws ….. smoking.
….. current legislation, factories must keep noise ….. a minimum.
They will bring ….. legislation in the coming parliamentary session to introduce student loans, partially replacing grants, from autumn 1990.
Their huge majority means they can put ….. virtually any legislation they want.
The new law should go ….. Parliament quite easily, as it has been demanded by the public for some time.
The government rushed ….. legislation aimed ….. Mafia leaders.
The new tax rates come ….. effect from April.
She sits ….. the boards of several large companies.
10. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
….. the Conservative government things were very different.
She became Secretary of State ….. Education after spending three years ….. Environment Secretary.
William Jefferson Clinton was sworn ….. as the 42nd President of the United States of America.
He is expected to be sworn ….. office June 27.
The trouble with the proposal was that under no circumstances would the United States give up its ultimate veto ….. the bombs.
Mr Fay is to take up an appointment ….. a researcher with the Royal Society.
The Chair called the meeting ….. order.
Mrs Banks has been proposed ….. the position of Treasurer.
A commission to draw ….. proposals ….. changes to the 1947 Constitution was established on Sept. 9.
It was the responsibility of the council to supply information to all the citizens and put ….. proposals.
The Communist Party was originally opposed ….. such a proposal.
It also argued ….. immigration controls and the repatriation of those immigrants without jobs or qualifications.
The public's right to know has to be balanced ….. national security.
A parliamentary debate ….. the issue might be the one thing to tear the coalition apart.
What are the arguments ….. the legalization of cannabis?
Shall we adjourn ….. lunch?
11. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
to amend, to obey, veto, to present, to weigh, to take effect, to override, vested, to destabilize, to legislate on, to get, to enforce, to sit in, to pass, to toughen, to dissolve, to violate, to lobby
The monarch had the power ….. parliament.
The proposed law ….. to parliament.
The union has attacked the plan and threatened …... against it.
Proposed controls on carbon emissions were opposed by powerful ….. interests in the oil business.
Only Parliament has the power ….. constitutional matters.
Children should be taught ….. the law.
They will possibly be charged with ….. federal immigration laws and will be deported.
The main role of the police is to uphold and ….. the law.
Governor Bush has made his mark building prisons, ….. laws on juvenile crime and calling for lower property taxes.
Clinton vetoed the bill after being lobbied by trial lawyers, but Congress ….. the veto.
Once again we failed ….. the Bill through Parliament.
But the assembly also has the power ….. the constitution.
The bill is expected ….. its second reading with a comfortable majority.
The new law will ….. from the beginning of May.
He was the first journalist ….. parliament.
Apparently the CIA acted ….. Communist governments.
The Bush administration criticized the decision and threatened to use its ….. powers.
The judge ….. all the facts carefully before reaching a verdict.
12. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
to attend, to adjourn, unanimous, to chair, to second, to approve, case, to provide, to debate, to weigh up, to balance, to outweigh, to table, appointments, to argue, to overturn,
He accused his opponents of wanting ….. the government.
As supreme Governor of the established Church of England she makes ….. to its bishoprics.
According to people who ….. the meeting, Ms. Robins refused to answer any questions about the deal.
After this brief introduction the head, who ….. the meeting, asked staff for comments and questions.
The motion was proposed by the club's chairwoman and ….. by the secretary.
He anticipated that the government might ….. amendments to the Bill as it passes through parliament.
The county Board of Supervisors unanimously ….. some proposals for the program yesterday.
Parliament still ….. the bill.
They ….. the matter pro and con.
The courts must ….. our liberty against the security of the nation.
The possible benefits ….. the risks involved.
This book does not ….. a convincing argument for change.
Michael Gilsenan argues the ….. against the war.
In calmer times I try to analyse, ….. the pros and cons.
After a lengthy discussion we reached a ….. decision on the proposal.
The committee ….. until Tuesday.
13. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Парламентарии опасались, что президент примет решение о роспуске законодательного органа власти.
Первый раз он был избран в парламент страны десять лет назад.
Проект бюджета на 2007 год будет представлен в парламент через неделю.
Все основные политические партии страны представлены в парламенте.
Законодатели приняли решение обсудить этот вопрос на следующем заседании парламента.
В парламенте он лоббирует интересы крупного бизнеса.
Он имеет личную заинтересованность в победе демократов на президентских выборах.
Абсолютное большинство граждан соблюдает законы, принятые парламентом страны, и лишь незначительное меньшинство нарушает их.
Какие государственные органы имеют право толковать законы?
Верховный суд объявил недавно принятый закон противоречащим конституции.
Парламент принимает законы, а правоохранительные органы следят за их выполнением.
Государству необходимо ужесточить закон о террористической деятельности.
В этом году наша партия планирует разработать и внести на рассмотрение законопроект об отмывании денег.
Законодательной властью в стране обладает парламент, состоящий из двух палат – нижней палаты и верхней палаты.
Правящей партии на этот раз не удалось протащить через парламент подготовленный ею закон.
Оппозиция предложила внести в законопроект две поправки.
Верхняя палата парламента проголосовала против одобренных нижней палатой поправок к конституции.
Мы не сомневаемся в том, что предложенный законопроект успешно пройдет первое чтение.
Закон вступает в силу в будущем году.
Он работает в составе трех разных комиссий.
Осуществление структурных реформ при нынешнем правительстве представляется маловероятным.
14. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Кабинет министров формируется партией, набравшей наибольшее количество голосов на выборах.
В последние пять лет было предпринято несколько попыток свергнуть законно избранное правительство.
Премьер-министр планирует провести перестановки в правительстве.
Он был приведен к присяге в качестве президента страны.
Президент наложил вето на закон, принятый парламентом.
Сенат преодолел вето президента большинством в две трети голосов.
Он был назначен министром обороны.
Он получил назначение на пост министра иностранных дел.
Заседание состоится завтра во второй половине дня.
Министр созвал совещание для обсуждения нескольких актуальных вопросов.
Ее любимым занятием было председательствовать на заседаниях совета директоров.
В два часа он внес предложение объявить перерыв в работе совещания и был поддержан двумя другими членами фракции.
Два предложения были одобрены собранием, а одно отвергнуто.
Она привела несколько веских аргументов в пользу сокращения военного бюджета страны.
Они долго обсуждали проблему, приводя доводы "за" и "против".
Нам необходимо тщательно взвесить все аргументы за и против предлагаемой политики в области разоружения.
Вы должны сопоставить преимущества данного проекта с теми сложностями, которые могут возникнуть при его осуществлении.
Преимущества проводимой политики явно перевешивают ее недостатки.
Дебаты по проекту конституции планируется провести в следующем году.
Он изложил хорошо аргументированные доводы в пользу запрета курения в общественных местах.
V. Section: International politics
1. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. применять силу
b. право на самоопределение
c. распад / разрушение Югославии
d. распадаться (на составные части)
e. осуществить агрессию
f. вышедшая из состава страны республика
g. напряженность спадает
h. объединение Германии
i. выйти (из состава страны)
j. нарушать территориальную целостность страны
k. вступить в конфликт
l. находиться в состоянии конфронтации
m. разрешение конфликта
n. представлять угрозу
o. отказываться от применения силы
p. ослаблять напряженность
r. противоборство, противостояние
s. этническая чистка
t. вооруженный конфликт
u. создать напряженную обстановку
v. напряженность нарастает
w. политика умиротворения
x. применение силы
2. Match the words and phrases in List A with those in List B. Learn these lexical units.
a. вести переговоры
b. нарушать договор
d. прекращать переговоры
e. взаимное согласие
f. расторгать договор
g. искать разрешение (конфликта)
h. выполнять договор
i. договор о нераспространении (ядерного оружия)
j. вступать в переговоры
k. заключить договор
l. разработать соглашение
m. делать уступку
n. прочный мир
o. выводить войска по поддержанию мира
p. установить мир
q. мирное сосуществование
r. размещать войска по поддержанию мира
s. бороться за мир
t. хрупкий / недолговечный мир
u. условия договора
v. нарушать соглашение
w. договор о запрещении испытаний ядерного оружия
x. гуманитарная помощь
y. добиваться урегулирования
3. Give synonyms for the following words and phrases.
to reduce / defuse (tension), to cause / create (tension), to be / pose (a threat), to prevent (a threat), to use force, to disintegrate, separatist, to establish / deploy (a peacekeeping force), peacemaker, mediator, (humanitarian) aid, to hold (talks), to find (a solution), to implement (a treaty), to break (an agreement), lasting (peace), fragile (peace)
4. Suggest words and expressions that correspond to the following definitions.
an official agreement that ends a disagreement
to stop being part of a country and form an independent state
a series of actions that are done in order to achieve peace
a disagreement or fight in which neither opponent can do anything to win or achieve their aim
the act of attacking a country, especially when that country has not attacked first
to prevent further disagreement in arguments or war by giving to the other side an advantage that they have demanded
the maintenance of international peace and security by the deployment of military forces in a particular area, especially the supervision by international forces of a truce between hostile nations
the process of uniting groups or countries, or the fact that they have been united
a state of disagreement or argument between people, groups, countries
to become weaker or less united and be gradually destroyed
a law, rule, plan etc that protects someone or something from possible dangers or problems
official discussions between the representatives of opposing groups who are trying to reach an agreement, especially in business or politics
something you give or allow to someone in order to end an argument or a disagreement
a person or organization that tries to end a disagreement between two people, groups, or countries by discussion
concerned with improving bad living conditions and preventing unfair treatment of people
a country that can influence events in different parts of the world
the belief that war and violence are always wrong and that people should refuse to fight in wars
a written agreement between two or more countries formally approved and signed by their leaders
an agreement that is achieved after everyone involved accepts less than what they wanted at first, or the act of making this agreement
the possibility that something very bad will happen
5. Explain the meaning of the words and phrases listed below.
superpower, friction, ethnic cleansing, policy of appeasement, territorial integrity, self-determination, separatist, peace dividend, peaceful coexistence, mediator, to suspend negotiations, negotiated settlement, tacit agreement, to ratify a treaty, to meet sb halfway
6. Match the words in List A with those in List B to form phrases.
c. a settlement
d. an intermediary
f. with a solution
g. builds up
h. a threat
j. an act of aggression
l. territorial integrity
m. from a country
r. peace with sb
7. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
The raid was an unjustifiable act ….. aggression.
The two companies came ….. conflict.
A decree in February banned the sale of weapons to countries involved ….. armed conflict.
Peace cannot be imposed ….. force of arms.
The principle of the right ….. national self-determination was then extended much more widely.
Civil war could come if the country breaks ….. .
Whole armies disintegrated ….. their component individuals and sub-groupings.
As our older generation knows ….. experience, unchecked aggression against a small nation is a prelude ….. international disaster.
For one day, at least, the two rival neighbourhoods united ….. a Parliament that they somehow linked ….. Catholicism.
Party members will unite ….. a stronger candidate.
From 1564 until 1585, England was ….. peace ….. most of her neighbours.
The two armies made peace ….. each other in 1918.
A country's army may be quite small ….. peacetime.
However, this was not due ….. any genuine belief ….. pacifism.
Singapore seceded ….. the Federation of Malaysia and became an independent sovereign state.
8. Fill the gaps in the sentences with prepositions or adverbial particles if necessary.
Negotiators were called in to mediate ….. the two sides.
Switzerland's foreign minister served ….. an intermediary ….. the two countries.
Two of the hostages were released ….. humanitarian grounds.
The terms of the wage settlement are still ….. negotiation.
We've reached a broad agreement, but the details are subject ….. negotiation.
He is trying to involve community leaders ….. negotiations on reform.
Then opposition leaders disagreed ….. whether to enter ….. talks ….. the President or organize a popular referendum against him.
Talks broke ….. ….. how the city's money could be used.
There's no easy solution ….. this problem.
The negotiators came ….. an agreement that all troops would be withdrawn.
We simply cannot compromise ….. the question of human rights.
There is a necessary compromise which can only be arrived ….. in the context of a particular system.
The company has already made several concessions ….. pay.
Democrats plan to meet the Governor halfway ….. welfare cuts.
9. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
cleansing, to reduce, self-determination, settlement, spread, to appease, agreement, armed, to constitute, peaceful, to disintegrate, integrity, stand-off, to compromise, to secede
There is no sign of an end to the ….. between Mohawk Indians and the Quebec provincial police.
Measures are needed ….. tension between the two states.
The foreigners in Ottawa ….. an ominous threat to the integrity and autonomy of our province.
All these problems have been aggravated by mistaken national policies and ….. conflicts.
In late May, government forces began the ethnic ….. of the area around the town.
Churchill was ready to make peace with Soviet Russia on the best terms available ….. the general situation.
Separatist movements are a threat to the ….. of the nation.
The right of national ….. could have no place in the party programme.
The nation ….. under economic pressures.
There are fears that Quebec may ….. from Canada.
He campaigned for peace and against the ….. of nuclear weapons.
There was a relatively ….. transfer of power from the military government to the new democracy.
The treaty guaranteed the peaceful ….. of disputes between the two countries.
The failure to reach ….. demonstrates the deep political passions aroused by discussions of Social Security.
The new regime was prepared ….. on the oil dispute.
10. Choose the word or phrase (from the list) that best completes each of the sentences below. Change the grammatical form of the word or phrase if necessary.
to make, solution, secession, coexistence, to negotiate, peaceful means, friction, test ban, peace, peacekeeping, to enter into, go-between, to hold, to reach, to unite
A United Nations ….. force has been sent to the area.
A UN representative will act as a ….. for leaders of the two countries.
Talks ….. in Madrid about the fuel crisis.
His post-electoral challenge will be ….. his country and embark upon a real process of democratization.
European governments are working together to find a ….. to the problem of nuclear waste.
He ….. a similar treaty with Tripoli in 1659.
We must also pursue a comprehensive ….. treaty.
In the present context, the question is whether one State can ….. a treaty on behalf of another.
Our two nations have enjoyed several decades of peaceful ….. .
Talks are continuing in the hope that the two factions will ….. a compromise.
Both sides involved in the conflict ….. some concessions in yesterday's talks.
We must redistribute power in this country by ….. .
By the end of the century, France had made ….. with Britain.
More recently, the threat of Quebec's ….. confronted the country with the very real possibility of political breakup.
Politics is a source of considerable ….. in our family.
11. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Была высокая вероятность того, что противостояние между двумя сверхдержавами приведет к вооруженному конфликту.
Напряженность в отношениях между двумя странами достигла наивысшей точки. Поэтому мировое сообщество должно принять меры для ослабления напряженности во всем регионе.
Проводимая политика неизбежно приведет к тому, что в городе усилятся трения между национальными меньшинствами.
Страна столкнулась с угрозой терроризма.
США вовлечены в конфликт на Ближнем Востоке.
Пришедшие к власти боевики начали этнические чистки в столице республики.
Этот конфликт не может быть разрешен силой оружия.
Мы все должны объединиться для противодействия агрессии.
В сложившейся обстановке недопустимо проводить политику умиротворения по отношению к агрессору.
Политики в Западной Европе полагают, что объединение Европы не представляет угрозы для России.
Министр иностранных дел заявил, что Германия нарушила территориальную целостность его государства.
В чем состоит разница между сепаратизмом и правом нации на самоопределение?
Римская империя распалась в результате целого ряда разнообразных причин.
Несколько республик заявили о своем стремлении выйти из состава многонационального государства.
Подписанный договор позволил установить прочный мир в регионе.
Он посвятил всю свою жизнь борьбе за мир.
12. Translate these sentences. Give synonymous translations if possible.
Успех переговоров будет способствовать мирному сосуществованию государств, расположенных в этой части Азии.
ООН приняла решение разместить в этой стране войска по поддержанию мира.
Миротворцы, представляющие разные страны Европы, выступили в качестве посредников между воюющими сторонами.
Этой стране крайне необходима гуманитарная помощь.
Две соседние страны в результате переговоров договорились о заключении соглашения о прекращении огня.
Мы полагаем, что все конфликтные ситуации должны решаться путем переговоров.
Правительство вступило в переговоры с МВФ относительно нового займа.
Мирные переговоры потерпели неудачу из-за неконструктивной позиции одной из враждующих сторон.
Подписанный договор гарантирует политическое урегулирование всех разногласий между двумя соседними странами.
Министры иностранных дел обеих стран заняты поисками взаимоприемлемого решения проблемы.
Недавно еще одна страна подписала договор о нераспространении ядерного оружия.
Нам необходимо заключить целый ряд соглашений с государствами региона.
Одна из сторон потребовала включить в договор все необходимые гарантии.
Наша партия не готова пойти на компромисс по вопросу об экономической политике правительства.
Во время переговоров ожидалось, что противоположная сторона пойдет нам на уступки.